Abstract

Huygens’ meta-atom is the basic building unit of Huygens’ metasurfaces allowing for almost arbitrary wavefront shaping across a surface. We here present a kind of Huygens’ meta-atom by coupling a nanodisk to its Babinet-complementary structure (nanohole), and develop an optical lumped nanocircuit model to analyze vertical and lateral coupling effects and resonance frequencies. Simulation results show that the tuned coupling via lateral misalignment between the two nanostructures is sufficient to shape the wavefront without changing the dimensions or orientations of antennas. By tuning the coupling via lateral misalignment, we design a reflective gradient metasurface based on one coupled mode and a high-efficiency transmissive gradient metasurface working in the spectral overlap of electric and magnetic resonances to realize beam deflection. The proposed coupling-based Huygens’ meta-atom is a new building block for plasmonic metasurfaces with enhanced light-matter interactions, high-efficiency and almost arbitrary wavefront shaping over the full electromagnetic spectrum.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. Pors and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for efficient phase control in reflection,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27438–27451 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. Y. Ling, L. Huang, W. Hong, T. Liu, Y. Sun, J. Luan, and G. Yuan, “Asymmetric optical transmission based on unidirectional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in gradient metasurface,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13648–13658 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  33. D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, S. Bagheri, and H. Giessen, “Babinet to the half: coupling of solid and inverse plasmonic structures,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4428–4433 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science 317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. Y. Sun, B. Edwards, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Experimental realization of optical lumped nanocircuits at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 208–212 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. L. Min and L. Huang, “All-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(1), 013104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  41. A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  42. Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  43. N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Wave-front transformation with gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 6(4), 041008 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  44. V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  45. A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Synthesis of passive lossless metasurfaces using auxiliary fields for reflectionless beam splitting and perfect reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(25), 256103 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (10)

A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Huygens’ metasurfaces via the equivalence principle: design and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), A31 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, M. H. Kim, F. Aieta, A. She, T. Mansuripur, I. Gabay, M. Khorasaninejad, D. Rousso, X. Wang, M. Troccoli, N. Yu, and F. Capasso, “High efficiency near diffraction-limited mid-infrared flat lenses based on metasurface reflectarrays,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18024–18034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Epstein, J. P. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wan, S. L. Jia, T. J. Cui, and Y. J. Zhao, “Independent modulations of the transmission amplitudes and phases by using Huygens metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25639 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Wave-front transformation with gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 6(4), 041008 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Synthesis of passive lossless metasurfaces using auxiliary fields for reflectionless beam splitting and perfect reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(25), 256103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (7)

L. Min and L. Huang, “All-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(1), 013104 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jia, X. Wan, D. Bao, Y. J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of orthogonally polarized transmitted waves using a Huygens metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 545–553 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5(3), 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Campione, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, and M. B. Sinclair, “Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and Huygens’ metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2293–2307 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Controlling vector Bessel beams with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044012 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, A. M. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4(4), 041042 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Mohammadi Estakhri and A. Alù, “Manipulating optical reflections using engineered nanoscale metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235419 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, S. Bagheri, and H. Giessen, “Babinet to the half: coupling of solid and inverse plasmonic structures,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4428–4433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: Tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Liu, B. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, “Wide-angle near infrared polarizer with extremely high extinction ratio,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10502–10510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pors and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for efficient phase control in reflection,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27438–27451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hannam, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dispersionless optical activity in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201121 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

W. Zhang, F. Ding, W.-D. Li, Y. Wang, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Giant and uniform fluorescence enhancement over large areas using plasmonic nanodots in 3D resonant cavity nanoantenna by nanoimprinting,” Nanotechnology 23(22), 225301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, B. Edwards, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Experimental realization of optical lumped nanocircuits at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 208–212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

P. Jin and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Metamaterial-inspired, electrically small Huygens sources,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 9, 501–505 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science 317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. S. Lockyer, J. C. Vardaxoglou, and R. A. Simpkin, “Complementary frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 147(6), 501–507 (2000).

