Abstract

We report the demonstration of a germanium-tin (Ge0.9Sn0.1) multiple-quantum-well p-i-n photodiode on silicon (Si) substrate for 2 μm-wavelength light detection. Characterization of the photodetector in both direct current (DC) and radio frequency (RF) regimes was performed. At the bias voltage of −1 V, a dark current density of 0.031 A/cm2 is realized at room-temperature, which is among the lowest reported values for Ge1−xSnx-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes. In addition, for the first time, a 3 dB bandwidth (f3dB) of around 1.2 GHz is achieved in Ge1−xSnx photodetectors operating at 2 μm. It is anticipated that further device optimization would extend the f3dB to above 10 GHz.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (2)

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0.03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Xu, Q. Wu, Y. Xie, M. Tang, S. Fu, and D. Liu, “High speed single-wavelength modulation and transmission at 2 μm under bandwidth-constrained condition,” Opt. Express 25(4), 4528–4534 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

T. Pham, W. Du, H. Tran, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Systematic study of Si-based GeSn photodiodes with 2.6 μm detector cutoff for short-wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4519–4531 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, S. Vajandar, S. L. Lim, Y. Dong, V. R. D’Costa, T. Osipowicz, E. S. Tok, and Y.-C. Yeo, “In-situ gallium-doping for forming p+ germanium-tin and application in germanium-tin p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(15), 155704 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Cong, C. Xue, J. Zheng, F. Yang, K. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Silicon based GeSn p-i-n photodetector for SWIR detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6804706 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, S. Y. Lee, D. Lei, X. Gong, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin multiple quantum well on silicon avalanche photodiode for photodetection at two micron wavelength,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, D. Widmann, K. Kostecki, P. Zaumseil, B. Schwartz, M. Gollhofer, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, M. Kittler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn/Ge multiquantum well photodetectors on Si substrates,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4711–4714 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Peng, H. H. Cheng, V. I. Mashanov, and G.-E. Chang, “GeSn p-i-n waveguide photodetectors on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231109 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Y. Yang, K. L. Low, W. Wang, P. Guo, L. Wang, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin n-channel tunneling field-effect transistor: Device physics and simulation study,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(19), 194507 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. T. Beeler, J. Gallagher, C. Xu, L. Jiang, C. L. Senaratne, D. J. Smith, J. Menéndéz, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Band gap-engineered group-IV optoelectronic semiconductors, photodiodes and prototype photovoltaic devices,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(9), Q172–Q177 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndéz, and J. Kouvetakis, “Near IR photodiodes with tunable absorption edge based on Ge1-ySny alloys integrated on silicon,” ECS Trans. 33(6), 765–773 (2010).

2009 (2)

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) pin photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si(100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Hartmann, J.-F. Damlencourt, Y. Bogumilowicz, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, and T. Billon, “Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of intrinsic and doped Ge layers on Si(001) for microelectronics and optoelectronics purposes,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1−2), 90–99 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

L. M. Giovane, H.-C. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 541–543 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. He and H. A. Atwater, “Interband transitions in SnxGe1−x alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(10), 1937–1940 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

P. N. Grillot, S. A. Ringel, E. A. Fitzgerald, G. P. Watson, and Y. H. Xie, “Electron trapping kinetics at dislocations in relaxed Ge0.3Si0.7/Si heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(7), 3248–3256 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. N. Grillot, S. A. Ringel, E. A. Fitzgerald, G. P. Watson, and Y. H. Xie, “Minority- and majority-carrier trapping in strain-relaxed Ge0.3Si0.7/Si heterostructure diodes grown by rapid thermal chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 676–685 (1995).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

S. R. Forrest, O. K. Kim, and R. G. Smith, “Optical response time of In0.53Ga0.47As/lnP avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(1), 95–98 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

G. Vincent, A. Chantre, and D. Bois, “Electric field effect on the thermal emission of traps in semiconductor junctions,” J. Appl. Phys. 50(8), 5484–5487 (1979).
[Crossref]

