Abstract

In this work, for the first time, we uncover that the level of security we have traditionally taken for granted on underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) may not always be there. We first numerically investigate the security weaknesses of UWOC via Monte Carlo simulation. With the link distance increasing or the water becoming more turbid, the simulation results indicate that the possibility of information leakage increases, which may pose a great threat to the security of UWOC. By using a high-sensitivity multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) placed aside the water tank, a 5-MHz square wave signal is successfully tapped at 1-m, 3-m, and 5-m underwater transmission distances, which preliminarily verifies the probability of information leakage. We further experimentally demonstrate an UWOC system with potential eavesdropping employing a 2.5-Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. After transmitting through a 15-m underwater channel, the OFDM signal is eavesdropped by a mirror at 7.8 m. Both the normal receiver at 15 m and the eavesdropping receiver at 7.8 m can achieve a bit error rate (BER) below the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8 × 10−3, which validates that UWOC indeed suffers potential safety hazard.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2017 (4)

A. Khasawneh, M. S. B. A. Latiff, O. Kaiwartya, and H. Chizari, “Next Forwarding Node Selection in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs): Techniques and Challenges,” Information 8(1), 3 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, R. T. ElAfandy, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “Performance evaluation of underwater wireless optical communications links in the presence of different air bubble populations,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, X. Liu, S. Yi, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, X. Zhou, L. Hu, L. Zheng, and R. Liu, “High-speed underwater optical wireless communication using a blue GaN-based micro-LED,” Opt. Express 25(2), 1193–1201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shen, Y. Guo, H. M. Oubei, T. K. Ng, G. Liu, K. H. Park, K. T. Ho, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25502–25509 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, H. N. Dai, X. Li, H. Wang, and H. Xiao, “On modeling eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 16(5), 721 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

S. J. Tang, Y. H. Dong, and X. D. Zhang, “Impulse response modeling for underwater wireless optical communication links,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 62(1), 226–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Gabriel, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Léon, and V. Rigaud, “Monte-Carlo-Based Channel Characterization for Underwater Optical Communication Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(1), 1–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Kasture and N. Gudpelliwar, “Securing underwater wireless communication networks-literature,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 4(12), 73–78 (2013).

2012 (2)

G. Dini and A. Lo Duca, “A secure communication suite for underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15133–15158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Y. Ma, Q. Q. Zhou, B. Zhou, and H. Y. Wang, “Monte Carlo study on pulse response of underwater optical channel,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 066001 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. C. Domingo, “Securing underwater wireless communication networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 18(1), 22–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alouini, M. S.

Alves, J.

C. Lal, R. Petroccia, M. Conti, and J. Alves, “Secure underwater acoustic networks: Current and future research directions,” in 2016 IEEE Third Underwater Communications and Networking Conference (UComms) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafi, S.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baghdady, J.

Bourennane, S.

Byrd, M.

Cao, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chi, Y. C.

Chizari, H.

A. Khasawneh, M. S. B. A. Latiff, O. Kaiwartya, and H. Chizari, “Next Forwarding Node Selection in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs): Techniques and Challenges,” Information 8(1), 3 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cochenour, B. M.

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Conti, M.

C. Lal, R. Petroccia, M. Conti, and J. Alves, “Secure underwater acoustic networks: Current and future research directions,” in 2016 IEEE Third Underwater Communications and Networking Conference (UComms) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Cui, J. H.

J. H. Cui, J. J. Kong, M. Gerla, and S. L. Zhou, “Challenges: building scalable and distributed Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) for aquatic applications,” Channels, 1–17 (2005).

Czernecki, R.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dai, H. N.

Q. Wang, H. N. Dai, X. Li, H. Wang, and H. Xiao, “On modeling eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 16(5), 721 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, N.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dini, G.

G. Dini and A. Lo Duca, “A secure communication suite for underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15133–15158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domingo, M. C.

M. C. Domingo, “Securing underwater wireless communication networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 18(1), 22–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y. H.

