Abstract

This paper reports on the emission characteristics of amino-functionalized graphene quantum dots (af-GQDs). We employed the variable stripe length method to measure the net optical gain of af-GQDs. Photoluminescence emission was enhanced through the efficient confinement of photons using an optical resonator. The two-dimensional resonator is made up of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) reflector to enable the redistribution of spontaneous emission from the af-GQDs. The proposed method was shown to increase the intensity of peak emission to more than three times that of the reference sample without a CLC reflector. The peak emission intensity of af-GQDs in the optical resonator grows exponentially with an increase in excitation energy. These results demonstrate the feasibility of two-dimensional optical amplifiers based on CLC reflectors.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  23. J. Lu, P. S. E. Yeo, C. K. Gan, P. Wu, and K. P. Loh, “Transforming C60 molecules into graphene quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(4), 247–252 (2011).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (5)

S. M. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Altintas, S. Genc, M. Y. Talpur, and E. Mutlugun, “CdSe/ZnS quantum dot films for high performance flexible lighting and display applications,” Nanotechnology 27(29), 295604 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Kim, D. C. J. Neo, B. Hou, J. B. Park, Y. Cho, N. Zhang, J. Hong, S. Pak, S. Lee, J. I. Sohn, H. E. Assender, A. A. R. Watt, S. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “High performance PbS quantum dot/graphene hybrid solar cell with efficient charge extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 13902–13908 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. V. Vokhmintcev, P. S. Samokhvalov, and I. Nabiev, “Charge transfer and separation in photoexcited quantum dot-based systems,” Nano Today 11(2), 189–211 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, L. Liu, G. Li, F. Jing, H. Mao, Q. Jin, W. Zhai, H. Zhang, J. Zhao, and C. Jia, “Multiplexed detection of lung cancer biomarkers based on quantum dots and microbeads,” Talanta 156-157, 48–54 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

L. Wang, S. J. Zhu, H. Y. Wang, Y. F. Wang, Y. W. Hao, J. H. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, W. Han, B. Yang, and H. B. Sun, “Unraveling bright molecule-like state and dark intrinsic state in green-fluorescence graphene quantum dots via ultrafast spectroscopy,” Adv. Optical Mater. 1(3), 264–271 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Tang, R. Ji, X. Li, K. S. Teng, and S. P. Lau, “Size-dependent structural and optical characteristics of glucose-derived graphene quantum dots,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30(6), 523–531 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

Y. Fang, S. Guo, D. Li, C. Zhu, W. Ren, S. Dong, and E. Wang, “Easy synthesis and imaging applications of cross-linked green fluorescent hollow carbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(1), 400–409 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kwon and S. W. Rhee, “Facile synthesis of graphitic carbon quantum dots with size tunability and uniformity using reverse micelles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(43), 5256–5258 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Lai, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. K. Peng, and P. T. Chou, “Facile synthesis of highly emissive carbon dots from pyrolysis of glycerol; gram scale production of carbon dots/mSiO2 for cee imaging and drug release,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(29), 14403–14409 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Jia, J. Li, and E. Wang, “One-pot green synthesis of optically pH-sensitive carbon dots with upconversion luminescence,” Nanoscale 4(18), 5572–5575 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, Y. Zhao, Y. Fan, X. Xie, L. Qu, and G. Shi, “Graphene-quantum-dot assembled nanotubes: a new platform for efficient Raman enhancement,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2237–2244 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peng, W. Gao, B. K. Gupta, Z. Liu, R. Romero-Aburto, L. Ge, L. Song, L. B. Alemany, X. Zhan, G. Gao, S. A. Vithayathil, B. A. Kaipparettu, A. A. Marti, T. Hayashi, J. J. Zhu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Graphene quantum dots derived from carbon fibers,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 844–849 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tetsuka, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, K. Okamoto, I. Tajima, R. Ohta, and A. Okamoto, “Optically tunable amino-functionalized graphene quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24(39), 5333–5338 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, S. Tang, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Control the size and surface chemistry of graphene for the rising fluorescent materials,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(38), 4527–4539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. Lu, P. S. E. Yeo, C. K. Gan, P. Wu, and K. P. Loh, “Transforming C60 molecules into graphene quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(4), 247–252 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, J. Zhang, C. Qiao, S. Tang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, B. Li, L. Tian, F. Liu, R. Hu, H. Gao, H. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Sun, and B. Yang, “Strongly green-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(24), 6858–6860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 776–780 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, D. Wu, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Bottom-up fabrication of photoluminescent graphene quantum dots with uniform morphology,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(39), 15221–15223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

