Abstract

A novel low complexity and energy-efficient scheme by controlling the toggle-rate of ONU with time-domain amplitude identification is proposed for a heavy load downlink in an intensity-modulation and direct-detection orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (IM-DD OFDM-PON). In a conventional OFDM-PON downlink, all ONUs have to perform demodulation for all the OFDM frames in a broadcast way no matter whether the frames are targeted to or not, which causes a huge energy waste. However, in our scheme, the optical network unit (ONU) logical link identifications (LLIDs) are inserted into each downlink OFDM frame in time-domain at the optical line terminal (OLT) side. At the ONU side, the LLID is obtained with a low complexity and high precision amplitude identification method. The ONU sets the toggle-rate of demodulation module to zero when the frames are not targeted to, which avoids unnecessary digital signal processing (DSP) energy consumption. Compared with the sleep-mode methods consisting of clock recovery and synchronization, toggle-rate shows its advantage in fast changing, which is more suitable for the heavy load scenarios. Moreover, for the first time to our knowledge, the characteristics of the proposed scheme are investigated in a real-time IM-DD OFDM system, which performs well at the received optical power as low as −21dBm. The experimental results show that 25.1% energy consumption can be saved in the receiver compared to the conventional configurations.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (4)

A. F. Y. Mohammed, S. H. S. Newaz, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Early wake-up decision algorithm for ONUs in TDM-PONs with sleep mode,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(5), 308–319 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. H. S. Newaz, M. S. Jang, A. F. Y. Mohammed, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Building an Energy-efficient Uplink and Downlink Delay Aware TDM-PON System,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 29, 34–52 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, N. Xiao, C. Chen, W. Yuan, and K. Qiu, “Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026108 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Zhang, Z. H. Tang, R. Giddings, Q. Wu, W. Wang, B. Cao, Q. Zhang, and J. M. Tang, “Stage-Dependent DSP Operation Range Clipping-Induced Bit Resolution Reductions of Full Parallel 64-Point FFTs Incorporated in FPGA Based Optical OFDM Receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3752–3760 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

F. Y. M. Alaelddin, S. H. S. Newaz, J. Lee, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU’s energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 190–200 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. D. M. Pubuduni, D. P. Van, L. Valcarenghi, and E. Wong, “Energy-efficient framework for time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(6), 496–504 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Nesset, “NG-PON2 Technology and Standards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(5), 1136–1143 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (5)

H. Kimura, H. Nakamura, S. Kimura, and N. Yoshimoto, “Numerical analysis of dynamic SNR management by controlling DSP calculation precision for energy-efficient OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2132–2135 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, L. Zhang, P. Cao, K. Wang, and Y. Su, “Energy-efficient WDM-OFDM-PON Employing Shared OFDM Modulation Modules in Optical Line Terminal,” Opt. Express 20(7), 8071–8077 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Cvijetic, “OFDM for next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 384–398 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Cvijetic, M. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, and T. Wang, “Terabit Optical Access Networks Based on WDM-OFDMA-PON,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 493–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Skubic, E. D. Betou, T. Ayhan, and S. Dahlfort, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(1), 122–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

R. Bounziane, R. Koutsoyannis, P. Miilder, and Y. Benlachtar, “Optimizing FFT precision in optical OFDM transceivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1550–1552 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Hu, D. Qian, and T. Wang, “Energy efficient OFDM transceiver design based on traffic tracking and adaptive bandwidth adjustment,” Opt. Express 19(26), B983–B988 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), s33–s38 (2011).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Blaauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, and J. S. Hu, “Leakage Current: Moore’s Law Meets Static Power,” Computer 36(12), 68–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. He and W. Hu, “Physical-layer energy-efficient receiving method based on selective sampling in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access passive optical network,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(4B), 2176–2181 (2003).

Alaelddin, F. Y. M.

F. Y. M. Alaelddin, S. H. S. Newaz, J. Lee, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU’s energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 190–200 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ansari, N.

J. Zhang and N. Ansari, “Toward energy-efficient 1G-EPON and 10G-EPON with sleep-aware MAC control and scheduling,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(2), s33–s38 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anthapadmanabhan, P.

P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, H. Chow, P. Anthapadmanabhan, K. Kanonkis, K. Lee, F. Saliou, X. Yin, and B. Lannoo, “Energy-efficiency improvements for optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(4), 136–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Austin, T.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Blaauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, and J. S. Hu, “Leakage Current: Moore’s Law Meets Static Power,” Computer 36(12), 68–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ayhan, T.

B. Skubic, E. D. Betou, T. Ayhan, and S. Dahlfort, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(1), 122–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

Benlachtar, Y.