Aieta, F.

S. Zhang, M. H. Kim, F. Aieta, A. She, T. Mansuripur, I. Gabay, M. Khorasaninejad, D. Rousso, X. Wang, M. Troccoli, N. Yu, and F. Capasso, “High efficiency near diffraction-limited mid-infrared flat lenses based on metasurface reflectarrays,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18024–18034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albooyeh, M.

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alici, K. B.

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Wave-front transformation with gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 6(4), 041008 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Mohammadi Estakhri and A. Alù, “Manipulating optical reflections using engineered nanoscale metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235419 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, B. Edwards, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Experimental realization of optical lumped nanocircuits at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 208–212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
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A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Huygens’ metasurfaces via the equivalence principle: design and applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(2), A31 (2016).
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A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Synthesis of passive lossless metasurfaces using auxiliary fields for reflectionless beam splitting and perfect reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(25), 256103 (2016).
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A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
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M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
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V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5(3), 031005 (2015).
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Gabay, I.

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, S. Bagheri, and H. Giessen, “Babinet to the half: coupling of solid and inverse plasmonic structures,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4428–4433 (2013).
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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
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Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
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C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Controlling vector Bessel beams with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044012 (2014).
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D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
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C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
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M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, S. Bagheri, and H. Giessen, “Babinet to the half: coupling of solid and inverse plasmonic structures,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4428–4433 (2013).
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J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
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Hu, J.

W. Zhang, F. Ding, W.-D. Li, Y. Wang, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Giant and uniform fluorescence enhancement over large areas using plasmonic nanodots in 3D resonant cavity nanoantenna by nanoimprinting,” Nanotechnology 23(22), 225301 (2012).
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James, A.

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K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
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Liu, X. L.

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D. S. Lockyer, J. C. Vardaxoglou, and R. A. Simpkin, “Complementary frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 147(6), 501–507 (2000).

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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
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Luan, J.

Luk, T. S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
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C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
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Marqués, R.

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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
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C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
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N. Mohammadi Estakhri and A. Alù, “Manipulating optical reflections using engineered nanoscale metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235419 (2014).
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F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
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F. Monticone, N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alù, “Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(20), 203903 (2013).
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K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
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M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
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Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
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M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
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A. Pors and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for efficient phase control in reflection,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27438–27451 (2013).
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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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K. Hannam, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dispersionless optical activity in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201121 (2013).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
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F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
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C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
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C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
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V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5(3), 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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Semchenko, I. V.

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5(3), 031005 (2015).
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K. Hannam, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dispersionless optical activity in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

She, A.

Sillero, R. M.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

Simpkin, R. A.

D. S. Lockyer, J. C. Vardaxoglou, and R. A. Simpkin, “Complementary frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 147(6), 501–507 (2000).

Sinclair, M. B.

Sorolla, M.

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
[Crossref]

Subramania, G. S.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Taha, H.

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
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H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
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Tcvetkova, S. N.

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Teng, J.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S. A.

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5(3), 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Troccoli, M.

Vardaxoglou, J. C.

D. S. Lockyer, J. C. Vardaxoglou, and R. A. Simpkin, “Complementary frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 147(6), 501–507 (2000).

Wan, X.

X. Wan, S. L. Jia, T. J. Cui, and Y. J. Zhao, “Independent modulations of the transmission amplitudes and phases by using Huygens metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25639 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jia, X. Wan, D. Bao, Y. J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of orthogonally polarized transmitted waves using a Huygens metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 545–553 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

W. Zhang, F. Ding, W.-D. Li, Y. Wang, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Giant and uniform fluorescence enhancement over large areas using plasmonic nanodots in 3D resonant cavity nanoantenna by nanoimprinting,” Nanotechnology 23(22), 225301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warne, L. K.

Weiss, T.

M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, S. Bagheri, and H. Giessen, “Babinet to the half: coupling of solid and inverse plasmonic structures,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4428–4433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, A. M.