D. Pan, J. Zhang, Z. Li, C. Wu, X. Yan, and M. Wu, “Observation of pH-, solvent-, spin-, and excitation-dependent blue photoluminescence from carbon nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3681–3683 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mei, K. Zhang, G. Guan, B. Liu, S. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Highly efficient photoluminescent graphene oxide with tunable surface properties,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(39), 7319–7321 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(4), 484–488 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. O. Girit, J. C. Meyer, R. Erni, M. D. Rossell, C. Kisielowski, L. Yang, C. H. Park, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Graphene at the edge: stability and dynamics,” Science 323(5922), 1705–1708 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, and J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Yan, L. Xian, and M. Y. Chou, “Structural and electronic properties of oxidized graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(8), 086802 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

X. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, and H. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Gruner, F. Cacialli, and R. H. Friend, “Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(1), 207–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

D. S. Bethune, C. H. Kiang, M. S. de Vries, G. Gorman, R. Savoy, J. Vazquez, and R. Beyers, “Cobalt-catalyzed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls,” Nature 363(6430), 605–607 (1993).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

K. L. Shaklee, R. E. Nahory, and R. F. Leheny, “Optical gain in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 7, 284–309 (1973).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

K. L. Shaklee, R. F. Leheny, and R. E. Nahory, “Stimulated emission from excitonic molecules in CuCl,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(15), 888–891 (1971).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69(11–12), 681 (1946).

Ajayan, P. M.

J. Peng, W. Gao, B. K. Gupta, Z. Liu, R. Romero-Aburto, L. Ge, L. Song, L. B. Alemany, X. Zhan, G. Gao, S. A. Vithayathil, B. A. Kaipparettu, A. A. Marti, T. Hayashi, J. J. Zhu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Graphene quantum dots derived from carbon fibers,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 844–849 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alemany, L. B.

J. Peng, W. Gao, B. K. Gupta, Z. Liu, R. Romero-Aburto, L. Ge, L. Song, L. B. Alemany, X. Zhan, G. Gao, S. A. Vithayathil, B. A. Kaipparettu, A. A. Marti, T. Hayashi, J. J. Zhu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Graphene quantum dots derived from carbon fibers,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 844–849 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altintas, Y.

Y. Altintas, S. Genc, M. Y. Talpur, and E. Mutlugun, “CdSe/ZnS quantum dot films for high performance flexible lighting and display applications,” Nanotechnology 27(29), 295604 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asahi, R.

H. Tetsuka, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, K. Okamoto, I. Tajima, R. Ohta, and A. Okamoto, “Optically tunable amino-functionalized graphene quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 24(39), 5333–5338 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assender, H. E.

B. S. Kim, D. C. J. Neo, B. Hou, J. B. Park, Y. Cho, N. Zhang, J. Hong, S. Pak, S. Lee, J. I. Sohn, H. E. Assender, A. A. R. Watt, S. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “High performance PbS quantum dot/graphene hybrid solar cell with efficient charge extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 13902–13908 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bethune, D. S.

D. S. Bethune, C. H. Kiang, M. S. de Vries, G. Gorman, R. Savoy, J. Vazquez, and R. Beyers, “Cobalt-catalyzed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls,” Nature 363(6430), 605–607 (1993).
[Crossref]

Beyers, R.