R. Bounziane, R. Koutsoyannis, P. Miilder, and Y. Benlachtar, “Optimizing FFT precision in optical OFDM transceivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1550–1552 (2011).
[Crossref]

Betou, E. D.

B. Skubic, E. D. Betou, T. Ayhan, and S. Dahlfort, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(1), 122–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blaauw, D.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Blaauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, and J. S. Hu, “Leakage Current: Moore’s Law Meets Static Power,” Computer 36(12), 68–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bounziane, R.

R. Bounziane, R. Koutsoyannis, P. Miilder, and Y. Benlachtar, “Optimizing FFT precision in optical OFDM transceivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1550–1552 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, B.

Cao, P.

Chen, C.

C. Zhang, N. Xiao, C. Chen, W. Yuan, and K. Qiu, “Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. K.

S. H. S. Newaz, M. S. Jang, A. F. Y. Mohammed, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Building an Energy-efficient Uplink and Downlink Delay Aware TDM-PON System,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 29, 34–52 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. F. Y. Mohammed, S. H. S. Newaz, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Early wake-up decision algorithm for ONUs in TDM-PONs with sleep mode,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(5), 308–319 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Y. M. Alaelddin, S. H. S. Newaz, J. Lee, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU’s energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 190–200 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chow, H.

P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, H. Chow, P. Anthapadmanabhan, K. Kanonkis, K. Lee, F. Saliou, X. Yin, and B. Lannoo, “Energy-efficiency improvements for optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(4), 136–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cvijetic, M.

Cvijetic, N.

Dahlfort, S.

B. Skubic, E. D. Betou, T. Ayhan, and S. Dahlfort, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(1), 122–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

Effenberger, F.

Flautner, K.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Blaauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, and J. S. Hu, “Leakage Current: Moore’s Law Meets Static Power,” Computer 36(12), 68–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

Giddings, R.

Giddings, R. P.

He, H.

H. He and W. Hu, “Physical-layer energy-efficient receiving method based on selective sampling in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access passive optical network,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(4B), 2176–2181 (2003).

Hu, J.

Hu, J. S.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Blaauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, and J. S. Hu, “Leakage Current: Moore’s Law Meets Static Power,” Computer 36(12), 68–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

H. He and W. Hu, “Physical-layer energy-efficient receiving method based on selective sampling in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access passive optical network,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(4B), 2176–2181 (2003).

Hu, X.

Huang, M. F.

Huang, Y.-K.

Hugues-Salas, E.

Ip, E.

Jang, M. S.

S. H. S. Newaz, M. S. Jang, A. F. Y. Mohammed, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Building an Energy-efficient Uplink and Downlink Delay Aware TDM-PON System,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 29, 34–52 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

Kanonkis, K.

P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, H. Chow, P. Anthapadmanabhan, K. Kanonkis, K. Lee, F. Saliou, X. Yin, and B. Lannoo, “Energy-efficiency improvements for optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(4), 136–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, N. S.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Blaauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, and J. S. Hu, “Leakage Current: Moore’s Law Meets Static Power,” Computer 36(12), 68–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kimura, H.

H. Kimura, H. Nakamura, S. Kimura, and N. Yoshimoto, “Numerical analysis of dynamic SNR management by controlling DSP calculation precision for energy-efficient OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2132–2135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kimura, S.

H. Kimura, H. Nakamura, S. Kimura, and N. Yoshimoto, “Numerical analysis of dynamic SNR management by controlling DSP calculation precision for energy-efficient OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2132–2135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koutsoyannis, R.

R. Bounziane, R. Koutsoyannis, P. Miilder, and Y. Benlachtar, “Optimizing FFT precision in optical OFDM transceivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1550–1552 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lannoo, B.

P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, H. Chow, P. Anthapadmanabhan, K. Kanonkis, K. Lee, F. Saliou, X. Yin, and B. Lannoo, “Energy-efficiency improvements for optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(4), 136–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. M.

S. H. S. Newaz, M. S. Jang, A. F. Y. Mohammed, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Building an Energy-efficient Uplink and Downlink Delay Aware TDM-PON System,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 29, 34–52 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. F. Y. Mohammed, S. H. S. Newaz, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Early wake-up decision algorithm for ONUs in TDM-PONs with sleep mode,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(5), 308–319 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Y. M. Alaelddin, S. H. S. Newaz, J. Lee, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU’s energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 190–200 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

F. Y. M. Alaelddin, S. H. S. Newaz, J. Lee, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU’s energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 190–200 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, H. Chow, P. Anthapadmanabhan, K. Kanonkis, K. Lee, F. Saliou, X. Yin, and B. Lannoo, “Energy-efficiency improvements for optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(4), 136–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ling, Y.