M. Kim, A. M. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4(4), 041042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wong, J. P.

A. Epstein, J. P. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
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Yanik, A. A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
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J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
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Yu, N.

H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, M. H. Kim, F. Aieta, A. She, T. Mansuripur, I. Gabay, M. Khorasaninejad, D. Rousso, X. Wang, M. Troccoli, N. Yu, and F. Capasso, “High efficiency near diffraction-limited mid-infrared flat lenses based on metasurface reflectarrays,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18024–18034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, G.

Zhang, L.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, M. H. Kim, F. Aieta, A. She, T. Mansuripur, I. Gabay, M. Khorasaninejad, D. Rousso, X. Wang, M. Troccoli, N. Yu, and F. Capasso, “High efficiency near diffraction-limited mid-infrared flat lenses based on metasurface reflectarrays,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18024–18034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, F. Ding, W.-D. Li, Y. Wang, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Giant and uniform fluorescence enhancement over large areas using plasmonic nanodots in 3D resonant cavity nanoantenna by nanoimprinting,” Nanotechnology 23(22), 225301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. M.

Zhao, B.

Zhao, Y. J.

X. Wan, S. L. Jia, T. J. Cui, and Y. J. Zhao, “Independent modulations of the transmission amplitudes and phases by using Huygens metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25639 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jia, X. Wan, D. Bao, Y. J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of orthogonally polarized transmitted waves using a Huygens metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 545–553 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

P. Jin and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Metamaterial-inspired, electrically small Huygens sources,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 9, 501–505 (2010).
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ACS Photonics (1)

K. E. Chong, L. Wang, I. Staude, A. R. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, G. S. Subramania, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Efficient polarization-insensitive complex wavefront control using Huygens’ metasurfaces based on dielectric resonant meta-atoms,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 514–519 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Decker, I. Staude, M. Falkner, J. Dominguez, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, T. Pertsch, and Y. S. Kivshar, “High-efficiency dielectric Huygens’ surfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(6), 813–820 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Hannam, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Dispersionless optical activity in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201121 (2013).
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A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Fabry–Pérot nanocavities in multilayered plasmonic crystals for enhanced biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, and E. Ozbay, “Complementary chiral metamaterials with giant optical activity and negative refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161907 (2011).
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IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. (1)

P. Jin and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Metamaterial-inspired, electrically small Huygens sources,” IEEE Antenn. Wirel. Pr. 9, 501–505 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

D. S. Lockyer, J. C. Vardaxoglou, and R. A. Simpkin, “Complementary frequency selective surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 147(6), 501–507 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. M. Sillero, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. Garcia-Garcia, I. Gil, M. F. Portillo, and M. Sorolla, “Equivalent-circuit models for split-ring resonators and complementary split-ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1451–1461 (2005).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Min and L. Huang, “All-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(1), 013104 (2015).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. L. Jia, X. Wan, D. Bao, Y. J. Zhao, and T. J. Cui, “Independent controls of orthogonally polarized transmitted waves using a Huygens metasurface,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 545–553 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

C. Pfeiffer, N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, “Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2491–2497 (2014).
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K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for coloration of plastic consumer products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, S. Bagheri, and H. Giessen, “Babinet to the half: coupling of solid and inverse plasmonic structures,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4428–4433 (2013).
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A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
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Nanotechnology (1)

W. Zhang, F. Ding, W.-D. Li, Y. Wang, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Giant and uniform fluorescence enhancement over large areas using plasmonic nanodots in 3D resonant cavity nanoantenna by nanoimprinting,” Nanotechnology 23(22), 225301 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Epstein, J. P. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Cavity-excited Huygens’ metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10360 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, B. Edwards, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Experimental realization of optical lumped nanocircuits at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 208–212 (2012).
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Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Controlling vector Bessel beams with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044012 (2014).
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Phys. Rev. B (2)

