Abstract

High-speed, two-dimensional synchrotron x-ray radiography and phase-contrast imaging are demonstrated in propulsion sprays. Measurements are performed at the 7-BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source user facility at Argonne National Laboratory using a recently developed broadband x-ray white beam. This novel enhancement allows for high speed, high fidelity x-ray imaging for the community at large. Quantitative path-integrated liquid distributions and spatio-temporal dynamics of the sprays were imaged with a LuAG:Ce scintillator optically coupled to a high-speed CMOS camera. Images are collected with a microscope objective at frame rates of 20 kHz and with a macro lens at 120 kHz, achieving spatial resolutions of 12 μm and 65 μm, respectively. Imaging with and without potassium iodide (KI) as a contrast-enhancing agent is compared, and the effects of broadband attenuation and spatial beam characteristics are determined through modeling and experimental calibration. In addition, phase contrast is used to differentiate liquid streams with varying concentrations of KI. The experimental approach is applied to different spray conditions, including quantitative measurements of mass distribution during primary atomization and qualitative visualization of turbulent binary fluid mixing.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

M. E. Rutherford, D. J. Chapman, T. G. White, M. Drakopoulos, A. Rack, and D. E. Eakins, “Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(Pt 3), 685–693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

F. Coletti, M. J. Benson, A. L. Sagues, B. H. Miller, R. Fahrig, and J. K. Eaton, “Three-Dimensional Mass Fraction Distribution of a Spray Measured by X-Ray Computed Tomography,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051508 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of X-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Purwar, S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, D. Sedarsky, and J.-B. Blaisot, “Collinear, two-color optical Kerr effect shutter for ultrafast time-resolved imaging,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15778–15790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kastengren and C. F. Powell, “Synchrotron X-ray techniques for fluid dynamics,” Exp. Fluids 55(3), 1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. J. Eberhart, D. M. Lineberry, R. A. Frederick, and A. L. Kastengren, “Mechanistic assessment of swirl coaxial injection by quantitative x-ray radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 30(4), 1070–1079 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. A. Linne, “Imaging in the optically dense regions of a spray: a review of developing techniques,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 39(5), 403–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. R. Guildenbecher, P. L. Reu, H. L. Stuaffacher, and T. Grasser, “Accurate measurement of out-of-plane particle displacement from the cross correlation of sequential digital in-line holograms,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4015–4018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Duke, A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, A. B. Swantek, and C. F. Powell, “X-ray radiography measurements of cavitating nozzle flow,” At. Sprays 23(9), 841–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, C. F. Powell, J. Manin, L. M. Pickett, R. Payri, and T. Bazyn, “Engine combustion network (ECN): Measurements of nozzle geometry and hydraulic behavior,” At. Sprays 22(12), 1011–1052 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Klinner and C. Willert, “Tomographic shadowgraphy for three-dimensional reconstruction of instantaneous spray distributions,” Exp. Fluids 53(2), 531–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Kristensson, E. Berrocal, and M. Aldén, “Quantitative 3D imaging of scattering media using structured illumination and computed tomography,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14437–14450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yuan and B. Huang, “Optical analysis of the mixing effect in fully developed like-doublet impinging jet sprays,” At. Sprays 22(5), 391–408 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of X-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-C. Lin, M. Ryan, C. Carter, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, J. Ilavsky, and J. Wang, “Investigation of condensed supercritical ethylene jets using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 219–221 (2011).
[Crossref]

K.-C. Lin, C. Rajnicek, J. McCall, C. Carter, and K. Fezzaa, “Investigation of pure- and aerated-liquid jets using ultra-fast X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 194–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

B. Heine, B. Balewski, and C. Tropea, “Experimental Investigation of the Correlation Between Nozzle Flow and Spray using Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Phase Doppler System, High-speed Photography, and X-ray Radiography,” At. Sprays 20(1), 57–70 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. Wang, K.-S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” At. Sprays 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. B. Schmidt, Z. D. Schaefer, T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, S. A. Danczyk, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrafast time-gated ballistic-photon imaging and shadowgraphy in optically dense rocket sprays,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B137–B144 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

F. X. Tanner, K. Feigl, S. A. Ciatti, C. F. Powell, S.-K. Cheong, J. Liu, and J. Wang, “Structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region,” At. Sprays 16(5), 579–598 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(8), 1387–1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

N. Ashgriz, W. Brocklehurst, and D. Talley, “Mixing mechanisms in a pair of impinging jets,” J. Propuls. Power 17(3), 736–749 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Choo and B. S. Kang, “Parametric study on impinging-jet liquid sheet thickness distribution using an interferometric method,” Exp. Fluids 31(1), 56–62 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Sick and B. Stojkovic, “Attenuation effects on imaging diagnostics of hollow-cone sprays,” Appl. Opt. 40(15), 2435–2442 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(Pt 6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet droplet sizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(1), 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 3449, 145–156 (1998).