S. J. Tang, Y. H. Dong, and X. D. Zhang, “Impulse response modeling for underwater wireless optical communication links,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 62(1), 226–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duran, J. R.

ElAfandy, R. T.

H. M. Oubei, R. T. ElAfandy, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “Performance evaluation of underwater wireless optical communications links in the presence of different air bubble populations,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

Faraon, A.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabriel, C.

Gerla, M.

J. H. Cui, J. J. Kong, M. Gerla, and S. L. Zhou, “Challenges: building scalable and distributed Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) for aquatic applications,” Channels, 1–17 (2005).

Gudpelliwar, N.

S. S. Kasture and N. Gudpelliwar, “Securing underwater wireless communication networks-literature,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 4(12), 73–78 (2013).

Guo, Y.

Han, J.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hanawa, M.

He, J. H.

Ho, K. T.

Hu, L.

Huang, Y.

Janjua, B.

Jia, W.

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jing, J. W.

Y. C. Liu, J. W. Jing, and J. Yang, “Secure underwater acoustic communication based on a robust key generation scheme,” in 9th International Conference on Signal Processing (2008) pp. 1838–1841.

Johnson, E. G.

Kaiwartya, O.

A. Khasawneh, M. S. B. A. Latiff, O. Kaiwartya, and H. Chizari, “Next Forwarding Node Selection in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs): Techniques and Challenges,” Information 8(1), 3 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kamali, S. M.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasture, S. S.

S. S. Kasture and N. Gudpelliwar, “Securing underwater wireless communication networks-literature,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 4(12), 73–78 (2013).

Kelly, A. E.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khalighi, M. A.

Khasawneh, A.

A. Khasawneh, M. S. B. A. Latiff, O. Kaiwartya, and H. Chizari, “Next Forwarding Node Selection in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs): Techniques and Challenges,” Information 8(1), 3 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kong, J. J.

J. H. Cui, J. J. Kong, M. Gerla, and S. L. Zhou, “Challenges: building scalable and distributed Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) for aquatic applications,” Channels, 1–17 (2005).

Kong, M.

Kong, M. W.

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koutsonikolas, D.

H. Kulhandjian, T. Melodia, and D. Koutsonikolas, “Securing underwater acoustic communications through analog network coding,” in 2014 Eleventh Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 266–274.
[Crossref]

Kowalski, M.

P. Xiao, M. Kowalski, D. McCulley, and M. Zuba, “An experimental study of jamming attacks in underwater acoustic communication,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems. (ACM, 2015), pp. 21.
[Crossref]

Kucharski, R.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kulhandjian, H.

H. Kulhandjian, T. Melodia, and D. Koutsonikolas, “Securing underwater acoustic communications through analog network coding,” in 2014 Eleventh Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 266–274.
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Lal, C.

C. Lal, R. Petroccia, M. Conti, and J. Alves, “Secure underwater acoustic networks: Current and future research directions,” in 2016 IEEE Third Underwater Communications and Networking Conference (UComms) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Latiff, M. S. B. A.

A. Khasawneh, M. S. B. A. Latiff, O. Kaiwartya, and H. Chizari, “Next Forwarding Node Selection in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs): Techniques and Challenges,” Information 8(1), 3 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laux, A. E.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Léon, P.

Leszczynski, M.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, J.

J. Li, Y. Ma, Q. Q. Zhou, B. Zhou, and H. Y. Wang, “Monte Carlo study on pulse response of underwater optical channel,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 066001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

Li, X.

Q. Wang, H. N. Dai, X. Li, H. Wang, and H. Xiao, “On modeling eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 16(5), 721 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

Lin, A. B.

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

Liu, C.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Liu, R.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y. C.

Y. C. Liu, J. W. Jing, and J. Yang, “Secure underwater acoustic communication based on a robust key generation scheme,” in 9th International Conference on Signal Processing (2008) pp. 1838–1841.

Lo Duca, A.