N. Mohammadi Estakhri and A. Alù, “Manipulating optical reflections using engineered nanoscale metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 89(23), 235419 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, M. Albooyeh, S. N. Tcvetkova, A. Díaz-Rubio, Y. Ra’di, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 94(7), 075142 (2016).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. Epstein and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Synthesis of passive lossless metasurfaces using auxiliary fields for reflectionless beam splitting and perfect reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(25), 256103 (2016).
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C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: Tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
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F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, “Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 197401 (2004).
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C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete Phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (3)

V. S. Asadchy, I. A. Faniayeu, Y. Ra’di, S. A. Khakhomov, I. V. Semchenko, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Broadband reflectionless metasheets: frequency-selective transmission and perfect absorption,” Phys. Rev. X 5(3), 031005 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, A. M. Wong, and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Optical Huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients,” Phys. Rev. X 4(4), 041042 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. M. Estakhri and A. Alù, “Wave-front transformation with gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. X 6(4), 041008 (2016).
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Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79(7), 076401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Adv. (1)

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Hybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible light,” Sci. Adv. 2(1), e1501168 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

X. Wan, S. L. Jia, T. J. Cui, and Y. J. Zhao, “Independent modulations of the transmission amplitudes and phases by using Huygens metasurfaces,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25639 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (4)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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W. Cai and V. M. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials (Springer, 2010).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic view of the designed Huygens’ meta-atom. (b) Transmission spectra for nanodisk and nanohole. (c) The corresponding near-field distributions (z-component of electric field Ez for nanodisk and z-component of magnetic field Hz for nanohole) in the x-y plane for the respective resonance peaks in (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated results for the electric-field amplitude (blue) and phase (red) of the transmitted light (a) and the reflected light (b) when td = 100 nm. Green dashed lines denote the location of peaks. (c) The corresponding electric intensity patterns in the x-z plane for the respective resonances in (a). The white line marks the simulated structure. (d) Simulated results for the electric-field amplitude (blue) and phase (red) of the transmitted light and (e) the reflected light when td = 20 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Analytical optical lumped nanocircuits model for Huygens’ meta-atom.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Numerically calculated resonance wavelengths from Eq. (1) for lfcm and hfcm with varied dielectric thickness td and mutual inductance coupling coefficient M. lfcm and hfcm, respectively, are marked by dotted and solid lines. The resonance spectral range for electric dipole (ED) and magnetic dipole (MD) are represented by pink area.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reflectance spectral evolution for Huygens’ meta-atoms when varying dielectric thickness.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Evolution of the simulated reflectance (a) and transmittance (c) spectra, and phase responses for reflection (b) and transmission (d) with varied misalignment s. The black squares denote the overlapping region of ED and MD.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic view of the designed Huygens’ metasurface.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Scattered electric field amplitude (a) and (b) phase distributions for the designed metasurface under normal incidence. The reflection angle θr is almost 26°. The white dashed lines denote where the metasurface locates. (c) Reflectance (R), transmittance (T) and absorption (A) spectra. (d) Normalized intensity of the reflected field as functions of wavelength and reflected angle θr. The intensity is normalized to the maximal intensity over the whole range, which means the maximum of the two- dimensional matrix for the color map is 1.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Scattered electric field amplitude and (b) phase distributions for the designed metasurface working in the ED and MD overlapping region under normal incidence. The reflection angle θr is almost 16°. The white dashed lines denote where the metasurface locates. (c) Transmittance (T), reflectance (R) and absorption (A) spectra for the designed metasurface.

Equations (2)

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( 1 iω C nanodisk +iω L nanodisk + 1 iωC 1 iωC iω L nanodisk M 0 1 iωC 1 iωC + 1 iω C nanohole 1 iω C nanohole iω L nanohole 1 iω C nanohole iω L nanohole + 1 iω C nanohole )( I 1 I 2 I 3 )=( 0 0 0 ).
n t sin( θ t ) n i sin( θ i )= λ 2π dφ(x) dx n i sin( θ r ) n i sin( θ i )= λ 2π dφ(x) dx .

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