1952 (2)

W. Shockley and W. T. Read, “Statistics of the recombinations of holes and electrons,” Phys. Rev. 87(5), 835–842 (1952).
[Crossref]

R. N. Hall, “Electron-hole recombination in germanium,” Phys. Rev. 87(2), 387 (1952).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

J. Frenkel, “On pre-breakdown phenomena in insulators and electronic semi-conductors,” Phys. Rev. 54(8), 647–648 (1938).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

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G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si(100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
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J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) pin photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
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W. Wang, S. Vajandar, S. L. Lim, Y. Dong, V. R. D’Costa, T. Osipowicz, E. S. Tok, and Y.-C. Yeo, “In-situ gallium-doping for forming p+ germanium-tin and application in germanium-tin p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(15), 155704 (2016).
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Margetis, J.

T. Pham, W. Du, H. Tran, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Systematic study of Si-based GeSn photodiodes with 2.6 μm detector cutoff for short-wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4519–4531 (2016).
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H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
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Y.-H. Peng, H. H. Cheng, V. I. Mashanov, and G.-E. Chang, “GeSn p-i-n waveguide photodetectors on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231109 (2014).
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J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) pin photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
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J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) pin photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
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R. T. Beeler, J. Gallagher, C. Xu, L. Jiang, C. L. Senaratne, D. J. Smith, J. Menéndéz, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Band gap-engineered group-IV optoelectronic semiconductors, photodiodes and prototype photovoltaic devices,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(9), Q172–Q177 (2013).
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Miller, D. A. B.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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T. Pham, W. Du, H. Tran, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Systematic study of Si-based GeSn photodiodes with 2.6 μm detector cutoff for short-wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4519–4531 (2016).
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J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
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M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
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Peng, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Peng, H. H. Cheng, V. I. Mashanov, and G.-E. Chang, “GeSn p-i-n waveguide photodetectors on silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(23), 231109 (2014).
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J. Mathews, R. Roucka, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menéndéz, and J. Kouvetakis, “Near IR photodiodes with tunable absorption edge based on Ge1-ySny alloys integrated on silicon,” ECS Trans. 33(6), 765–773 (2010).

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) pin photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rouifed, M.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 482–488 (2014).
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Sadiq, M. U.

Samavedam, S. B.

S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
[Crossref]

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H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
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M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0.03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
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J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
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M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
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Schwartz, B.

Senaratne, C. L.

R. T. Beeler, J. Gallagher, C. Xu, L. Jiang, C. L. Senaratne, D. J. Smith, J. Menéndéz, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Band gap-engineered group-IV optoelectronic semiconductors, photodiodes and prototype photovoltaic devices,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2(9), Q172–Q177 (2013).
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W. Shockley and W. T. Read, “Statistics of the recombinations of holes and electrons,” Phys. Rev. 87(5), 835–842 (1952).
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B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
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Soref, R. A.

T. Pham, W. Du, H. Tran, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Systematic study of Si-based GeSn photodiodes with 2.6 μm detector cutoff for short-wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4519–4531 (2016).
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G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si(100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
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Streshinsky, M.

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M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0.03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
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T. Pham, W. Du, H. Tran, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Systematic study of Si-based GeSn photodiodes with 2.6 μm detector cutoff for short-wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4519–4531 (2016).
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W. Wang, S. Vajandar, S. L. Lim, Y. Dong, V. R. D’Costa, T. Osipowicz, E. S. Tok, and Y.-C. Yeo, “In-situ gallium-doping for forming p+ germanium-tin and application in germanium-tin p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(15), 155704 (2016).
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T. Pham, W. Du, H. Tran, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Systematic study of Si-based GeSn photodiodes with 2.6 μm detector cutoff for short-wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4519–4531 (2016).
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Tran, H.