G. Dini and A. Lo Duca, “A secure communication suite for underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15133–15158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

J. Li, Y. Ma, Q. Q. Zhou, B. Zhou, and H. Y. Wang, “Monte Carlo study on pulse response of underwater optical channel,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 066001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marona, L.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

McCulley, D.

P. Xiao, M. Kowalski, D. McCulley, and M. Zuba, “An experimental study of jamming attacks in underwater acoustic communication,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems. (ACM, 2015), pp. 21.
[Crossref]

Melodia, T.

H. Kulhandjian, T. Melodia, and D. Koutsonikolas, “Securing underwater acoustic communications through analog network coding,” in 2014 Eleventh Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON) (IEEE, 2014), pp. 266–274.
[Crossref]

Miller, K.

Mizukoshi, I.

Morgan, K.

Mullen, L. J.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Najda, S. P.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, K.

Ng, T. K.

Ooi, B. S.

Osler, S.

Oubei, H. M.

Park, K. H.

Perlin, P.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Petroccia, R.

C. Lal, R. Petroccia, M. Conti, and J. Alves, “Secure underwater acoustic networks: Current and future research directions,” in 2016 IEEE Third Underwater Communications and Networking Conference (UComms) (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–5.
[Crossref]

Qu, F. Z.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ragusa, R.

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigaud, V.

Shen, C.

Song, Y.

Song, Y. H.

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suski, T.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, S. J.

S. J. Tang, Y. H. Dong, and X. D. Zhang, “Impulse response modeling for underwater wireless optical communication links,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 62(1), 226–234 (2014).
[Crossref]

Targowski, G.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tian, P.

Tsai, C. T.

Tur, M.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Q. Wang, H. N. Dai, X. Li, H. Wang, and H. Xiao, “On modeling eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 16(5), 721 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Y.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40480 (2017).
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H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
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J. Li, Y. Ma, Q. Q. Zhou, B. Zhou, and H. Y. Wang, “Monte Carlo study on pulse response of underwater optical channel,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 066001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, H. N. Dai, X. Li, H. Wang, and H. Xiao, “On modeling eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 16(5), 721 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, M. A.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
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White, H.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
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Willner, A. E.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
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Willner, A. J.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
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Wisniewski, P.

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
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Wu, T. C.

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40480 (2017).
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Xiao, H.

Q. Wang, H. N. Dai, X. Li, H. Wang, and H. Xiao, “On modeling eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 16(5), 721 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, P.

P. Xiao, M. Kowalski, D. McCulley, and M. Zuba, “An experimental study of jamming attacks in underwater acoustic communication,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems. (ACM, 2015), pp. 21.
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Xie, G.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
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Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
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J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
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J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
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Yan, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
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Yang, J.

Y. C. Liu, J. W. Jing, and J. Yang, “Secure underwater acoustic communication based on a robust key generation scheme,” in 9th International Conference on Signal Processing (2008) pp. 1838–1841.

Yi, S.

Yu, X.

Yu, X. Y.

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
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J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
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Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
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J. Li, Y. Ma, Q. Q. Zhou, B. Zhou, and H. Y. Wang, “Monte Carlo study on pulse response of underwater optical channel,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 066001 (2012).
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J. Li, Y. Ma, Q. Q. Zhou, B. Zhou, and H. Y. Wang, “Monte Carlo study on pulse response of underwater optical channel,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 066001 (2012).
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P. Xiao, M. Kowalski, D. McCulley, and M. Zuba, “An experimental study of jamming attacks in underwater acoustic communication,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems. (ACM, 2015), pp. 21.
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IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. (1)

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

H. M. Oubei, R. T. ElAfandy, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “Performance evaluation of underwater wireless optical communications links in the presence of different air bubble populations,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–9 (2017).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Xu, A. B. Lin, X. Y. Yu, M. W. Kong, Y. H. Song, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, W. Jia, and N. Deng, “High-speed underwater wireless optical communication using a compact OFDM-modulated green laser diode,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(20), 2133–2136 (2016).
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IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. J. Tang, Y. H. Dong, and X. D. Zhang, “Impulse response modeling for underwater wireless optical communication links,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 62(1), 226–234 (2014).
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IEEE Wirel. Commun. (1)