Luo, Y.

Ma, Y.

Miilder, P.

R. Bounziane, R. Koutsoyannis, P. Miilder, and Y. Benlachtar, “Optimizing FFT precision in optical OFDM transceivers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1550–1552 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mohammed, A. F. Y.

S. H. S. Newaz, M. S. Jang, A. F. Y. Mohammed, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Building an Energy-efficient Uplink and Downlink Delay Aware TDM-PON System,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 29, 34–52 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. F. Y. Mohammed, S. H. S. Newaz, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Early wake-up decision algorithm for ONUs in TDM-PONs with sleep mode,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(5), 308–319 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mudge, T.

N. S. Kim, T. Austin, D. Blaauw, T. Mudge, K. Flautner, and J. S. Hu, “Leakage Current: Moore’s Law Meets Static Power,” Computer 36(12), 68–75 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, H.

H. Kimura, H. Nakamura, S. Kimura, and N. Yoshimoto, “Numerical analysis of dynamic SNR management by controlling DSP calculation precision for energy-efficient OFDM-PON,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(23), 2132–2135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nesset, D.

Newaz, S. H. S.

A. F. Y. Mohammed, S. H. S. Newaz, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Early wake-up decision algorithm for ONUs in TDM-PONs with sleep mode,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(5), 308–319 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. H. S. Newaz, M. S. Jang, A. F. Y. Mohammed, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Building an Energy-efficient Uplink and Downlink Delay Aware TDM-PON System,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 29, 34–52 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Y. M. Alaelddin, S. H. S. Newaz, J. Lee, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Performance analysis of TCP traffic and its influence on ONU’s energy saving in energy efficient TDM-PON,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 26, 190–200 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, G.

Pubuduni, I. D. M.

Qian, D.

Qian, Y.

Qiu, K.

C. Zhang, N. Xiao, C. Chen, W. Yuan, and K. Qiu, “Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation,” Opt. Eng. 55(2), 026108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Saliou, F.

P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, H. Chow, P. Anthapadmanabhan, K. Kanonkis, K. Lee, F. Saliou, X. Yin, and B. Lannoo, “Energy-efficiency improvements for optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(4), 136–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Skubic, B.

B. Skubic, E. D. Betou, T. Ayhan, and S. Dahlfort, “Energy-efficient next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(1), 122–127 (2012).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

Suvakovic, D.

P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, H. Chow, P. Anthapadmanabhan, K. Kanonkis, K. Lee, F. Saliou, X. Yin, and B. Lannoo, “Energy-efficiency improvements for optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(4), 136–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. M.

Tang, Z. H.

Uddin, M. R.

A. F. Y. Mohammed, S. H. S. Newaz, M. R. Uddin, G. M. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “Early wake-up decision algorithm for ONUs in TDM-PONs with sleep mode,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 8(5), 308–319 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A new OFDM frame structure. (b) The preamble amplitude quantification. (c) Toggle-rate based energy-efficient scheme.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of real-time OFDM system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the structure of OFDM frame in our scheme.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental demonstration of the real-time OFDM system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 An LLID of ‘1010101010’ in real-time IM-DD OFDM-PON system (ROP = −21dBm).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Received frames counters and error frame counters in Chipscope (ROP = −9dBm, 4QAM) (b) Received frames counters and error frame counters in Chipscope (ROP = −21dBm, 4QAM)
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 LLID recognition in different received optical power with 4QAM, 8QAM, 16QAM
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) BER versus received optical power with modulation format of 4QAM and 16QAM for conventional and proposed OFDM-PON after 25km SSMF transmission. (b) Signal bit rate in the conventional and proposed energy-efficient OFDM-PON downlink system using adaptive modulation respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 FPGA chip power consumption in one receiver.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Normalized energy consumption of one receiver in the baseband where toggle-rate to zero and time percentage where toggle-rate to zero in transmitter respectively. (b) Power consumption in the conventional and proposed energy-efficient OFDM-PON system for 8 ONUs.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The ratio of energy-efficient scheme to conventional scheme compared to the ONU numbers.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 OFDM-PON System Parameters

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Table 2 Received error frames in different amplitude of threshold (ROP = −18dBm, 16QAM)

Equations (5)

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P energyefficiency =1 P static P dynamic + P static = P dynamic P dynamic + P static
P total M =M× P static +ρ P dynamic
P energyefficiency = P dynamic P total
P energyefficiency M = Mρ M P dynamic P total
P ratio M = M+ρk M(k+1) , ( P dynamic P static =k)

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