Abstract

We propose a method to determine the current injection efficiency (CIE) and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) during current injection. The method is based on fourth-order polynomial fitting of a modified rate equation to electroluminescence data. Our method can extract the CIE at low injection current densities, unlike conventional methods that generally assume the CIE to be unity. We apply the method to AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet LEDs. Results show that the CIE was only approximately 51% at low injection current densities and was almost independent of injection current density up to 100 A/cm2. The peak IQE was 77%.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).

2016 (1)

S. Tan, T. Egawa, X. D. Luo, L. Sun, Y. H. Zhu, and J. C. Zhang, “Influence of barrier height and p-cladding layer on electroluminescent performance of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125102 (2016).

2015 (4)

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, A. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

M. W. Moseley, A. A. Allerman, M. H. Crawford, J. J. Wierer, M. L. Smith, and A. M. Armstrong, “Detection and modeling of leakage current in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(9), 095301 (2015).

2014 (3)

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

2013 (3)

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 012105 (2013).

2012 (4)

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

2011 (4)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011902 (2011).

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

H. Amano, “Impact of high-temperature metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of AlGaN-based UV-A, UV-B and UV-C quantum wells on the improvement of their internal quantum efficiency,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 326, 012002 (2011).

2010 (3)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “white light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y. L. Li, Y. R. Huang, and Y. H. Lai, “Investigation of efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well LEDs with various well thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

2008 (2)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).

J. C. Zhang, Y. H. Zhu, T. Egawa, S. Sumiya, M. Miyoshi, and M. Tanaka, “Suppression of the subband parasitic peak by 1 nm i-AlN interlayer in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131117 (2008).

2007 (1)

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).

2006 (1)

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).

2005 (1)

H. Hirayama, “Quaternary InAlGaN-based high-efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 091101 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, K. Zhu, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Transport properties of highly conductive n-type Al-rich AlxGa1−x (x≥0.7),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3769–3771 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. Y. Karpov and Y. N. Makarov, “Dislocation effect on light emission efficiency in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4721–4723 (2002).

1999 (1)

A. Dmitriev and A. Oruzheinikov, “The rate of radiative recombination in the nitride semiconductors and alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(6), 3241–3246 (1999).

1998 (1)

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

1995 (1)

W. Qian, G. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L. Rowland, and D. Gaskill, “Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2284–2286 (1995).

Adivarahan, V.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Akasaki, I.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

Ali, M.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).

Allerman, A. A.

M. W. Moseley, A. A. Allerman, M. H. Crawford, J. J. Wierer, M. L. Smith, and A. M. Armstrong, “Detection and modeling of leakage current in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(9), 095301 (2015).

Amano, H.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

H. Amano, “Impact of high-temperature metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of AlGaN-based UV-A, UV-B and UV-C quantum wells on the improvement of their internal quantum efficiency,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 326, 012002 (2011).

Armstrong, A. M.

M. W. Moseley, A. A. Allerman, M. H. Crawford, J. J. Wierer, M. L. Smith, and A. M. Armstrong, “Detection and modeling of leakage current in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(9), 095301 (2015).

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).

Ban, K.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

Banal, R. G.

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011902 (2011).

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

Bryan, I.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, A. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).

Bryan, Z.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, A. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).

Chen, J.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

Chitnis, A.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Chua, C.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Collazo, R.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, A. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).

Crawford, M. H.

M. W. Moseley, A. A. Allerman, M. H. Crawford, J. J. Wierer, M. L. Smith, and A. M. Armstrong, “Detection and modeling of leakage current in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(9), 095301 (2015).

Dalmau, R.

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

David, A.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).

Deguchi, K.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).

DenBaars, S. P.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

Dmitriev, A.

A. Dmitriev and A. Oruzheinikov, “The rate of radiative recombination in the nitride semiconductors and alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(6), 3241–3246 (1999).

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

Doverspike, K.

W. Qian, G. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L. Rowland, and D. Gaskill, “Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2284–2286 (1995).

Egawa, T.

S. Tan, T. Egawa, X. D. Luo, L. Sun, Y. H. Zhu, and J. C. Zhang, “Influence of barrier height and p-cladding layer on electroluminescent performance of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125102 (2016).

