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J. Y. Hu, B. Yu, M. Y. Jing, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, G. Q. Qin, and G. L Long, “Experimental quantum secure direct communication with single photons,” Sci. Appl. 5, e16144 (2016).

J. Pearson, G. R. Feng, C. Zheng, and G. L. Long, “Experimental quantum simulation of Avian Compass in a nuclear magnetic resonance system,” Sci. China Phys 59, 120312 (2016).

T. C. Li and Z. Q. Yin, “Quantum superposition, entanglement, and state teleportation of a microorganism on an electromechanical Oscillator,” Sci. Bulletin 61, 163–171 (2016).

G. Y. Wang, D. Y. Wang, W. X. Cui, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Direct conversion of a three-atom W state to a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state in spatially separated cavities,” J. Phys. B: Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. 49, 065501 (2016).

W. X. Cui, S. Hu, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Deterministic conversion of a four-photon GHZ state to a W state via homodyne measurement,” Opt. Express 24, 15319–15327 (2016).

R. Heilmanna, M. Gräfea, S. Noltea, and A. Szameita, “A novel integrated quantum circuit for high-order W-state generation and its highly precise characterization,” Sci. Bulletin 60, 96–100 (2015).

Y. B. Sheng, J. Pan, R. Guo, L. Zhou, and L. Wang, “Efficient N-particle W state concentration with different parity check gates,” Sci. China Phys. 58, 1–11 (2015).

J. Song, X. D. Sun, Q. X. Mu, L. L. Zhang, Y. Xia, and H. S. Song, “Direct conversion of a four-atom W state to a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state via a dissipative process,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 024305 (2013).

A. S. Zheng, J. H. Li, R. Yu, X. Y. Lü, and Y. Wu, “Generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state of distant diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers via nanocavity input-output process,” Opt. Express 20, 16902–16912 (2012).

T. J. Wang, Y. Lu, and G. L. Long, “Generation and complete analysis of the hyperentangled Bell state for photons assisted by quantumdot spins in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 042337 (2012).

W. Liu, Y. B. Wang, and Z. T. Jiang, “An efficient protocol for the quantum private comparison of equality with W state,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3160 (2011).

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, A. D. Zhu, X. X. Yi, and K. H. Yeon, “Local conversion of four Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen photon pairs into four-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states with non-photon-number-resolving detectors,” Opt. Express 19, 25433–25440 (2011).

Q. Chen, W. L. Yang, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “Entangling separate nitrogen-vacancy centers in a scalable fashion via coupling to microtoroidal resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 054305 (2011).

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).

R. J. Barbour, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “A composite microcavity of diamond nanopillar and deformed silica microsphere with enhanced evanescent decay length,” Opt. Express 18, 18968–18974 (2010).

X. Q. Shao, H. F. Wang, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Converting two-atom singlet state into three-atom singlet state via quantum Zeno dynamics,” New. J. Phys. 12, 023040 (2010).

X. Q. Shao, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Deterministic generation of arbitrary multi-atom symmetric Dicke states by a combination of quantum Zeno dynamics and adiabatic passage,” Europhys. Lett. 90, 50003 (2010).

B. Gu, L. L. Mu, L. G. Ding, C. Y. Zhang, and C. Q. Li, “Fault tolerant three-party quantum secret sharing against collective noise,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3099–3103 (2010).

X. Y. Lü, P. J. Song, J. B. Liu, and X. X. Yang, “N-qubit W state of spatially separated single molecule magnets,” Opt. Express 17, 14298–14311 (2009).

M. Larsson, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “Composite optical microcavity of diamond nanopillar and silica microsphere,” Nano Lett. 9, 1447–1450 (2009).

C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Vertical distribution of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125313 (2009).

T. Tashima, T. Wakatsuki, S. K. özdemir, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, “Local transformation of two Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen photon pairs into a three-photon W state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 130502 (2009).

J. H. An, M. Feng, and C. H. Oh, “Quantum-information processing with a single photon by an input-output process with respect to low-Q cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 032303 (2009).

J. Song, Y. Xia, and H. S. Song, “Quantum gate operations using atomic qubits through cavity input-output process,” Europhys. Lett. 87, 50005 (2009).

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogenvacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191115 (2009).

