Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) with direct band gap, bridges the characteristics of graphene with a zero or near-zero band gap and transition metal dichalcogenides with a wide band gap. In the infrared (IR) regime, 2D BP materials can attenuate electromagnetic energy due to losses derived from its surface conductivity. This paper proposes an IR absorber based on 2D BP metamaterials. It consists of multi-layer BP-based nano-ribbon pairs, each formed by two orthogonally stacked nano-ribbons. The multi-layer BP metamaterials and bottom gold mirror together form a Fabry-Perot resonator that could completely inhibit light transmission to create strong absorption through the BP metamaterials. Unlike previously reported BP metamaterial absorbers, this new structure can operate at two frequency bands with absorption > 90% in each owning to the first-order and second-order Fabry-Perot resonant frequencies. It is also polarization independent due to the fourfold rotational structural symmetry. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on using BP metamaterials in an absorber that operates independent of polarization and in dual bands.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  24. Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Wang and Y. Jiang, “Infrared absorber based on sandwiched two-dimensional black phosphorus metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5206–5216 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Z. W. Bao, H. W. Wu, and Y. Zhou, “Edge plasmons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241902 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. B. S. Simpkins, K. P. Fears, W. J. Dressick, B. T. Spann, A. D. Dunkelberger, and J. C. Owrutsky, “Spanning strong to weak normal mode coupling between vibrational and Fabry−Pérot cavity modes through tuning of vibrational absorption strength,” ACS Photonics 2(10), 1460–1467 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  34. W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, Z. Guo, S. Li, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Emerging trends in phosphorene fabrication towards next generation devices,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 4(6), 1600305 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang and Y. Jiang, “Infrared absorber based on sandwiched two-dimensional black phosphorus metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25(5), 5206–5216 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

S. J. Zhang, S. S. Lin, X. Q. Li, X. Y. Liu, H. A. Wu, W. L. Xu, P. Wang, Z. Q. Wu, H. K. Zhong, and Z. J. Xu, “Opening the band gap of graphene through silicon doping for the improved performance of graphene/GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(1), 226–232 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. W. Bao, H. W. Wu, and Y. Zhou, “Edge plasmons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Optical Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, K. Pan, and Z. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of printed graphene nano-flakes enabled flexible and conformable wideband radar absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38197 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (11)

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Simpkins, K. P. Fears, W. J. Dressick, B. T. Spann, A. D. Dunkelberger, and J. C. Owrutsky, “Spanning strong to weak normal mode coupling between vibrational and Fabry−Pérot cavity modes through tuning of vibrational absorption strength,” ACS Photonics 2(10), 1460–1467 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Saito and Y. Iwasa, “Ambipolar insulator-to-metal transition in black phosphorus by ionic-liquid gating,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3192–3198 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, Z. N. Guo, X. F. Jiang, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, X. F. Yu, W. C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, G. Xie, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. Wen, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Express 23(19), 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. F. Shao, W. J. Lu, H. Y. Lv, and Y. P. Sun, “Electron-doped phosphorene: A potential monolayer superconductor,” Eur. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 67004 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

P. Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alu, “Terahertz antenna phase shifters using integrally-gated graphene transmission-lines,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1528–1537 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Fuhrer and J. Hone, “Measurement of mobility in dual-gated MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(3), 146–147 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Abele, E.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Akinwande, D.

J. S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrow-Owen, T.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, A.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alu, A.

P. Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alu, “Terahertz antenna phase shifters using integrally-gated graphene transmission-lines,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1528–1537 (2013).
[Crossref]

Argyropoulos, C.

P. Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alu, “Terahertz antenna phase shifters using integrally-gated graphene transmission-lines,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1528–1537 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aronsson, M. T.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Bao, Z. W.

Z. W. Bao, H. W. Wu, and Y. Zhou, “Edge plasmons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bingham, C. M.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brivio, J.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K. S.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P. Y.

P. Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alu, “Terahertz antenna phase shifters using integrally-gated graphene transmission-lines,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1528–1537 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, X. H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
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M. S. Fuhrer and J. Hone, “Measurement of mobility in dual-gated MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(3), 146–147 (2013).
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X. Huang, K. Pan, and Z. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of printed graphene nano-flakes enabled flexible and conformable wideband radar absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38197 (2016).
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Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Optical Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
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Huang, X.

X. Huang, K. Pan, and Z. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of printed graphene nano-flakes enabled flexible and conformable wideband radar absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38197 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
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Y. Saito and Y. Iwasa, “Ambipolar insulator-to-metal transition in black phosphorus by ionic-liquid gating,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3192–3198 (2015).
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J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
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Jiang, X. F.

Jiang, Y.

Jin, X.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
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G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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J. S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
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J. S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
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B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
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S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
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J. S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
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N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
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J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
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W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, Z. Guo, S. Li, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Emerging trends in phosphorene fabrication towards next generation devices,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 4(6), 1600305 (2017).
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Li, T.

Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
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Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
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S. J. Zhang, S. S. Lin, X. Q. Li, X. Y. Liu, H. A. Wu, W. L. Xu, P. Wang, Z. Q. Wu, H. K. Zhong, and Z. J. Xu, “Opening the band gap of graphene through silicon doping for the improved performance of graphene/GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(1), 226–232 (2016).
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L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
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L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
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Liu, X.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
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S. J. Zhang, S. S. Lin, X. Q. Li, X. Y. Liu, H. A. Wu, W. L. Xu, P. Wang, Z. Q. Wu, H. K. Zhong, and Z. J. Xu, “Opening the band gap of graphene through silicon doping for the improved performance of graphene/GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(1), 226–232 (2016).
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J. S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
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Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
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T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
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Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
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Lu, W. J.

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Luo, Z. C.