D. S. Bethune, C. H. Kiang, M. S. de Vries, G. Gorman, R. Savoy, J. Vazquez, and R. Beyers, “Cobalt-catalyzed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls,” Nature 363(6430), 605–607 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cacialli, F.

J. Gruner, F. Cacialli, and R. H. Friend, “Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(1), 207–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cha, S.

B. S. Kim, D. C. J. Neo, B. Hou, J. B. Park, Y. Cho, N. Zhang, J. Hong, S. Pak, S. Lee, J. I. Sohn, H. E. Assender, A. A. R. Watt, S. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “High performance PbS quantum dot/graphene hybrid solar cell with efficient charge extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 13902–13908 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. W.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. A.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, I. S.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q. D.

L. Wang, S. J. Zhu, H. Y. Wang, Y. F. Wang, Y. W. Hao, J. H. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, W. Han, B. Yang, and H. B. Sun, “Unraveling bright molecule-like state and dark intrinsic state in green-fluorescence graphene quantum dots via ultrafast spectroscopy,” Adv. Optical Mater. 1(3), 264–271 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. M.

S. M. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, Y. Zhao, Y. Fan, X. Xie, L. Qu, and G. Shi, “Graphene-quantum-dot assembled nanotubes: a new platform for efficient Raman enhancement,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2237–2244 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chhowalla, M.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, Y.

B. S. Kim, D. C. J. Neo, B. Hou, J. B. Park, Y. Cho, N. Zhang, J. Hong, S. Pak, S. Lee, J. I. Sohn, H. E. Assender, A. A. R. Watt, S. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “High performance PbS quantum dot/graphene hybrid solar cell with efficient charge extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 13902–13908 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, M. Y.

J. A. Yan, L. Xian, and M. Y. Chou, “Structural and electronic properties of oxidized graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(8), 086802 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, P. T.

C. W. Lai, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. K. Peng, and P. T. Chou, “Facile synthesis of highly emissive carbon dots from pyrolysis of glycerol; gram scale production of carbon dots/mSiO2 for cee imaging and drug release,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(29), 14403–14409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cohen, M. L.

C. O. Girit, J. C. Meyer, R. Erni, M. D. Rossell, C. Kisielowski, L. Yang, C. H. Park, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Graphene at the edge: stability and dynamics,” Science 323(5922), 1705–1708 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crommie, M. F.

C. O. Girit, J. C. Meyer, R. Erni, M. D. Rossell, C. Kisielowski, L. Yang, C. H. Park, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Graphene at the edge: stability and dynamics,” Science 323(5922), 1705–1708 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

X. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, and H. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Vries, M. S.

D. S. Bethune, C. H. Kiang, M. S. de Vries, G. Gorman, R. Savoy, J. Vazquez, and R. Beyers, “Cobalt-catalyzed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls,” Nature 363(6430), 605–607 (1993).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