J. C. Zhang, Y. H. Zhu, T. Egawa, S. Sumiya, M. Miyoshi, and M. Tanaka, “Suppression of the subband parasitic peak by 1 nm i-AlN interlayer in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131117 (2008).

Einfeldt, S.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Fini, P. T.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

Funato, M.

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011902 (2011).

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

Garrett, G. A.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Gaskill, D.

W. Qian, G. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L. Rowland, and D. Gaskill, “Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2284–2286 (1995).

Gibb, S. R.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

Grandusky, J. R.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).

Guttmann, M.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

Hao, G. D.

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

Hayashi, Y.

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

Hirayama, H.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).

H. Hirayama, “Quaternary InAlGaN-based high-efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 091101 (2005).

Hu, X.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

Huang, Y. R.

Y. L. Li, Y. R. Huang, and Y. H. Lai, “Investigation of efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well LEDs with various well thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).

Ibbetson, J. P.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “white light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Ide, K.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

Inoue, S.

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 012105 (2013).

Iwaya, M.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

Jahir, A. M.

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

Jain, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

Jiang, H. X.

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, K. Zhu, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Transport properties of highly conductive n-type Al-rich AlxGa1−x (x≥0.7),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3769–3771 (2004).

Johnson, N. M.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).

Kamiyama, S.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

Karpov, S. Y.

S. Y. Karpov and Y. N. Makarov, “Dislocation effect on light emission efficiency in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4721–4723 (2002).

Katona, T.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).

Kawakami, Y.

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011902 (2011).

Keller, S.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

Kennedy, R.

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

Khan, A.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).

Khan, M. A.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Kim, K. H.

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, K. Zhu, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Transport properties of highly conductive n-type Al-rich AlxGa1−x (x≥0.7),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3769–3771 (2004).

Kinoshita, T.

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 012105 (2013).

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Kishi, H.

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

Kivisaari, P.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).

Knauer, A.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Kneissl, M.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Kolbe, T.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Koukitu, A.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Kozodoy, P.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

Krames, M. R.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).

Kubota, Y.

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Kueller, V.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Kuhn, C.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

Kumagai, Y.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Lai, Y. H.

Y. L. Li, Y. R. Huang, and Y. H. Lai, “Investigation of efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well LEDs with various well thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).

Lapeyrade, M.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

Ledentsov, N.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

Li, Y. L.

Y. L. Li, Y. R. Huang, and Y. H. Lai, “Investigation of efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well LEDs with various well thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).

Lin, J. Y.

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, K. Zhu, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Transport properties of highly conductive n-type Al-rich AlxGa1−x (x≥0.7),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3769–3771 (2004).

Lipsanen, H.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).

Liu, K.

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

Lobo, N.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Lobo-Ploch, N.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

Lunev, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

Luo, X. D.

S. Tan, T. Egawa, X. D. Luo, L. Sun, Y. H. Zhu, and J. C. Zhang, “Influence of barrier height and p-cladding layer on electroluminescent performance of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125102 (2016).

Maeda, T.

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).

Makarov, Y. N.

S. Y. Karpov and Y. N. Makarov, “Dislocation effect on light emission efficiency in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4721–4723 (2002).

Mandavilli, V.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Marchand, H.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

Mehnke, F.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

Mendrick, M. C.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

Mickevicius, J.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).

Mino, T.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).

Mishra, U. K.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

Mita, S.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, A. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

Miyoshi, M.

J. C. Zhang, Y. H. Zhu, T. Egawa, S. Sumiya, M. Miyoshi, and M. Tanaka, “Suppression of the subband parasitic peak by 1 nm i-AlN interlayer in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131117 (2008).

Moe, C.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

Moe, C. G.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

Moody, B.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Moseley, M. W.

M. W. Moseley, A. A. Allerman, M. H. Crawford, J. J. Wierer, M. L. Smith, and A. M. Armstrong, “Detection and modeling of leakage current in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(9), 095301 (2015).

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “white light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).

Munkholm, A.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).

Murakami, H.

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Nagashima, T.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Nakarmi, M. L.

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, K. Zhu, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Transport properties of highly conductive n-type Al-rich AlxGa1−x (x≥0.7),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3769–3771 (2004).

Naoki, T.

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).

Narita, J.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “white light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).

Noguchi, N.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).

Obata, T.

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 012105 (2013).

Oksanen, J.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).

Oruzheinikov, A.

