Abstract

Long-distance quantum channels capable of transferring quantum states faithfully for unconditionally secure quantum communication have been so far confirmed to be feasible in both fiber and free-space air. However, it remains unclear whether seawater, which covers more than 70% of the earth, can also be utilized, leaving global quantum communication incomplete. Here we experimentally demonstrate that polarization quantum states including general qubits of single photon and entangled states can survive well after travelling through seawater. We perform experiments with seawater collected over a range of 36 kilometers in the Yellow Sea. For single photons at 405 nm in a blue-green window, we obtain an average process fidelity above 98%. For entangled photons at 810nm, albeit very high loss, we observe the violation of Bell inequality with 33 standard deviations. Our results confirm the feasibility of a seawater quantum channel, representing the first step towards underwater quantum communication.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

B. Korzh, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, N. Gisin, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre,” Nature Photon. 9, 163–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, S. D. Dyer, M. J. Stevens, V. Verma, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum teleportation over 100 km of fiber using highly efficient superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Optica 2, 832–835 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nature Photon. 8, 595–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Albrecht, P. Farrera, X. Fernandez-Gonzalvo, M. Cristiani, and H. A. de Riedmatten, “A waveguide frequency converter connecting rubidium-based quantum memories to the telecom C-band,” Nature Commun. 5, 3376 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Yin, J. G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, Y. P. Wu, C. Liu, S. K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X. D. Cai, P. Xu, G. S. Pan, J. J. Jia, Y. M. Huang, H. Yin, J. Y. Wang, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

X. M. Jin, J. G. Ren, B. Yang, Z. H. Yi, F. Zhou, X. F. Xu, S. K. Wang, D. Yang, Y. F. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Yang, H. Yin, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental free-space quantum teleportation,” Nature Photon 4, 376–381 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communications and Networking: Recent Advances and Future Challenges,” Marine Tech. Soc. J. 42, 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Lobino, D. Korystov, C. Kupchak, E. Figueroa, B. C. Sanders, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Complete Characterization of Quantum-Optical Processes,” Science 322, 563–566 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the Beam-Spread Function for Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33, 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452, 67–71 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B Wang, and J. W Pan, “Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based on Polarization Encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nature Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nature Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. Kim, M. Fiorentino, and F. N. C. Wong, “Phase-stable source of polarization-entangled photons using a polarization Sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 012316 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. B. Wang, “Beating the Photon-Number-Splitting Attack in Practical Quantum Cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks 3, 257–279 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Communications: Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Edamatsu, G. Oohata, R. Shimizu, and T. Itoh, “Generation of ultraviolet entangled photons in a semiconductor,” Nature 431, 167–170 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, “High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433–1445 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, “Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55µm by means of frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1449–1451 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

I. Marcikic, H. D. Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature 421, 509–513 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, H. R. Bohm, T. Gyatso, T. Jennewein, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, G. Molina-Terriza, A. Poppe, K. Resch, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-Distance Free-Space Distribution of Quantum Entanglement,” Science 301, 621–623 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster, and J. G. Rarity, “Quantum cryptography: A step towards global key distribution,” Nature 419, 450 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, “Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum Repeaters: The Role of Imperfect Local Operations in Quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. Muller, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Underwater quantum coding,” Nature 378, 449 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Żukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, “’Event-ready-detectors’ Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. of Cryptography 5, 3 (1992).

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1969 (1)

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, “Proposed Experiment to Test Local Hidden-Variable Theories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880–884 (1969).
[Crossref]

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks 3, 257–279 (2005).
[Crossref]

Albota, M. A.

Albrecht, B.

B. Albrecht, P. Farrera, X. Fernandez-Gonzalvo, M. Cristiani, and H. A. de Riedmatten, “A waveguide frequency converter connecting rubidium-based quantum memories to the telecom C-band,” Nature Commun. 5, 3376 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anisimova, E.

X. S. Ma, T. Herbst, T. Scheidl, D. Wang, S. Kropatschek, W. Naylor, B. Wittmann, A. Mech, J. Kofler, E. Anisimova, V. Makarov, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward,” Nature 489, 269–273 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aspelmeyer, M.

R. Ursin, T. Jennewein, M. Aspelmeyer, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Communications: Quantum teleportation across the Danube,” Nature 430, 849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, H. R. Bohm, T. Gyatso, T. Jennewein, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, G. Molina-Terriza, A. Poppe, K. Resch, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-Distance Free-Space Distribution of Quantum Entanglement,” Science 301, 621–623 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nature Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. of Cryptography 5, 3 (1992).

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems and Signal Processing175–179 (1984).

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. of Cryptography 5, 3 (1992).

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nature Phys. 3, 481–486 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bohm, H. R.

M. Aspelmeyer, H. R. Bohm, T. Gyatso, T. Jennewein, R. Kaltenbaek, M. Lindenthal, G. Molina-Terriza, A. Poppe, K. Resch, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-Distance Free-Space Distribution of Quantum Entanglement,” Science 301, 621–623 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. of Cryptography 5, 3 (1992).

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems and Signal Processing175–179 (1984).

Briegel, H. J.

H. J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum Repeaters: The Role of Imperfect Local Operations in Quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cai, X. D.