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

K. Kuo, K. C. Hsieh, and J. M. Char, “Observations of Breakup Processes of Liquid Jets Using Real-Time X-ray Radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 6(5), 544–551 (1990).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1963 (1)

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1(8), 1882–1886 (1963).
[Crossref]

Aldén, M.

Alfuso, S.

L. Marchitto, D. Hampai, S. B. Dabagov, L. Allocca, S. Alfuso, C. Polese, and A. Liedl, “GDI spray structure analysis by polycapillary X-ray μ-tomography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 70, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allocca, L.

L. Marchitto, D. Hampai, S. B. Dabagov, L. Allocca, S. Alfuso, C. Polese, and A. Liedl, “GDI spray structure analysis by polycapillary X-ray μ-tomography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 70, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arms, D.

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashgriz, N.

N. Ashgriz, W. Brocklehurst, and D. Talley, “Mixing mechanisms in a pair of impinging jets,” J. Propuls. Power 17(3), 736–749 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bachalo, W. D.

Balewski, B.

B. Heine, B. Balewski, and C. Tropea, “Experimental Investigation of the Correlation Between Nozzle Flow and Spray using Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Phase Doppler System, High-speed Photography, and X-ray Radiography,” At. Sprays 20(1), 57–70 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bazyn, T.

A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, C. F. Powell, J. Manin, L. M. Pickett, R. Payri, and T. Bazyn, “Engine combustion network (ECN): Measurements of nozzle geometry and hydraulic behavior,” At. Sprays 22(12), 1011–1052 (2012).
[Crossref]

Benson, M. J.

F. Coletti, M. J. Benson, A. L. Sagues, B. H. Miller, R. Fahrig, and J. K. Eaton, “Three-Dimensional Mass Fraction Distribution of a Spray Measured by X-Ray Computed Tomography,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berrocal, E.

Blaisot, J.-B.

Brocklehurst, W.

N. Ashgriz, W. Brocklehurst, and D. Talley, “Mixing mechanisms in a pair of impinging jets,” J. Propuls. Power 17(3), 736–749 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carter, C.

K.-C. Lin, C. Rajnicek, J. McCall, C. Carter, and K. Fezzaa, “Investigation of pure- and aerated-liquid jets using ultra-fast X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 194–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

K.-C. Lin, M. Ryan, C. Carter, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, J. Ilavsky, and J. Wang, “Investigation of condensed supercritical ethylene jets using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 219–221 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chapman, D. J.

M. E. Rutherford, D. J. Chapman, T. G. White, M. Drakopoulos, A. Rack, and D. E. Eakins, “Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(Pt 3), 685–693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Char, J. M.

K. Kuo, K. C. Hsieh, and J. M. Char, “Observations of Breakup Processes of Liquid Jets Using Real-Time X-ray Radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 6(5), 544–551 (1990).
[Crossref]

Charalampous, G.

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheong, S.-K.

F. X. Tanner, K. Feigl, S. A. Ciatti, C. F. Powell, S.-K. Cheong, J. Liu, and J. Wang, “Structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region,” At. Sprays 16(5), 579–598 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choo, Y. J.

Y. J. Choo and B. S. Kang, “Parametric study on impinging-jet liquid sheet thickness distribution using an interferometric method,” Exp. Fluids 31(1), 56–62 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ciatti, S. A.

F. X. Tanner, K. Feigl, S. A. Ciatti, C. F. Powell, S.-K. Cheong, J. Liu, and J. Wang, “Structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region,” At. Sprays 16(5), 579–598 (2006).
[Crossref]

Coletti, F.