T. Pham, W. Du, H. Tran, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Systematic study of Si-based GeSn photodiodes with 2.6 μm detector cutoff for short-wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4519–4531 (2016).
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H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
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Y. Yang, K. L. Low, W. Wang, P. Guo, L. Wang, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin n-channel tunneling field-effect transistor: Device physics and simulation study,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(19), 194507 (2013).
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H. Cong, C. Xue, J. Zheng, F. Yang, K. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Silicon based GeSn p-i-n photodetector for SWIR detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6804706 (2016).
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Werner, J.

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
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Wu, Q.

Xie, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) pin photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
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Xie, Y.

Xie, Y. H.

P. N. Grillot, S. A. Ringel, E. A. Fitzgerald, G. P. Watson, and Y. H. Xie, “Electron trapping kinetics at dislocations in relaxed Ge0.3Si0.7/Si heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(7), 3248–3256 (1995).
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P. N. Grillot, S. A. Ringel, E. A. Fitzgerald, G. P. Watson, and Y. H. Xie, “Minority- and majority-carrier trapping in strain-relaxed Ge0.3Si0.7/Si heterostructure diodes grown by rapid thermal chemical-vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(2), 676–685 (1995).
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Xu, X.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: Device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(1), 128–135 (2015).
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Xu, Z.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: Device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(1), 128–135 (2015).
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Xuan, Z.

Xue, C.

H. Cong, C. Xue, J. Zheng, F. Yang, K. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Silicon based GeSn p-i-n photodetector for SWIR detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6804706 (2016).
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S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
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Xue, H.

Yang, F.

H. Cong, C. Xue, J. Zheng, F. Yang, K. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Silicon based GeSn p-i-n photodetector for SWIR detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6804706 (2016).
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Yang, Y.

A. Novack, M. Gould, Y. Yang, Z. Xuan, M. Streshinsky, Y. Liu, G. Capellini, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Germanium photodetector with 60 GHz bandwidth using inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28387–28393 (2013).
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Y. Yang, K. L. Low, W. Wang, P. Guo, L. Wang, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin n-channel tunneling field-effect transistor: Device physics and simulation study,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(19), 194507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. J.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ye, K.

Ye, N.

Yeo, Y.-C.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, S. Y. Lee, D. Lei, X. Gong, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin multiple quantum well on silicon avalanche photodiode for photodetection at two micron wavelength,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, S. Vajandar, S. L. Lim, Y. Dong, V. R. D’Costa, T. Osipowicz, E. S. Tok, and Y.-C. Yeo, “In-situ gallium-doping for forming p+ germanium-tin and application in germanium-tin p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(15), 155704 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: Device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(1), 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, D. Lei, X. Gong, Q. Zhou, S.-Y. Lee, W.-K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, E. S. Tok, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Suppression of dark current in germanium-tin on silicon p-i-n photodiode by a silicon surface passivation technique,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18611–18619 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, K. L. Low, W. Wang, P. Guo, L. Wang, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin n-channel tunneling field-effect transistor: Device physics and simulation study,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(19), 194507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S.-F.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, S. Y. Lee, D. Lei, X. Gong, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin multiple quantum well on silicon avalanche photodiode for photodetection at two micron wavelength,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31(9), 095001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: Device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(1), 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, D. Lei, X. Gong, Q. Zhou, S.-Y. Lee, W.-K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, E. S. Tok, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Suppression of dark current in germanium-tin on silicon p-i-n photodiode by a silicon surface passivation technique,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18611–18619 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

H. Cong, C. Xue, J. Zheng, F. Yang, K. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Silicon based GeSn p-i-n photodetector for SWIR detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6804706 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) pin photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.-Q.

T. Pham, W. Du, H. Tran, J. Margetis, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, and S.-Q. Yu, “Systematic study of Si-based GeSn photodiodes with 2.6 μm detector cutoff for short-wave infrared detection,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4519–4531 (2016).
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B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
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Zang, K.

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0.03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zaumseil, P.