A. Dmitriev and A. Oruzheinikov, “The rate of radiative recombination in the nitride semiconductors and alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(6), 3241–3246 (1999).

Pachipulusu, R.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Pristovsek, M.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

Qian, W.

W. Qian, G. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L. Rowland, and D. Gaskill, “Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2284–2286 (1995).

Rass, J.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

Reich, C.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

Riuttanen, L.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).

Rodak, L.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

Rodak, L. E.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

Rodriguez, H.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Rohrer, G.

W. Qian, G. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L. Rowland, and D. Gaskill, “Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2284–2286 (1995).

Rothe, M. A.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

Rowland, L.

W. Qian, G. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L. Rowland, and D. Gaskill, “Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2284–2286 (1995).

Sakai, J.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “white light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “white light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Schlesser, R.

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Schowalter, L. J.

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

Sereika, A.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).

Shimizu, M.

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

Shur, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

Shur, M. S.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Simin, G.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Sitar, A.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, A. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).

Sitar, Z.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Skowronski, M.

W. Qian, G. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L. Rowland, and D. Gaskill, “Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2284–2286 (1995).

Smith, M. L.

M. W. Moseley, A. A. Allerman, M. H. Crawford, J. J. Wierer, M. L. Smith, and A. M. Armstrong, “Detection and modeling of leakage current in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(9), 095301 (2015).

Speck, J. S.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

Stellmach, J.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Suihkonen, S.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).

Sumiya, S.

J. C. Zhang, Y. H. Zhu, T. Egawa, S. Sumiya, M. Miyoshi, and M. Tanaka, “Suppression of the subband parasitic peak by 1 nm i-AlN interlayer in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131117 (2008).

Sun, L.

S. Tan, T. Egawa, X. D. Luo, L. Sun, Y. H. Zhu, and J. C. Zhang, “Influence of barrier height and p-cladding layer on electroluminescent performance of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125102 (2016).

Sun, W.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

Takahashi, T.

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

Takano, T.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).

Takeda, K.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

Takeguchi, K.

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

Takeuchi, T.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

Tamulaitis, G.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Tan, S.

S. Tan, T. Egawa, X. D. Luo, L. Sun, Y. H. Zhu, and J. C. Zhang, “Influence of barrier height and p-cladding layer on electroluminescent performance of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125102 (2016).

Tanaka, M.

J. C. Zhang, Y. H. Zhu, T. Egawa, S. Sumiya, M. Miyoshi, and M. Tanaka, “Suppression of the subband parasitic peak by 1 nm i-AlN interlayer in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131117 (2008).

Tsubaki, K.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).

Tsukada, Y.

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).

Tulkki, J.

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).

Wang, X. L.

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

Watanabe, S.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).

Wernicke, T.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

Weyers, M.

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Wierer, J. J.

M. W. Moseley, A. A. Allerman, M. H. Crawford, J. J. Wierer, M. L. Smith, and A. M. Armstrong, “Detection and modeling of leakage current in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(9), 095301 (2015).

Wraback, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

Wu, S.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Xie, J.

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, A. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

Yamada, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(41), L1084–L1086 (2006).

Yamamoto, J.

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

Yanagi, H.

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 012105 (2013).

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, G. Garrett, L. E. Rodak, M. Wraback, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084007 (2014).

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

Yang, Z.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).

Yilmaz, I.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Zhang, J. C.

S. Tan, T. Egawa, X. D. Luo, L. Sun, Y. H. Zhu, and J. C. Zhang, “Influence of barrier height and p-cladding layer on electroluminescent performance of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125102 (2016).

J. C. Zhang, Y. H. Zhu, T. Egawa, S. Sumiya, M. Miyoshi, and M. Tanaka, “Suppression of the subband parasitic peak by 1 nm i-AlN interlayer in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131117 (2008).

Zhang, J. P.

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

Zhu, K.

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, K. Zhu, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Transport properties of highly conductive n-type Al-rich AlxGa1−x (x≥0.7),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3769–3771 (2004).

Zhu, Y. H.

S. Tan, T. Egawa, X. D. Luo, L. Sun, Y. H. Zhu, and J. C. Zhang, “Influence of barrier height and p-cladding layer on electroluminescent performance of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(12), 125102 (2016).