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Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 776–780 (2011).
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S. Zhu, J. Zhang, C. Qiao, S. Tang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, B. Li, L. Tian, F. Liu, R. Hu, H. Gao, H. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Sun, and B. Yang, “Strongly green-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(24), 6858–6860 (2011).
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Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 776–780 (2011).
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S. Wu, L. Liu, G. Li, F. Jing, H. Mao, Q. Jin, W. Zhai, H. Zhang, J. Zhao, and C. Jia, “Multiplexed detection of lung cancer biomarkers based on quantum dots and microbeads,” Talanta 156-157, 48–54 (2016).
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D. S. Bethune, C. H. Kiang, M. S. de Vries, G. Gorman, R. Savoy, J. Vazquez, and R. Beyers, “Cobalt-catalyzed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls,” Nature 363(6430), 605–607 (1993).
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Z. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, and J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
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B. S. Kim, D. C. J. Neo, B. Hou, J. B. Park, Y. Cho, N. Zhang, J. Hong, S. Pak, S. Lee, J. I. Sohn, H. E. Assender, A. A. R. Watt, S. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “High performance PbS quantum dot/graphene hybrid solar cell with efficient charge extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 13902–13908 (2016).
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L. Tang, R. Ji, X. Li, K. S. Teng, and S. P. Lau, “Size-dependent structural and optical characteristics of glucose-derived graphene quantum dots,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30(6), 523–531 (2013).
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Y. Fang, S. Guo, D. Li, C. Zhu, W. Ren, S. Dong, and E. Wang, “Easy synthesis and imaging applications of cross-linked green fluorescent hollow carbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(1), 400–409 (2012).
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S. Wu, L. Liu, G. Li, F. Jing, H. Mao, Q. Jin, W. Zhai, H. Zhang, J. Zhao, and C. Jia, “Multiplexed detection of lung cancer biomarkers based on quantum dots and microbeads,” Talanta 156-157, 48–54 (2016).
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X. Jia, J. Li, and E. Wang, “One-pot green synthesis of optically pH-sensitive carbon dots with upconversion luminescence,” Nanoscale 4(18), 5572–5575 (2012).
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S. M. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
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L. Tang, R. Ji, X. Li, K. S. Teng, and S. P. Lau, “Size-dependent structural and optical characteristics of glucose-derived graphene quantum dots,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30(6), 523–531 (2013).
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Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 23(6), 776–780 (2011).
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S. Zhu, J. Zhang, C. Qiao, S. Tang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, B. Li, L. Tian, F. Liu, R. Hu, H. Gao, H. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Sun, and B. Yang, “Strongly green-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(24), 6858–6860 (2011).
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Q. Mei, K. Zhang, G. Guan, B. Liu, S. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Highly efficient photoluminescent graphene oxide with tunable surface properties,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(39), 7319–7321 (2010).
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S. Zhu, J. Zhang, C. Qiao, S. Tang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, B. Li, L. Tian, F. Liu, R. Hu, H. Gao, H. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Sun, and B. Yang, “Strongly green-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(24), 6858–6860 (2011).
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S. M. Chen, W. Li, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Elliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
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S. Wu, L. Liu, G. Li, F. Jing, H. Mao, Q. Jin, W. Zhai, H. Zhang, J. Zhao, and C. Jia, “Multiplexed detection of lung cancer biomarkers based on quantum dots and microbeads,” Talanta 156-157, 48–54 (2016).
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R. Liu, D. Wu, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Bottom-up fabrication of photoluminescent graphene quantum dots with uniform morphology,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(39), 15221–15223 (2011).
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J. Peng, W. Gao, B. K. Gupta, Z. Liu, R. Romero-Aburto, L. Ge, L. Song, L. B. Alemany, X. Zhan, G. Gao, S. A. Vithayathil, B. A. Kaipparettu, A. A. Marti, T. Hayashi, J. J. Zhu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Graphene quantum dots derived from carbon fibers,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 844–849 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, and H. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
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J. Lu, P. S. E. Yeo, C. K. Gan, P. Wu, and K. P. Loh, “Transforming C60 molecules into graphene quantum dots,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(4), 247–252 (2011).
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C. O. Girit, J. C. Meyer, R. Erni, M. D. Rossell, C. Kisielowski, L. Yang, C. H. Park, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Graphene at the edge: stability and dynamics,” Science 323(5922), 1705–1708 (2009).
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Z. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, and J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
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S. Wu, L. Liu, G. Li, F. Jing, H. Mao, Q. Jin, W. Zhai, H. Zhang, J. Zhao, and C. Jia, “Multiplexed detection of lung cancer biomarkers based on quantum dots and microbeads,” Talanta 156-157, 48–54 (2016).
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J. Peng, W. Gao, B. K. Gupta, Z. Liu, R. Romero-Aburto, L. Ge, L. Song, L. B. Alemany, X. Zhan, G. Gao, S. A. Vithayathil, B. A. Kaipparettu, A. A. Marti, T. Hayashi, J. J. Zhu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Graphene quantum dots derived from carbon fibers,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 844–849 (2012).
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G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Q. Mei, K. Zhang, G. Guan, B. Liu, S. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Highly efficient photoluminescent graphene oxide with tunable surface properties,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(39), 7319–7321 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, and J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
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C. O. Girit, J. C. Meyer, R. Erni, M. D. Rossell, C. Kisielowski, L. Yang, C. H. Park, M. F. Crommie, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, and A. Zettl, “Graphene at the edge: stability and dynamics,” Science 323(5922), 1705–1708 (2009).
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R. Liu, D. Wu, X. Feng, and K. Müllen, “Bottom-up fabrication of photoluminescent graphene quantum dots with uniform morphology,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(39), 15221–15223 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Altintas, S. Genc, M. Y. Talpur, and E. Mutlugun, “CdSe/ZnS quantum dot films for high performance flexible lighting and display applications,” Nanotechnology 27(29), 295604 (2016).
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Zhang, H.