C. Y. Hu, W. J. Munro, and J. G. Rarity, “Deterministic photon entangler using a charged quantum dot inside a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 125318 (2008).

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. I. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319, 1062–1065 (2008).

W. H. Xu, X. Zhao, and G. L. Long, “Efficient generation of multi-photon W states by joint-measurement,” Nat. Sci. 18, 119–122 (2008).

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).

J. Wang, Q. Zhang, and C. J. Tang, “Quantum secure communication scheme with W state,” Commun. Theor. Phys. 48, 637 (2007).

A. D. Zhu, Y. Xia, Q. B. Fan, and S. Zhang, “Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006).

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 054302 (2006).

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6, 2075–2079 (2006).

C. Santori, D. Fattal, S. M. Spillane, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, A. D. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, J. R. Rabeau, P. Reichart, S. Rubanov, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Coherent population trapping in diamond N-V centers at zero magnetic field,” Opt. Express 14, 7986–7994 (2006).

T. Gaebel, M. Domhan, I. Popa, C. Wittmann, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. R. Rabeau, N. Stavrias, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature coherent coupling of single spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 2, 408–413 (2006).

P. Walther, K. J. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, “Local conversion of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to approximate W states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240501 (2005).

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).

W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. P. Spiller, “High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033819 (2005).

C. Wang, F. G. Deng, Y. S. Li, X. S. Liu, and G. L. Long, “Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044305 (2005).

Z. X. Man, Z. J. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Deterministic secure direct communication by using swapping quantum entanglement and local unitary operations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 18–21 (2005).

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).

F. L. Yan and T. Gao, “Quantum secret sharing between multiparty and multiparty without entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012304 (2005).

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).

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F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, A. Gruber, and J. Wrachtrup, “Observation of coherent oscillation of a single nuclear spin and realization of a two-qubit conditional quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 130501 (2004).

M. S. Shahriar, P. R. Hemmer, S. Lloyd, P. S. Bhatia, and A. E. Craig, “Solid-state quantum computing using spectral holes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 032301 (2002).

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A. Karlsson and M. Bourennane, “Quantum teleportation using three-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4394–4400 (1998).

N. Gisin and S. Massar, “Optimal quantum cloning machines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2153 (1997).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bells theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–667 (1991).

A. Acín, D. Bruß, M. Lewenstein, and A. Sanpera, “Classification of mixed three-qubit states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 040401 (2001).

J. H. An, M. Feng, and C. H. Oh, “Quantum-information processing with a single photon by an input-output process with respect to low-Q cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 032303 (2009).

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. I. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319, 1062–1065 (2008).

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogenvacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191115 (2009).

C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Vertical distribution of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125313 (2009).

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).

C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Vertical distribution of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125313 (2009).

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogenvacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191115 (2009).

C. Santori, D. Fattal, S. M. Spillane, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, A. D. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, J. R. Rabeau, P. Reichart, S. Rubanov, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Coherent population trapping in diamond N-V centers at zero magnetic field,” Opt. Express 14, 7986–7994 (2006).

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).

W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, and T. P. Spiller, “High-efficiency quantum-nondemolition single-photon-number-resolving detector,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 033819 (2005).

S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).

M. Hillery, V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).

M. S. Shahriar, P. R. Hemmer, S. Lloyd, P. S. Bhatia, and A. E. Craig, “Solid-state quantum computing using spectral holes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 032301 (2002).

A. Karlsson and M. Bourennane, “Quantum teleportation using three-particle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4394–4400 (1998).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).

A. Acín, D. Bruß, M. Lewenstein, and A. Sanpera, “Classification of mixed three-qubit states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 040401 (2001).

M. Hillery, V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).

X. Q. Shao, H. F. Wang, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Converting two-atom singlet state into three-atom singlet state via quantum Zeno dynamics,” New. J. Phys. 12, 023040 (2010).

X. Q. Shao, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Deterministic generation of arbitrary multi-atom symmetric Dicke states by a combination of quantum Zeno dynamics and adiabatic passage,” Europhys. Lett. 90, 50003 (2010).

Q. Chen, W. L. Yang, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “Entangling separate nitrogen-vacancy centers in a scalable fashion via coupling to microtoroidal resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 054305 (2011).

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).

W. Dür, G. Vidal, and J. I. Cirac, “Three qubits can be entangled in two inequivalent ways,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 062314 (2000).