Zhang, G.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

H. Cong, C. Xue, J. Zheng, F. Yang, K. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Silicon based GeSn p-i-n photodetector for SWIR detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6804706 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

H. Cong, C. Xue, J. Zheng, F. Yang, K. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Silicon based GeSn p-i-n photodetector for SWIR detection,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(5), 6804706 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, W. K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on Si avalanche photodiode: Device design and technology demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 62(1), 128–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, D. Lei, X. Gong, Q. Zhou, S.-Y. Lee, W.-K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, E. S. Tok, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Suppression of dark current in germanium-tin on silicon p-i-n photodiode by a silicon surface passivation technique,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18611–18619 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuo, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si(100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
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S. B. Samavedam, M. T. Currie, T. A. Langdo, and E. A. Fitzgerald, “High-quality germanium photodiodes integrated on silicon substrates using optimized relaxed graded buffers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(15), 2125–2127 (1998).
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H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
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M. Oehme, J. Werner, E. Kasper, M. Jutzi, and M. Berroth, “High bandwidth Ge p-i-n photodetector integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071117 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Morea, C. E. Brendel, K. Zang, J. Suh, C. S. Fenrich, Y.-C. Huang, H. Chung, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Passivation of multiple-quantum-well Ge0.97Sn0.03/Ge p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 091109 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conley, J. Margetis, W. Du, H. Tran, A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Tolle, G. Sun, R. Soref, B. Li, H. A. Naseem, and S.-Q. Yu, “Si based GeSn photoconductors with a 1.63 A/W peak responsivity and a 2.4 μm longwavelength cutoff,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221117 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S. Yu, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) pin photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Germanium-tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) 3D schematic of the fabricated Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW p-i-n photodiode that is vertically illuminated by a single-mode (SM) optical fiber. (b) Cross-sectional schematic of the Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW. The thicknesses of the Ge0.9Sn0.1 well and the Ge barrier are 15 and 20 nm, respectively. There are 10 Ge0.9Sn0.1 quantum wells in this design.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Cross-sectional STEM image of the Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW p-i-n photodiode showing the edge of the mesa or the mesa sidewall. (b) Cross-sectional TEM image at the Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW region. (c) HRTEM image at one Ge0.9Sn0.1 QW layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Idark-Vbias characteristics of the Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW p-i-n photodiode at various T ranging from 4 to 320 K. The arrow points in the direction of increasing T. The diameter of the diode is 20 μm. (b) Idark-T characteristics of the diode with different Vbias. Idark becomes less temperature-dependent at lower temperatures. The arrow points in the direction of more negative Vbias. (c) Plot of ln(Idark/T3/2) vs. 1/kT for the photodiode with different Vbias. Activation energy (EA) of the photodiode is extracted by linear fitting.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Benchmarking of dark current density Jdark of Ge1−xSnx-on-Si p-i-n photodiodes at Vbias = −1 V. L is the side length of a square mesa. The photodiode demonstrated in this work has a record high Sn composition and the Jdark is lower than most of the reported values.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) I-Vbias characteristics of the Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW p-i-n photodiode (D = 20 μm) illuminated at different light wavelengths (λ) ranging from 1530 to 2003 nm. The arrow indicates the direction of increasing λ. (b) Wavelength-dependent responsivity of the photodiode at Vbias = −1 V.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Illustration of the photodiode RF measurement system at 2 μm-wavelength. The inset is a top-view image of the photodiode during measurement.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized frequency response of the 20-μm-diameter photodiode at 2 μm-wavelength. Vbias ranges from −1 to −4 V. The 3dB bandwidth f3dB of the detector is around 1.2 GHz.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Equivalent circuit of a p-i-n photodiode. (b) f3dB of the photodiode as a function of Cpar. An f3dB of larger than 10 GHz is expected by implementing a double-mesa structure, which can significantly reduce Cpar of the detector.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I dark =B T 3/2 e E A kT ( e q V bias 2kT 1),
f 3dB = 1 f T 2 + f RC 2 ,
f T = 2 π v sat d i .
C j = ε 0 A d ( d buffer +9 d barrier ε Ge + 10 d well ε GeSn ) 1 ,
C par = ε 0 ε Si O 2 A overlap d Si O 2 ,

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