S. Wu, L. Liu, G. Li, F. Jing, H. Mao, Q. Jin, W. Zhai, H. Zhang, J. Zhao, and C. Jia, “Multiplexed detection of lung cancer biomarkers based on quantum dots and microbeads,” Talanta 156-157, 48–54 (2016).
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S. Zhu, J. Zhang, C. Qiao, S. Tang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, B. Li, L. Tian, F. Liu, R. Hu, H. Gao, H. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Sun, and B. Yang, “Strongly green-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(24), 6858–6860 (2011).
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Zhang, J.

S. Zhu, S. Tang, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Control the size and surface chemistry of graphene for the rising fluorescent materials,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(38), 4527–4539 (2012).
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S. Zhu, J. Zhang, C. Qiao, S. Tang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, B. Li, L. Tian, F. Liu, R. Hu, H. Gao, H. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Sun, and B. Yang, “Strongly green-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(24), 6858–6860 (2011).
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D. Pan, J. Zhang, Z. Li, C. Wu, X. Yan, and M. Wu, “Observation of pH-, solvent-, spin-, and excitation-dependent blue photoluminescence from carbon nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3681–3683 (2010).
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Zhang, J. H.

L. Wang, S. J. Zhu, H. Y. Wang, Y. F. Wang, Y. W. Hao, J. H. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, W. Han, B. Yang, and H. B. Sun, “Unraveling bright molecule-like state and dark intrinsic state in green-fluorescence graphene quantum dots via ultrafast spectroscopy,” Adv. Optical Mater. 1(3), 264–271 (2013).
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Q. Mei, K. Zhang, G. Guan, B. Liu, S. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Highly efficient photoluminescent graphene oxide with tunable surface properties,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(39), 7319–7321 (2010).
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B. S. Kim, D. C. J. Neo, B. Hou, J. B. Park, Y. Cho, N. Zhang, J. Hong, S. Pak, S. Lee, J. I. Sohn, H. E. Assender, A. A. R. Watt, S. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “High performance PbS quantum dot/graphene hybrid solar cell with efficient charge extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 13902–13908 (2016).
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L. Wang, S. J. Zhu, H. Y. Wang, Y. F. Wang, Y. W. Hao, J. H. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, W. Han, B. Yang, and H. B. Sun, “Unraveling bright molecule-like state and dark intrinsic state in green-fluorescence graphene quantum dots via ultrafast spectroscopy,” Adv. Optical Mater. 1(3), 264–271 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Q. Mei, K. Zhang, G. Guan, B. Liu, S. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Highly efficient photoluminescent graphene oxide with tunable surface properties,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(39), 7319–7321 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

S. Wu, L. Liu, G. Li, F. Jing, H. Mao, Q. Jin, W. Zhai, H. Zhang, J. Zhao, and C. Jia, “Multiplexed detection of lung cancer biomarkers based on quantum dots and microbeads,” Talanta 156-157, 48–54 (2016).
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Zhao, N. Q.