F. Coletti, M. J. Benson, A. L. Sagues, B. H. Miller, R. Fahrig, and J. K. Eaton, “Three-Dimensional Mass Fraction Distribution of a Spray Measured by X-Ray Computed Tomography,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crocco, L.

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1(8), 1882–1886 (1963).
[Crossref]

Dabagov, S. B.

L. Marchitto, D. Hampai, S. B. Dabagov, L. Allocca, S. Alfuso, C. Polese, and A. Liedl, “GDI spray structure analysis by polycapillary X-ray μ-tomography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 70, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Danczyk, S. A.

Dobbins, R. A.

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1(8), 1882–1886 (1963).
[Crossref]

Drakopoulos, M.

M. E. Rutherford, D. J. Chapman, T. G. White, M. Drakopoulos, A. Rack, and D. E. Eakins, “Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(Pt 3), 685–693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dufresne, E. M.

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of X-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duke, D. J.

D. J. Duke, A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, A. B. Swantek, and C. F. Powell, “X-ray radiography measurements of cavitating nozzle flow,” At. Sprays 23(9), 841–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eakins, D. E.

M. E. Rutherford, D. J. Chapman, T. G. White, M. Drakopoulos, A. Rack, and D. E. Eakins, “Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(Pt 3), 685–693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eaton, J. K.

F. Coletti, M. J. Benson, A. L. Sagues, B. H. Miller, R. Fahrig, and J. K. Eaton, “Three-Dimensional Mass Fraction Distribution of a Spray Measured by X-Ray Computed Tomography,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eberhart, C. J.

C. J. Eberhart, D. M. Lineberry, R. A. Frederick, and A. L. Kastengren, “Mechanistic assessment of swirl coaxial injection by quantitative x-ray radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 30(4), 1070–1079 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eng, P. J.

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 3449, 145–156 (1998).

Ercan, A.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fahrig, R.

F. Coletti, M. J. Benson, A. L. Sagues, B. H. Miller, R. Fahrig, and J. K. Eaton, “Three-Dimensional Mass Fraction Distribution of a Spray Measured by X-Ray Computed Tomography,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Farrugia, N.

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet droplet sizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(1), 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

Feigl, K.

F. X. Tanner, K. Feigl, S. A. Ciatti, C. F. Powell, S.-K. Cheong, J. Liu, and J. Wang, “Structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region,” At. Sprays 16(5), 579–598 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fezzaa, K.

K.-C. Lin, C. Rajnicek, J. McCall, C. Carter, and K. Fezzaa, “Investigation of pure- and aerated-liquid jets using ultra-fast X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 194–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fontes, E.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frederick, R. A.

C. J. Eberhart, D. M. Lineberry, R. A. Frederick, and A. L. Kastengren, “Mechanistic assessment of swirl coaxial injection by quantitative x-ray radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 30(4), 1070–1079 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gibson, H.

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glassman, I.

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1(8), 1882–1886 (1963).
[Crossref]

Gord, J. R.

Grasser, T.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet droplet sizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(1), 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gruner, S. M.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guildenbecher, D. R.

Halls, B. R.

B. R. Halls, T. R. Meyer, and A. L. Kastengren, “Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1730–1739 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Radke, J. P. McManamen, A. L. Kastengren, B. R. Halls, and T. R. Meyer, “Quantitative time-averaged gas and liquid distributions using x-ray fluorescence and radiography in atomizing sprays,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2029–2032 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of X-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Halls, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Quantitative imaging of time-resolved liquid distributions in sprays using broadband flash x-ray radiography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow (Accepted).

Hampai, D.

L. Marchitto, D. Hampai, S. B. Dabagov, L. Allocca, S. Alfuso, C. Polese, and A. Liedl, “GDI spray structure analysis by polycapillary X-ray μ-tomography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 70, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hardalupas, Y.

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heindel, T. J.

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of X-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heine, B.

B. Heine, B. Balewski, and C. Tropea, “Experimental Investigation of the Correlation Between Nozzle Flow and Spray using Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Phase Doppler System, High-speed Photography, and X-ray Radiography,” At. Sprays 20(1), 57–70 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, K. C.

K. Kuo, K. C. Hsieh, and J. M. Char, “Observations of Breakup Processes of Liquid Jets Using Real-Time X-ray Radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 6(5), 544–551 (1990).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

T. Yuan and B. Huang, “Optical analysis of the mixing effect in fully developed like-doublet impinging jet sprays,” At. Sprays 22(5), 391–408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Idlahcen, S.

