Abstract

Electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized sphere phase liquid crystal (PS-SPLC) switching devices are analyzed and validated experimentally. The experimental results show the voltage-dependent transmittance curves of PS-SPLC devices. A diffraction approach, called extended anomalous diffraction approach, is proposed to fit the experimental data. Good agreement between experiment and model is obtained. The scattering model provides practical guidance for the improvement of PS-SPLC displays performance and optimization.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  3. Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. H. Lee, F. Gou, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis-free and submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14793–14800 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
  25. H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. H. Kim, S. T. Hur, C. S. Park, K. W. Park, S. W. Choi, S. W. Kang, and H. R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal mode to obtain a higher transmittance and lower driving voltage,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17427–17438 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(9), 490–493 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

Z. Zheng, L. Zhou, D. Shen, and L. Xuan, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating with low scattering losses,” Liq. Cryst. 39(3), 387–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Kim, S. T. Hur, C. S. Park, K. W. Park, S. W. Choi, S. W. Kang, and H. R. Kim, “A vertical-field-driven polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal mode to obtain a higher transmittance and lower driving voltage,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17427–17438 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(9), 490–493 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Méchernène, L. Benkhaled, D. Benaissa, and U. Maschke, “Studies of optical transmission properties of electron beam cured polymer/liquid crystal systems,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 632–639 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. A. Loiko, A. V. Konkolovich, and A. A. Miskevich, “Order parameter of elongated liquid crystal droplets: The method of retrieval by the coherent transmittance data,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 031704 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High contrast polymer-dispersed liquid crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. Rudhardt, A. Fernandez-Nieves, D. R. Link, and D. A. Weitz, “Phase switching of ordered arrays of liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2610–2612 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 43(26), 7335–7344 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. R. Kelly and P. Palffy-Muhoray, “The optical response of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 243(1), 11–29 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. B. Whitehead, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Light scattering from a dispersion of aligned nematic droplets,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1057–1065 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

S. Zǔmer, “Light scattering from nematic droplets: Anomalous-diffraction approach,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 37(10), 4006–4015 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Benaissa, D.

L. Méchernène, L. Benkhaled, D. Benaissa, and U. Maschke, “Studies of optical transmission properties of electron beam cured polymer/liquid crystal systems,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 632–639 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benkhaled, L.

L. Méchernène, L. Benkhaled, D. Benaissa, and U. Maschke, “Studies of optical transmission properties of electron beam cured polymer/liquid crystal systems,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 632–639 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. S.

Chen, M.

Chen, X.

Cheng, H. C.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chien, L. C.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. W.

Crawford, G. P.

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 43(26), 7335–7344 (2002).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

J. B. Whitehead, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Light scattering from a dispersion of aligned nematic droplets,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1057–1065 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fernandez-Nieves, A.

D. Rudhardt, A. Fernandez-Nieves, D. R. Link, and D. A. Weitz, “Phase switching of ordered arrays of liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2610–2612 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gauza, S.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gou, F.

Hsu, H. K.

Hur, S. T.

Ishinabe, T.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kang, S. W.

Kelly, J. R.

J. R. Kelly and P. Palffy-Muhoray, “The optical response of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 243(1), 11–29 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. R.

Kim, Y. H.

Konkolovich, A. V.

V. A. Loiko, A. V. Konkolovich, and A. A. Miskevich, “Order parameter of elongated liquid crystal droplets: The method of retrieval by the coherent transmittance data,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 031704 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

Li, W. H.

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High contrast polymer-dispersed liquid crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[Crossref]

Link, D. R.

D. Rudhardt, A. Fernandez-Nieves, D. R. Link, and D. A. Weitz, “Phase switching of ordered arrays of liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2610–2612 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Liu, Y.

Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. G.

Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Loiko, V. A.

V. A. Loiko, A. V. Konkolovich, and A. A. Miskevich, “Order parameter of elongated liquid crystal droplets: The method of retrieval by the coherent transmittance data,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 031704 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J. G.

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maschke, U.

L. Méchernène, L. Benkhaled, D. Benaissa, and U. Maschke, “Studies of optical transmission properties of electron beam cured polymer/liquid crystal systems,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 632–639 (2009).
[Crossref]

Méchernène, L.

L. Méchernène, L. Benkhaled, D. Benaissa, and U. Maschke, “Studies of optical transmission properties of electron beam cured polymer/liquid crystal systems,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 632–639 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miskevich, A. A.

V. A. Loiko, A. V. Konkolovich, and A. A. Miskevich, “Order parameter of elongated liquid crystal droplets: The method of retrieval by the coherent transmittance data,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 031704 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ni, S. B.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

J. R. Kelly and P. Palffy-Muhoray, “The optical response of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 243(1), 11–29 (1994).
[Crossref]

Park, C. S.

Park, K. W.

Peng, F.

Qi, J.

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 43(26), 7335–7344 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rao, L.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High contrast polymer-dispersed liquid crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ren, H. W.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rudhardt, D.

D. Rudhardt, A. Fernandez-Nieves, D. R. Link, and D. A. Weitz, “Phase switching of ordered arrays of liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2610–2612 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sarkar, M. D.

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 43(26), 7335–7344 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shen, D.

B. Liu, Z. Zheng, X. Chen, and D. Shen, “Low-voltage-modulated laser based on dye-doped polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(4), 519–526 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, L. Zhou, D. Shen, and L. Xuan, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating with low scattering losses,” Liq. Cryst. 39(3), 387–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H. P.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, X. L.