J. Yin, J. G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, Y. P. Wu, C. Liu, S. K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X. D. Cai, P. Xu, G. S. Pan, J. J. Jia, Y. M. Huang, H. Yin, J. Y. Wang, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

J. Yin, J. G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, Y. P. Wu, C. Liu, S. K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X. D. Cai, P. Xu, G. S. Pan, J. J. Jia, Y. M. Huang, H. Yin, J. Y. Wang, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

X. M. Jin, J. G. Ren, B. Yang, Z. H. Yi, F. Zhou, X. F. Xu, S. K. Wang, D. Yang, Y. F. Hu, S. Jiang, T. Yang, H. Yin, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental free-space quantum teleportation,” Nature Photon 4, 376–381 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. A.

J. Yin, J. G. Ren, H. Lu, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, Y. P. Wu, C. Liu, S. K. Liao, F. Zhou, Y. Jiang, X. D. Cai, P. Xu, G. S. Pan, J. J. Jia, Y. M. Huang, H. Yin, J. Y. Wang, Y. A. Chen, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels,” Nature 488, 185–188 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chitre, M.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater Acoustic Communications and Networking: Recent Advances and Future Challenges,” Marine Tech. Soc. J. 42, 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. S.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452, 67–71 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, “Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249 (1999).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Location of the seawater samples. In order to reduce position-dependent uncertainty of seawater, we make experimental investigation in large area. The sites where we collected the samples locate at the north of the Yellow Sea, which is on the eastern coast of Liaodong peninsula, lying between Dalian city and Zhangzi island. The GPS coordinates provide specific position information of each site.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental quantum state transfer of single photons in free-space seawater. a, Sketch of experimental system. The semiconductor laser can run in both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed modes. CW mode is adopted in the experiment of estimating loss of seawater samples, and pulsed mode is used to prepare single photon source with tunable attenuation. Quantum states of single photons are prepared in polarization by using a polarizing beam splitter followed by a half and a quarter wave plates, reversed order of these three elements in the output act as a state analyzer for quantum tomography. Polarization compensator consisting of two quarter- and one half-wave plates is utilized to compensate polarization rotation in fiber and other linear optical devices. b, 2D color chart of state (|H〉,|V〉, |D〉, |A〉,|R〉, |L〉,) fidelities through different channels including six seawater samples, distilled water and air (empty tube). Maximum likelihood estimation is used for keeping density matrix physical. Note that the start point of color bar is set at 98% to visualize the distinction better. c, Measured density matrices of six receiving states through seawater sample VI.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental entanglement distribution in free-space seawater. a, Schematic of experimental setup. Polarization entangled photon-pair source is produced by a blue laser pumped PPKTP crystal (25-mm long) in a Sagnac ring interferometer. One photon is measured locally, the other is distributed through the channels and analyzed at the output. b, c, polarization correlation properties observed in air (b) and sample VI (c). Four curves in each chart are obtained by projecting one photon at polarization angles |H〉,|V〉, |D〉, |A〉,respectively and scan the other one.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diagrammatic representation of reconstructed real (Re) and imaginary (Im) components of polarization entangled state. Density matrix is obtained by linear state tomography under two conditions: empty tube (a) and sample VI (b). The states in both cases appear to be highly entangled in polarization, which demonstrate entanglement can well preserved in seawater. This complements the evidence of high process fidelities provided by Fig. 2 and Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A sketch of polarization-dependent photon scattering. The arrow represents the scattering path of one step, where θ is the scattering angle and Φ is the azimuth angle between the scattering plane and the reference plane. Rayleigh scattering is approximately dominant in pure clean seawater and the curve gives the phase function.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission fidelities under different scattering angle and initial polarization state. Angle dependence of single scattering process for initial polarization states of horizontal (a), diagonal (b) and right circular (c). Apparently, in pure Rayleigh scattering regime, wide scattering angle and weight make photons survive in receiving angle with a very limited proportion, which means the dominant role of scattering is loss rather than depolarization. (d) Fidelities under tight forward scattering of 100 times. The polarization can be well preserved within 20-mrad receiving angle.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Attenuation Coefficients, State Fidelities and Process Fidelities.

Equations (10)

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ρ o u t = m , n χ m n A m ρ i n A n
| ψ = 1 / 2 ( | H A | V B | V A | H B )
t ˜ = 2 n 1 c o s i 1 n 1 c o s i 1 + n 2 c o s i 2
T = n 2 n 1 t 2
n s e a w a t e r = a 0 + ( a 1 + a 2 T C + a 3 T C 2 ) S + a 4 T C 2 + ( a 5 + a 6 S + a 7 T ) λ 1 + a 8 λ 2 + a 9 λ 3
α = l o g b 2 a 2 b 1 a 1 × 90.535 % 83.57 % 3.3
S = [ I Q U V ]
R ( ϕ ) = [ 1 0 0 0 0 c o s 2 ϕ s i n 2 ϕ 0 0 s i n 2 ϕ c o s 2 ϕ 0 0 0 0 1 ]
M ( θ ) = [ 1 s i n 2 θ 1 + c o s 2 θ 0 0 s i n 2 θ 1 + c o s 2 θ 1 0 0 0 0 2 c o s θ 1 + c o s 2 θ 0 0 0 0 2 c o s θ 1 + c o s 2 θ ]
S n = M ( θ n ) R ( ϕ n ) M ( θ 1 ) R ( ϕ 1 ) S 0

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