Ilavsky, J.

K.-C. Lin, M. Ryan, C. Carter, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, J. Ilavsky, and J. Wang, “Investigation of condensed supercritical ethylene jets using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 219–221 (2011).
[Crossref]

Im, K.-S.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. Wang, K.-S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” At. Sprays 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jung, K.

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(8), 1387–1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kang, B. S.

Y. J. Choo and B. S. Kang, “Parametric study on impinging-jet liquid sheet thickness distribution using an interferometric method,” Exp. Fluids 31(1), 56–62 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kastengren, A.

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of X-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kastengren, A. L.

B. R. Halls, T. R. Meyer, and A. L. Kastengren, “Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1730–1739 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Radke, J. P. McManamen, A. L. Kastengren, B. R. Halls, and T. R. Meyer, “Quantitative time-averaged gas and liquid distributions using x-ray fluorescence and radiography in atomizing sprays,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2029–2032 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kastengren and C. F. Powell, “Synchrotron X-ray techniques for fluid dynamics,” Exp. Fluids 55(3), 1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. J. Eberhart, D. M. Lineberry, R. A. Frederick, and A. L. Kastengren, “Mechanistic assessment of swirl coaxial injection by quantitative x-ray radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 30(4), 1070–1079 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of X-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Duke, A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, A. B. Swantek, and C. F. Powell, “X-ray radiography measurements of cavitating nozzle flow,” At. Sprays 23(9), 841–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, C. F. Powell, J. Manin, L. M. Pickett, R. Payri, and T. Bazyn, “Engine combustion network (ECN): Measurements of nozzle geometry and hydraulic behavior,” At. Sprays 22(12), 1011–1052 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. Wang, K.-S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” At. Sprays 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. R. Halls, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Quantitative imaging of time-resolved liquid distributions in sprays using broadband flash x-ray radiography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow (Accepted).

Klinner, J.

J. Klinner and C. Willert, “Tomographic shadowgraphy for three-dimensional reconstruction of instantaneous spray distributions,” Exp. Fluids 53(2), 531–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koh, H.

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(8), 1387–1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kristensson, E.

Kuo, K.

K. Kuo, K. C. Hsieh, and J. M. Char, “Observations of Breakup Processes of Liquid Jets Using Real-Time X-ray Radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 6(5), 544–551 (1990).
[Crossref]

Le Gal, P.

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet droplet sizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(1), 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liedl, A.

L. Marchitto, D. Hampai, S. B. Dabagov, L. Allocca, S. Alfuso, C. Polese, and A. Liedl, “GDI spray structure analysis by polycapillary X-ray μ-tomography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 70, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, K.-C.

K.-C. Lin, C. Rajnicek, J. McCall, C. Carter, and K. Fezzaa, “Investigation of pure- and aerated-liquid jets using ultra-fast X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 194–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

K.-C. Lin, M. Ryan, C. Carter, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, J. Ilavsky, and J. Wang, “Investigation of condensed supercritical ethylene jets using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 219–221 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lineberry, D. M.

C. J. Eberhart, D. M. Lineberry, R. A. Frederick, and A. L. Kastengren, “Mechanistic assessment of swirl coaxial injection by quantitative x-ray radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 30(4), 1070–1079 (2014).
[Crossref]

Linne, M.

Linne, M. A.

M. A. Linne, “Imaging in the optically dense regions of a spray: a review of developing techniques,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 39(5), 403–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Linne, M. Paciaroni, J. R. Gord, and T. R. Meyer, “Ballistic imaging of the liquid core for a steady jet in crossflow,” Appl. Opt. 44(31), 6627–6634 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

F. X. Tanner, K. Feigl, S. A. Ciatti, C. F. Powell, S.-K. Cheong, J. Liu, and J. Wang, “Structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region,” At. Sprays 16(5), 579–598 (2006).
[Crossref]

MacPhee, A. G.

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manin, J.

A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, C. F. Powell, J. Manin, L. M. Pickett, R. Payri, and T. Bazyn, “Engine combustion network (ECN): Measurements of nozzle geometry and hydraulic behavior,” At. Sprays 22(12), 1011–1052 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marchitto, L.