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Y. Zhang, T. Li, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, H. Lv, X. Huang, W. Zhang, and A. K. Azad, “A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12682–12688 (2015).
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D. F. Shao, W. J. Lu, H. Y. Lv, and Y. P. Sun, “Electron-doped phosphorene: A potential monolayer superconductor,” Eur. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 67004 (2014).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 051108 (2015).
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Marks, T. J.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, L. L.

Milne, W. I.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
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T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
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A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Y. Zhang, T. Li, Q. Chen, H. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, E. Abele, A. J. Taylor, H. T. Chen, and A. K. Azad, “Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18463 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owrutsky, J. C.

B. S. Simpkins, K. P. Fears, W. J. Dressick, B. T. Spann, A. D. Dunkelberger, and J. C. Owrutsky, “Spanning strong to weak normal mode coupling between vibrational and Fabry−Pérot cavity modes through tuning of vibrational absorption strength,” ACS Photonics 2(10), 1460–1467 (2015).
[Crossref]

Özyilmaz, B.

S. P. Koenig, R. A. Doganov, H. Schmidt, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Electric field effect in ultrathin black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(4), 041102 (2007).
[Crossref]

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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, K.

X. Huang, K. Pan, and Z. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of printed graphene nano-flakes enabled flexible and conformable wideband radar absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38197 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, M.

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, P.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polini, M.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ponraj, J. S.

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J. S. Kim, Y. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
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Zhu, X.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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ACS Nano (1)

Y. Saito and Y. Iwasa, “Ambipolar insulator-to-metal transition in black phosphorus by ionic-liquid gating,” ACS Nano 9(3), 3192–3198 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (1)

B. S. Simpkins, K. P. Fears, W. J. Dressick, B. T. Spann, A. D. Dunkelberger, and J. C. Owrutsky, “Spanning strong to weak normal mode coupling between vibrational and Fabry−Pérot cavity modes through tuning of vibrational absorption strength,” ACS Photonics 2(10), 1460–1467 (2015).
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Adv Sci (Weinh) (1)

S. C. Dhanabalan, J. S. Ponraj, Z. Guo, S. Li, Q. Bao, and H. Zhang, “Emerging trends in phosphorene fabrication towards next generation devices,” Adv Sci (Weinh) 4(6), 1600305 (2017).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. Guo, H. Zhang, S. Lu, Z. Wang, S. Tang, J. Shao, Z. Sun, H. Xie, H. Wang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(45), 6996–7002 (2015).
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Adv. Optical Mater. (1)

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Optical Mater. 4(8), 1223–1229 (2016).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Z. W. Bao, H. W. Wu, and Y. Zhou, “Edge plasmons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(24), 241902 (2016).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Carrier dynamics and transient photobleaching in thin layers of black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 051108 (2015).
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Eur. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. F. Shao, W. J. Lu, H. Y. Lv, and Y. P. Sun, “Electron-doped phosphorene: A potential monolayer superconductor,” Eur. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 67004 (2014).
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IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

P. Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alu, “Terahertz antenna phase shifters using integrally-gated graphene transmission-lines,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 61(4), 1528–1537 (2013).
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Nano Lett. (3)

L. Liang, J. Wang, W. Lin, B. G. Sumpter, V. Meunier, and M. Pan, “Electronic bandgap and edge reconstruction in phosphorene materials,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6400–6406 (2014).
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Nanoscale (2)

S. J. Zhang, S. S. Lin, X. Q. Li, X. Y. Liu, H. A. Wu, W. L. Xu, P. Wang, Z. Q. Wu, H. K. Zhong, and Z. J. Xu, “Opening the band gap of graphene through silicon doping for the improved performance of graphene/GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 8(1), 226–232 (2016).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4130 (2014).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Frequency dependent in-plane conductivity: Black lines and red lines denote the in-plane conductivity along the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; solid lines and dashed lines are the conductivity values for real parts and imaginary parts; hollow round lines, solid round lines, and solid diamond lines are the in-plane conductivity values for ns given as 1.0 × 1014 cm−2, 1.0 × 1013 cm−2, and 1.0 × 1012 cm−2, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the proposed absorber with orthogonal BP nano-ribbon pairs. (a) 3D structure. (b) Top view of one-layer pairs with orthogonal BP-based nano-ribbons. (c) 3D structure of (b) and the dielectric. (d) Cross-section plot of (a). Magenta and navy: stacked BP nano-ribbons. Cyan: dielectric material.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated absorption spectra, (a) various BP nano-ribbon widths w, (b) various thickness of dielectric layer t1, (c) various BP carrier densities ns, (d) various band gaps Δ, and (e) various layer numbers N. Solid lines and solid rounds with different colors are the absorptions for TM and TE polarizations. Inset in (a) shows the detailed absorption spectra for TM polarization from 13.5 to 17.5 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated distributions of the electric field in 2 × 2 unit cells at two wavelengths, 34.5 μm for (a)–(f) and 17.0 μm for (g)–(l), when excited by incident waves with different polarizations. Left two columns: TM polarization, right two columns: TE polarization. (a), (b), (g), and (h) are 3D field distributions, while (c)–(f) and (i)–(l) are 2D field distributions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Equivalent thicknesses H' (μm) calculated by the Fabry-Perot resonance condition H' = (2k−1)λk/4n for different resonance orders and number of BP-metamaterials layers, from the resonant peak wavelengths (μm) in Fig. 3(e).

Equations (5)

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ε ¯ ¯ =[ ε 1 0 0 0 ε 2 0 0 0 ε 3 ],
ε i = ε i,r + j σ i ε 0 ωd ,
σ i = j D i π(ω+jη) (i=1 or 2).
D i = π e 2 n s m i ,
m 1 = 2 2 γ 2 /Δ+ η c , m 2 = 2 v c .

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