J. C. Zhang, Y. H. Zhu, T. Egawa, S. Sumiya, M. Miyoshi, and M. Tanaka, “Suppression of the subband parasitic peak by 1 nm i-AlN interlayer in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131117 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Express (8)

J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “270 nm pseudomorphic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 60 mw continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032101 (2013).

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).

K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range algan multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).

Y. Kumagai, Y. Kubota, T. Nagashima, T. Kinoshita, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Xie, H. Murakami, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “preparation of a freestanding AlN substrate from a thick AlN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a bulk AlN substrate prepared by physical vapor transport,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055504 (2012).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).

G. D. Hao, A. M. Jahir, T. Takahashi, M. Shimizu, X. L. Wang, H. Kishi, Y. Hayashi, and K. Takeguchi, “Enhanced light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes by evanescent wave coupling effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 102101 (2014).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

P. Kivisaari, L. Riuttanen, J. Oksanen, S. Suihkonen, M. Ali, H. Lipsanen, and J. Tulkki, “Electrical measurement of internal quantum efficiency and extraction efficiency of III-N light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021113 (2012).

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).

S. Y. Karpov and Y. N. Makarov, “Dislocation effect on light emission efficiency in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4721–4723 (2002).

M. Shatalov, A. Chitnis, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, G. Simin, M. A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, A. Sereika, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Time-resolved electroluminescence of AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes with emission at 285 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 167–169 (2003).

J. C. Zhang, Y. H. Zhu, T. Egawa, S. Sumiya, M. Miyoshi, and M. Tanaka, “Suppression of the subband parasitic peak by 1 nm i-AlN interlayer in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131117 (2008).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 012105 (2013).

W. Qian, G. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L. Rowland, and D. Gaskill, “Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2284–2286 (1995).

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 975–977 (1998).

Z. Bryan, I. Bryan, J. Xie, S. Mita, A. Sitar, and R. Collazo, “High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(14), 142107 (2015).

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).

M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, K. Zhu, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Transport properties of highly conductive n-type Al-rich AlxGa1−x (x≥0.7),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3769–3771 (2004).

S. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, M. Guttmann, C. Reich, T. Kolbe, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(5), 051113 (2014).

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011902 (2011).

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. L. Li, Y. R. Huang, and Y. H. Lai, “Investigation of efficiency droop behaviors of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well LEDs with various well thicknesses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1128–1131 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

A. Dmitriev and A. Oruzheinikov, “The rate of radiative recombination in the nitride semiconductors and alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(6), 3241–3246 (1999).

H. Hirayama, “Quaternary InAlGaN-based high-efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 091101 (2005).

M. W. Moseley, A. A. Allerman, M. H. Crawford, J. J. Wierer, M. L. Smith, and A. M. Armstrong, “Detection and modeling of leakage current in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(9), 095301 (2015).

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).

F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, J. Stellmach, T. Kolbe, N. Lobo-Ploch, J. Rass, M. A. Rothe, C. Reich, N. Ledentsov, M. Pristovsek, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(19), 195704 (2015).

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

H. Amano, “Impact of high-temperature metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of AlGaN-based UV-A, UV-B and UV-C quantum wells on the improvement of their internal quantum efficiency,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 326, 012002 (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the DUV-LED structure and the designed electrode geometries.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Near-field pattern at an injection current density of 80 A/cm2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 EQE of DUV-LED sample and polynomial fittings to the measured data using Eq. (5).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Current injection efficiency as a function of injection current density. The inset shows the EL spectra under various operating current conditions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated IQE versus dislocation density for 267 nm DUV-LEDs with carrier density of 2.1 × 1018 cm−3. The symbols indicate the experimental data from this work and those from Refs. 5, 13, and 14.

Equations (6)

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η EQE = η LEE η CIE η IQE .
η CIE J=qd(An+B n 2 +C n 3 +D n 4 +),
η IQE = B n 2 An+B n 2 +C n 3 +D n 4 + .
n= J η EQE Bqd η LEE .
J= A 2 qd B η LEE η CIE 2 J η EQE + 1 η CIE η LEE ( J η EQE ) 2 + C 2 qd B 3 η LEE 3 η CIE 2 ( J η EQE ) 3 + D 2 q 2 d 2 B 4 η LEE 4 η CIE 2 ( J η EQE ) 4 +.
η EQE = λ p out (λ)/ E phot (λ) I/q ,

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