L. Marchitto, D. Hampai, S. B. Dabagov, L. Allocca, S. Alfuso, C. Polese, and A. Liedl, “GDI spray structure analysis by polycapillary X-ray μ-tomography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 70, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

McCall, J.

K.-C. Lin, C. Rajnicek, J. McCall, C. Carter, and K. Fezzaa, “Investigation of pure- and aerated-liquid jets using ultra-fast X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 194–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

McManamen, J. P.

Meyer, T. R.

Miller, B. H.

F. Coletti, M. J. Benson, A. L. Sagues, B. H. Miller, R. Fahrig, and J. K. Eaton, “Three-Dimensional Mass Fraction Distribution of a Spray Measured by X-Ray Computed Tomography,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Narayanan, S.

K.-C. Lin, M. Ryan, C. Carter, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, J. Ilavsky, and J. Wang, “Investigation of condensed supercritical ethylene jets using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 219–221 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newville, M.

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 3449, 145–156 (1998).

Paciaroni, M.

Payri, R.

A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, C. F. Powell, J. Manin, L. M. Pickett, R. Payri, and T. Bazyn, “Engine combustion network (ECN): Measurements of nozzle geometry and hydraulic behavior,” At. Sprays 22(12), 1011–1052 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pickett, L. M.

A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, C. F. Powell, J. Manin, L. M. Pickett, R. Payri, and T. Bazyn, “Engine combustion network (ECN): Measurements of nozzle geometry and hydraulic behavior,” At. Sprays 22(12), 1011–1052 (2012).
[Crossref]

Polese, C.

L. Marchitto, D. Hampai, S. B. Dabagov, L. Allocca, S. Alfuso, C. Polese, and A. Liedl, “GDI spray structure analysis by polycapillary X-ray μ-tomography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 70, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Poola, R.

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(Pt 6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Powell, C. F.

A. L. Kastengren and C. F. Powell, “Synchrotron X-ray techniques for fluid dynamics,” Exp. Fluids 55(3), 1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Duke, A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, A. B. Swantek, and C. F. Powell, “X-ray radiography measurements of cavitating nozzle flow,” At. Sprays 23(9), 841–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, C. F. Powell, J. Manin, L. M. Pickett, R. Payri, and T. Bazyn, “Engine combustion network (ECN): Measurements of nozzle geometry and hydraulic behavior,” At. Sprays 22(12), 1011–1052 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of X-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. Wang, K.-S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” At. Sprays 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. X. Tanner, K. Feigl, S. A. Ciatti, C. F. Powell, S.-K. Cheong, J. Liu, and J. Wang, “Structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region,” At. Sprays 16(5), 579–598 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(Pt 6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purwar, H.

Rack, A.

M. E. Rutherford, D. J. Chapman, T. G. White, M. Drakopoulos, A. Rack, and D. E. Eakins, “Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(Pt 3), 685–693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radke, C. D.

Rajnicek, C.

K.-C. Lin, C. Rajnicek, J. McCall, C. Carter, and K. Fezzaa, “Investigation of pure- and aerated-liquid jets using ultra-fast X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 194–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

Renzi, M. J.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reu, P. L.

Richter, M.

Rivers, M. L.

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 3449, 145–156 (1998).

Roy, S.

J. B. Schmidt, Z. D. Schaefer, T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, S. A. Danczyk, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrafast time-gated ballistic-photon imaging and shadowgraphy in optically dense rocket sprays,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B137–B144 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Halls, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Quantitative imaging of time-resolved liquid distributions in sprays using broadband flash x-ray radiography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow (Accepted).

Rozé, C.

Rutherford, M. E.

M. E. Rutherford, D. J. Chapman, T. G. White, M. Drakopoulos, A. Rack, and D. E. Eakins, “Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(Pt 3), 685–693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryan, M.

K.-C. Lin, M. Ryan, C. Carter, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, J. Ilavsky, and J. Wang, “Investigation of condensed supercritical ethylene jets using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 219–221 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sagues, A. L.

F. Coletti, M. J. Benson, A. L. Sagues, B. H. Miller, R. Fahrig, and J. K. Eaton, “Three-Dimensional Mass Fraction Distribution of a Spray Measured by X-Ray Computed Tomography,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sandy, A.