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y. B.

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, R. L.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Weitz, D. A.

D. Rudhardt, A. Fernandez-Nieves, D. R. Link, and D. A. Weitz, “Phase switching of ordered arrays of liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2610–2612 (2003).
[Crossref]

Whitehead, J. B.

J. B. Whitehead, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Light scattering from a dispersion of aligned nematic droplets,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1057–1065 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wu, B. G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. H.

Wu, D. Q.

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Y. H. Lee, F. Gou, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis-free and submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14793–14800 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(9), 490–493 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High contrast polymer-dispersed liquid crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xianyu, H.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xuan, L.

Z. Zheng, L. Zhou, D. Shen, and L. Xuan, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating with low scattering losses,” Liq. Cryst. 39(3), 387–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(9), 490–493 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yao, L.

Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. D.

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

B. Liu, Z. Zheng, X. Chen, and D. Shen, “Low-voltage-modulated laser based on dye-doped polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(4), 519–526 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, L. Zhou, D. Shen, and L. Xuan, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating with low scattering losses,” Liq. Cryst. 39(3), 387–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Z. Zheng, L. Zhou, D. Shen, and L. Xuan, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating with low scattering losses,” Liq. Cryst. 39(3), 387–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. L.

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zou, Z.

Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zumer, S.

J. B. Whitehead, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Light scattering from a dispersion of aligned nematic droplets,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1057–1065 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Zǔmer, “Light scattering from nematic droplets: Anomalous-diffraction approach,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 37(10), 4006–4015 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Žumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

D. Rudhardt, A. Fernandez-Nieves, D. R. Link, and D. A. Weitz, “Phase switching of ordered arrays of liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2610–2612 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “High contrast polymer-dispersed liquid crystal in a 90° twisted cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4083–4085 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, D. Q. Wu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, Y. K. Su, and H. P. Shieh, “Chiral-induced self-assembly sphere phase liquid crystal with fast switching time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, W. H. Li, Y. B. Sun, J. G. Lu, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, Z. D. Zhang, and Y. K. Su, “Random laser emission in a sphere-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 191903 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Žumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. B. Whitehead, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Light scattering from a dispersion of aligned nematic droplets,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1057–1065 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(9), 490–493 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Zheng, L. Yao, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, Y. Liu, Y. G. Liu, and L. Xuan, “Thermo-stability of acrylate based holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(11), 115504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (2)

Z. Zheng, L. Zhou, D. Shen, and L. Xuan, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal grating with low scattering losses,” Liq. Cryst. 39(3), 387–391 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, C. P. Chen, X. L. Song, C. Y. Chen, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “The influence of polymer system on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(6), 891–896 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

J. R. Kelly and P. Palffy-Muhoray, “The optical response of polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 243(1), 11–29 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Méchernène, L. Benkhaled, D. Benaissa, and U. Maschke, “Studies of optical transmission properties of electron beam cured polymer/liquid crystal systems,” Opt. Mater. 31(4), 632–639 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. (1)

S. Zǔmer, “Light scattering from nematic droplets: Anomalous-diffraction approach,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 37(10), 4006–4015 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

V. A. Loiko, A. V. Konkolovich, and A. A. Miskevich, “Order parameter of elongated liquid crystal droplets: The method of retrieval by the coherent transmittance data,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 031704 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

M. D. Sarkar, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, “Influence of partial matrix fluorination on morphology and performance of HPDLC transmission gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 43(26), 7335–7344 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Three-dimensional twist spheres of sphere phase liquid crystal.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experiment setup for measuring the VT curves in PS-SPLC.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fitting experimental data (λ = 0.6 um) using the scattering model. Dots are measured data and lines are fitting curves.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Diagrammatic sketch of light scattering in (a) a polymer dispersed liquid crystal and (b) a polymer-stabilized sphere phase liquid crystal.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured VT curve of sample 1 and fittings with ADA and Extended ADA (μ = 0.3, k = 14 × 10−12 N, λ = 0.6 μm, β = 432, and D = 217 nm).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Hysteresis of the sample 3 at λ = 0.6 um.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Recipes and cell gap of four samples.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T=exp(β σ s d) ,
σ s = 1 2 σ 0 (κD) 2 ( n e n p n p ) 2 [ ( n p n o n e n o ) 2 2( n p n o ) 3( n e n o ) (1 S s (e)) 8 21 S s (e)+ 4 35 P 4s (e)+ 4 15 ] ,
S s (e)= P 2 ( u N d ) = 1 4 + 3( e 2 +1 ) 16 e 2 + 3( 3 e 2 +1 )( e 2 1 ) 32 e 3 ln| e+1 e1 |,
P 4s (e)= P 4 ( u N d ) = 7 12 + 5 12 S s (e) 35 32 e 2 ( 2 3 + ( e 2 1 ) 2 4 e 2 ( e 2 +1 ) 2 ( e 2 1 ) 8 e 3 tan 1 ( 2e e 2 1 ) ) ,
e=μr/ξ=μEr Δε k ,
n disclinations = n iso = 2 n o 2 + n e 2 3 .
n disclinations = n iso = 2 n o +n e 3 .
n dis (E)= n iso δn(E)= n iso λK E 2 ,
σ s = 1 2 σ 0 ( kD ) 2 ( n e n o n dis (E) ) 2 [ ( δn(E) n e n o ) 2 2 3 δn(E) n e n o ( 1 S s ) + 4 105 ( 710 S s +3 P 4s ) ] .

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