S. L. Hu, K. Y. Niu, J. Sun, J. Yang, N. Q. Zhao, and X. W. Du, “One-step synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by laser irradiation,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(4), 484–488 (2009).
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Zhu, S.

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B. S. Kim, D. C. J. Neo, B. Hou, J. B. Park, Y. Cho, N. Zhang, J. Hong, S. Pak, S. Lee, J. I. Sohn, H. E. Assender, A. A. R. Watt, S. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “High performance PbS quantum dot/graphene hybrid solar cell with efficient charge extraction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 13902–13908 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

H. Cheng, Y. Zhao, Y. Fan, X. Xie, L. Qu, and G. Shi, “Graphene-quantum-dot assembled nanotubes: a new platform for efficient Raman enhancement,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2237–2244 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Fang, S. Guo, D. Li, C. Zhu, W. Ren, S. Dong, and E. Wang, “Easy synthesis and imaging applications of cross-linked green fluorescent hollow carbon nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(1), 400–409 (2012).
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Q. Mei, K. Zhang, G. Guan, B. Liu, S. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Highly efficient photoluminescent graphene oxide with tunable surface properties,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(39), 7319–7321 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, J. Zhang, C. Qiao, S. Tang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, B. Li, L. Tian, F. Liu, R. Hu, H. Gao, H. Wei, H. Zhang, H. Sun, and B. Yang, “Strongly green-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for bioimaging applications,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(24), 6858–6860 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, S. Tang, J. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Control the size and surface chemistry of graphene for the rising fluorescent materials,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(38), 4527–4539 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pan, J. Zhang, Z. Li, C. Wu, X. Yan, and M. Wu, “Observation of pH-, solvent-, spin-, and excitation-dependent blue photoluminescence from carbon nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3681–3683 (2010).
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J. Peng, W. Gao, B. K. Gupta, Z. Liu, R. Romero-Aburto, L. Ge, L. Song, L. B. Alemany, X. Zhan, G. Gao, S. A. Vithayathil, B. A. Kaipparettu, A. A. Marti, T. Hayashi, J. J. Zhu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Graphene quantum dots derived from carbon fibers,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 844–849 (2012).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experiment setup for VSL method. (b) Top view of sample in (a).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Process flowchart for the fabrication of two-dimensional optical resonator.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experiment setup used to measure photoluminescence of af-GQDs in two-dimensional optical resonator. The inset shows an enlarged schematic view of the sample with the laser beam focused at the center of the cross-section.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) UV-Vis absorption spectrum and (b) FT-IR spectrum of af-GQDs. The inset in (a) presents a schematic representation of the af-GQDs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Optical photographs of af-GQDs dispersion illuminated under white (left; daylight lamp) and UV light (right; 365 nm). (b) Photoluminescence spectrum excited at 355 nm. (c) Multiphoton excitation microscopic images of aqueous dispersion of af-GQDs excited at 840 nm before (left) and after (right) evaporation of water. (d) Top (left) and side (right) views of the HRTEM images of af-GQDs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Emission spectra of af-GQDs under various excitation lengths at an excitation energy of 3 mJ/pulse. (b) Stripe-length dependence of photoluminescence of af-GQDs at a wavelength of 486 nm under various pump energies. Marks indicate the measured intensities, and curves are fits by Eq. (1).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Microscopic images showing the two-dimensional resonator in cross section: before (left) and after (right) being filled with CLC mixture. (b) Reflection spectrum of CLC in the two-dimensional resonator.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Photoluminescence of af-GQDs in the two-dimensional resonator and in a reference sample without CLC reflector, at an excitation energy of 3 mJ/pulse.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Emission spectra of af-GQDs at various excitation energies. (b) Peak intensity as a function of excitation energy.

Equations (1)

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I= J g ( e gl 1 )

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