K.-C. Lin, M. Ryan, C. Carter, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, J. Ilavsky, and J. Wang, “Investigation of condensed supercritical ethylene jets using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 219–221 (2011).
[Crossref]

Santangelo, P. J.

Schaefer, Z. D.

Schaller, J.

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J. B.

Sedarsky, D.

Sick, V.

Sojka, P. E.

Stojkovic, B.

Stuaffacher, H. L.

Sutton, S. R.

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 3449, 145–156 (1998).

Swantek, A. B.

D. J. Duke, A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, A. B. Swantek, and C. F. Powell, “X-ray radiography measurements of cavitating nozzle flow,” At. Sprays 23(9), 841–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

Talley, D.

N. Ashgriz, W. Brocklehurst, and D. Talley, “Mixing mechanisms in a pair of impinging jets,” J. Propuls. Power 17(3), 736–749 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanner, F. X.

F. X. Tanner, K. Feigl, S. A. Ciatti, C. F. Powell, S.-K. Cheong, J. Liu, and J. Wang, “Structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region,” At. Sprays 16(5), 579–598 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tate, M. W.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. M. K. P.

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tilocco, F. Z.

D. J. Duke, A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, A. B. Swantek, and C. F. Powell, “X-ray radiography measurements of cavitating nozzle flow,” At. Sprays 23(9), 841–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, C. F. Powell, J. Manin, L. M. Pickett, R. Payri, and T. Bazyn, “Engine combustion network (ECN): Measurements of nozzle geometry and hydraulic behavior,” At. Sprays 22(12), 1011–1052 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tropea, C.

B. Heine, B. Balewski, and C. Tropea, “Experimental Investigation of the Correlation Between Nozzle Flow and Spray using Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Phase Doppler System, High-speed Photography, and X-ray Radiography,” At. Sprays 20(1), 57–70 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walko, D. A.

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of X-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, J.

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-C. Lin, M. Ryan, C. Carter, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, J. Ilavsky, and J. Wang, “Investigation of condensed supercritical ethylene jets using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 219–221 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. Wang, K.-S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” At. Sprays 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. X. Tanner, K. Feigl, S. A. Ciatti, C. F. Powell, S.-K. Cheong, J. Liu, and J. Wang, “Structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region,” At. Sprays 16(5), 579–598 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(Pt 6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. Wang, K.-S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” At. Sprays 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).
[Crossref]

White, T. G.

M. E. Rutherford, D. J. Chapman, T. G. White, M. Drakopoulos, A. Rack, and D. E. Eakins, “Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(Pt 3), 685–693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willert, C.

J. Klinner and C. Willert, “Tomographic shadowgraphy for three-dimensional reconstruction of instantaneous spray distributions,” Exp. Fluids 53(2), 531–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Y.

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(8), 1387–1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yuan, T.

T. Yuan and B. Huang, “Optical analysis of the mixing effect in fully developed like-doublet impinging jet sprays,” At. Sprays 22(5), 391–408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(Pt 6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIAA J. (2)

R. A. Dobbins, L. Crocco, and I. Glassman, “Measurement of mean particle sizes of sprays from diffractively scattered light,” AIAA J. 1(8), 1882–1886 (1963).
[Crossref]

G. Charalampous, Y. Hardalupas, and A. M. K. P. Taylor, “Novel technique for measurements of continuous liquid jet core in an atomizer,” AIAA J. 47(11), 2605–2615 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Cai, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Narayanan, J. Wang, M. W. Tate, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, E. Fontes, and S. M. Gruner, “Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time resolved X-radiography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1671–1673 (2003).
[Crossref]

At. Sprays (6)

F. X. Tanner, K. Feigl, S. A. Ciatti, C. F. Powell, S.-K. Cheong, J. Liu, and J. Wang, “Structure of high-velocity dense sprays in the near-nozzle region,” At. Sprays 16(5), 579–598 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, Y. Wang, K.-S. Im, and J. Wang, “X-ray radiography measurements of diesel spray structure at engine-like ambient density,” At. Sprays 19(11), 1031–1044 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Duke, A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, A. B. Swantek, and C. F. Powell, “X-ray radiography measurements of cavitating nozzle flow,” At. Sprays 23(9), 841–860 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren, F. Z. Tilocco, C. F. Powell, J. Manin, L. M. Pickett, R. Payri, and T. Bazyn, “Engine combustion network (ECN): Measurements of nozzle geometry and hydraulic behavior,” At. Sprays 22(12), 1011–1052 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Heine, B. Balewski, and C. Tropea, “Experimental Investigation of the Correlation Between Nozzle Flow and Spray using Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Phase Doppler System, High-speed Photography, and X-ray Radiography,” At. Sprays 20(1), 57–70 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Yuan and B. Huang, “Optical analysis of the mixing effect in fully developed like-doublet impinging jet sprays,” At. Sprays 22(5), 391–408 (2012).
[Crossref]