M. C. Domingo, “Securing underwater wireless communication networks,” IEEE Wirel. Commun. 18(1), 22–28 (2011).
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Information (1)

A. Khasawneh, M. S. B. A. Latiff, O. Kaiwartya, and H. Chizari, “Next Forwarding Node Selection in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs): Techniques and Challenges,” Information 8(1), 3 (2017).
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S. S. Kasture and N. Gudpelliwar, “Securing underwater wireless communication networks-literature,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 4(12), 73–78 (2013).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
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Opt. Eng. (2)

S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, T. Suski, L. Marona, M. Leszczyński, P. Wisniewski, R. Czernecki, R. Kucharski, G. Targowski, M. A. Watson, H. White, S. Watson, and A. E. Kelly, “AlGaInN laser diode technology for GHz high-speed visible light communication through plastic optical fiber and water,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026112 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Y. Ma, Q. Q. Zhou, B. Zhou, and H. Y. Wang, “Monte Carlo study on pulse response of underwater optical channel,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 066001 (2012).
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Opt. Express (7)

K. Nakamura, I. Mizukoshi, and M. Hanawa, “Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1558–1566 (2015).
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H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
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H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
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J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
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C. Shen, Y. Guo, H. M. Oubei, T. K. Ng, G. Liu, K. H. Park, K. T. Ho, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25502–25509 (2016).
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P. Tian, X. Liu, S. Yi, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, X. Zhou, L. Hu, L. Zheng, and R. Liu, “High-speed underwater optical wireless communication using a blue GaN-based micro-LED,” Opt. Express 25(2), 1193–1201 (2017).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33306 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Wu, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, and G. R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (2)

G. Dini and A. Lo Duca, “A secure communication suite for underwater acoustic sensor networks,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15133–15158 (2012).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The light intensity distribution at the reception plane after transmitting through (a) 20-m pure sea water, (b) 30-m pure sea water, (c) 40-m pure sea water, and (d) 50-m pure sea water.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The light intensity distribution at the receiver after transmitting through 7.8-m (a) pure sea water, (b) clear ocean water, (c) coastal ocean water, and (d) turbid harbor water.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental setup for verifying information leakage using an MPPC placed aside the light beam.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The waveforms of the captured 5-MHz square wave signal, when the MPPC was put at (a) 1 m, (b) 3 m, and (c) 5 m away from the LD.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The experimental setup to study the potential eavesdropping of UWOC. Insets: (a) the transmitter module, (b) the eavesdropping mirror at 7.8 m, (c) the normal receiver module at 15 m, and (d) the experiment site.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The constellation map of the 2.5-Gb/s OFDM signal at the normal receiving end without information leakage.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 When Mirror 3 is at Position 2, Position 4, and Position 6, the constellation maps of the received signals (a-c) at the normal receiving end and (d-f) at the eavesdropping end.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 BERs for different subcarriers at the normal receiving (15 m) and eavesdropping (7.8 m) sides, when Mirror 3 is at Position 4.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) The captured waveform of the received signal at the eavesdropping end, when Mirror 3 is at Position 4 and (b) the corresponding spectrum.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Coefficient values of typical water types at 520 nm

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Table 2 Parameter values of OFDM parameters

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Table 3 The measured BERs at the normal receiving end and the eavesdropping end, when Mirror 3 at the eavesdropping end is placed at different positions.

Equations (3)

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a ( λ ) = [ a w ( λ ) + 0.06 a c * ' ( λ ) C 0.65 ] [ 1 + 0.2 exp ( 0.014 ( λ 440 ) ) ]
b ( λ ) = 0.30 550 λ C 0.62
c ( λ ) = a ( λ ) + b ( λ )

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