Exp. Fluids (3)

J. Klinner and C. Willert, “Tomographic shadowgraphy for three-dimensional reconstruction of instantaneous spray distributions,” Exp. Fluids 53(2), 531–543 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Choo and B. S. Kang, “Parametric study on impinging-jet liquid sheet thickness distribution using an interferometric method,” Exp. Fluids 31(1), 56–62 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. L. Kastengren and C. F. Powell, “Synchrotron X-ray techniques for fluid dynamics,” Exp. Fluids 55(3), 1686 (2014).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Multiph. Flow (2)

B. R. Halls, T. J. Heindel, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Evaluation of X-ray sources for quantitative two- and three-dimensional imaging of liquid mass distribution in atomizing sprays,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 59, 113–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Marchitto, D. Hampai, S. B. Dabagov, L. Allocca, S. Alfuso, C. Polese, and A. Liedl, “GDI spray structure analysis by polycapillary X-ray μ-tomography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 70, 15–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power (1)

F. Coletti, M. J. Benson, A. L. Sagues, B. H. Miller, R. Fahrig, and J. K. Eaton, “Three-Dimensional Mass Fraction Distribution of a Spray Measured by X-Ray Computed Tomography,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(5), 051508 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Propuls. Power (3)

N. Ashgriz, W. Brocklehurst, and D. Talley, “Mixing mechanisms in a pair of impinging jets,” J. Propuls. Power 17(3), 736–749 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Kuo, K. C. Hsieh, and J. M. Char, “Observations of Breakup Processes of Liquid Jets Using Real-Time X-ray Radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 6(5), 544–551 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. J. Eberhart, D. M. Lineberry, R. A. Frederick, and A. L. Kastengren, “Mechanistic assessment of swirl coaxial injection by quantitative x-ray radiography,” J. Propuls. Power 30(4), 1070–1079 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (5)

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, R. Poola, and J. Wang, “Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 7(Pt 6), 356–360 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, E. M. Dufresne, and D. A. Walko, “Application of X-ray fluorescence to turbulent mixing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 18(Pt 5), 811–815 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kastengren, C. F. Powell, D. Arms, E. M. Dufresne, H. Gibson, and J. Wang, “The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(Pt 4), 654–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Rutherford, D. J. Chapman, T. G. White, M. Drakopoulos, A. Rack, and D. E. Eakins, “Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(Pt 3), 685–693 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Jung, H. Koh, and Y. Yoon, “Assessment of planar liquid-laser-induced fluorescence measurements for spray mass distributions of like-doublet injectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(8), 1387–1395 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

K.-C. Lin, M. Ryan, C. Carter, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, J. Ilavsky, and J. Wang, “Investigation of condensed supercritical ethylene jets using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) technique,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 219–221 (2011).
[Crossref]

K.-C. Lin, C. Rajnicek, J. McCall, C. Carter, and K. Fezzaa, “Investigation of pure- and aerated-liquid jets using ultra-fast X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 649(1), 194–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

P. Le Gal, N. Farrugia, and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser sheet droplet sizing of dense sprays,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31(1), 75–83 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. (1)

P. J. Eng, M. Newville, M. L. Rivers, and S. R. Sutton, “Dynamically figured Kirkpatrick Baez x-ray micro-focusing optics,” P. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 3449, 145–156 (1998).

Prog. Energ. Combust. (1)

M. A. Linne, “Imaging in the optically dense regions of a spray: a review of developing techniques,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 39(5), 403–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. G. MacPhee, M. W. Tate, C. F. Powell, Y. Yue, M. J. Renzi, A. Ercan, S. Narayanan, E. Fontes, J. Walther, J. Schaller, S. M. Gruner, and J. Wang, “X-ray imaging of shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays,” Science 295(5558), 1261–1263 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (14)

R. D. Woodward, S. Pal, R. J. Santoro, and K. K. Kuo, “Measurement of core structure of coaxial jets under cold-flow and hot-fire conditions,” in Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning Phenomena (AIAA Inc., 1995), pp. 185–209.

J. Lim, Y. Sivathanu, and M. Wolverton, “Evaluation of Soft X-Ray Absorption Tomography for the Near Injector Charicterization of Dense Sprays,” in 25th ILASS-Americas Conference (2013).

A. Birk, M. McQuaid, and M. Gross, “Liquid core structure of evaporating sprays at high pressures –Flash X-ray Studies,” Report from the Army Research Lab, Aberdeen Proving Ground-TR-901 (1995).

B. R. Halls, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, A. L. Kastengren, and T. R. Meyer, “Quantitative imaging of time-resolved liquid distributions in sprays using broadband flash x-ray radiography,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow (Accepted).

S. A. Schumaker, A. L. Kastengren, M. D. A. Lightfoot, S. A. Danczyk, and C. F. Powell, “A study of gas-centered swirl coaxial injectors using X-ray radiography,” in Technical Paper AFRL-RZ-ED-TP-2012-070, Air Force Research Lab, Edwards AFB CA Propulsion DIR/Space and Missile Propulsion DIV/Aerophysics Branch 12th ICLASS (2012).

J. H. Rupe, “The liquid-phase mixing of a pair of impinging streams,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Progress Report 20–195, (1953).

D. G. Talley, A. T. S. Thamban, V. G. McDonell, and G. S. Samuelsen, “Laser sheet visualization of spray structure,” Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning Phenomena (AIAA Inc., 1995).

G. Settles, Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques (Springer, 2001).

T. R. Meyer, M. Brear, S. H. Jin, and J. R. Gord, Formation and Diagnostics of Sprays in Combustion, in Handbook of Combustion (Wiley, 2010).

A. Lefebvre, Atomization and Sprays (Taylor and Francis, 1989).

V. Yang and W. Anderson, Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Instability (AIAA Inc., 1995).

V. McDonell, V. Phi, S. Samuelsen, A. Nejad, M. Shahnam, C. Guernsey, and R. Carlson, “Structure of sprays generated by unlike doublet injectors,” AIAA Paper 99–2464 in 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Los Angeles, CA, 20–23 June, 1999.
[Crossref]

M. J. Berger, J. H. Hubbell, S. M. Seltzer, J. Chang, J. S. Coursey, R. Sukumar, D. S. Zucker, and K. Olsen, “XCOM: photon cross sections database,” http://www.nist.gov/pml/data/xcom/ .
[Crossref]

M. Sanchez del Rio and R. J. Dejus, “Status of XOP: v2.4: recent developments of the x-ray optics software toolkit,” SPIE Proc., 814115 (2011).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of white beam, chopper wheel, spray, and imaging system consisting of phosphor, mirror, shielding, and detector. A 50-μm copper filter was placed upstream and is not shown.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Attenuation coefficients of iodine, potassium, and water, and (b) the bending magnet beam spectra and absorbed in the scintillator spectra at the center and edges of the beam.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) All modeled spectra include absorption in the scintillator. “Source” beam averaged spectrum, “Prehardened” spectrum filtered by windows and air, and prehardened spectra after passing through “1 mm Water,” “1 mm 10% KI,” and “1 mm 50% KI”. (b) The final attenuation coefficients for water, 10% KI, and 50% KI (shown for comparison purposes).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Modeled (a) x-ray attenuation and (b) SNR as a function of EPL for water and 10% KI.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Time series of EPL maps of the impinging jet spray showing the image plane (a) perpendicular and (b) parallel to the liquid sheet, with every sixth frame shown. The intensities saturate at 1000 μm to show the lower intensities with greater contrast. Dashed line marks location of line plots in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Vertical line plots though the center of the radiographs shown in Fig. 5(b).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Impinging jet mixing images captured with long distance microscope and utilizing combined attenuation and phase effects to differentiate the two liquids,.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Liquid-swirl atomizer spray showing water and 10% KI under identical flow conditions.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Horizontal line plots of EPL values through the center of the two non-time-correlated swirl images shown in Fig. 8 comparing water and 10% KI.

Metrics