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6, 2075–2079 (2006).

M. S. Shahriar, P. R. Hemmer, S. Lloyd, P. S. Bhatia, and A. E. Craig, “Solid-state quantum computing using spectral holes,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 032301 (2002).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).

G. Y. Wang, D. Y. Wang, W. X. Cui, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Direct conversion of a three-atom W state to a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state in spatially separated cavities,” J. Phys. B: Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. 49, 065501 (2016).

W. X. Cui, S. Hu, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Deterministic conversion of a four-photon GHZ state to a W state via homodyne measurement,” Opt. Express 24, 15319–15327 (2016).

B. Dayan, A. S. Parkins, T. Aoki, E. P. Ostby, K. I. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “A photon turnstile dynamically regulated by one atom,” Science 319, 1062–1065 (2008).

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Efficient quantum key distribution over a collective noise channel,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 022321 (2008).

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 054302 (2006).

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).

C. Wang, F. G. Deng, Y. S. Li, X. S. Liu, and G. L. Long, “Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 044305 (2005).

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).

W. Zhang, D. S. Ding, Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum secure direct communication with quantum memory,” arXiv:1609.09184 (2016).

B. Gu, L. L. Mu, L. G. Ding, C. Y. Zhang, and C. Q. Li, “Fault tolerant three-party quantum secret sharing against collective noise,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3099–3103 (2010).

R. J. Barbour, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “A composite microcavity of diamond nanopillar and deformed silica microsphere with enhanced evanescent decay length,” Opt. Express 18, 18968–18974 (2010).

M. Larsson, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “Composite optical microcavity of diamond nanopillar and silica microsphere,” Nano Lett. 9, 1447–1450 (2009).

T. Gaebel, M. Domhan, I. Popa, C. Wittmann, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. R. Rabeau, N. Stavrias, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature coherent coupling of single spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 2, 408–413 (2006).

F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, A. Gruber, and J. Wrachtrup, “Observation of coherent oscillation of a single nuclear spin and realization of a two-qubit conditional quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 130501 (2004).

C. Santori, D. Fattal, S. M. Spillane, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, A. D. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, J. R. Rabeau, P. Reichart, S. Rubanov, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Coherent population trapping in diamond N-V centers at zero magnetic field,” Opt. Express 14, 7986–7994 (2006).

Q. Chen, W. L. Yang, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “Entangling separate nitrogen-vacancy centers in a scalable fashion via coupling to microtoroidal resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 054305 (2011).

N. K. Yu, C. Guo, and R. Y. Duan, “Obtaining a W state from a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state via Stochastic local operations and classical communication with a rate approaching unity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 160401 (2014).

W. Dür, G. Vidal, and J. I. Cirac, “Three qubits can be entangled in two inequivalent ways,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 062314 (2000).

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bells theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–667 (1991).

A. D. Zhu, Y. Xia, Q. B. Fan, and S. Zhang, “Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006).

C. Santori, D. Fattal, S. M. Spillane, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, A. D. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, J. R. Rabeau, P. Reichart, S. Rubanov, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Coherent population trapping in diamond N-V centers at zero magnetic field,” Opt. Express 14, 7986–7994 (2006).

J. Pearson, G. R. Feng, C. Zheng, and G. L. Long, “Experimental quantum simulation of Avian Compass in a nuclear magnetic resonance system,” Sci. China Phys 59, 120312 (2016).

Q. Chen, W. L. Yang, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “Entangling separate nitrogen-vacancy centers in a scalable fashion via coupling to microtoroidal resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 054305 (2011).

J. H. An, M. Feng, and C. H. Oh, “Quantum-information processing with a single photon by an input-output process with respect to low-Q cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 032303 (2009).

C. Santori, D. Fattal, S. M. Spillane, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, A. D. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, J. R. Rabeau, P. Reichart, S. Rubanov, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Coherent population trapping in diamond N-V centers at zero magnetic field,” Opt. Express 14, 7986–7994 (2006).

P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogenvacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191115 (2009).

C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, K. M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Vertical distribution of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 125313 (2009).

T. Gaebel, M. Domhan, I. Popa, C. Wittmann, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. R. Rabeau, N. Stavrias, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature coherent coupling of single spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 2, 408–413 (2006).

F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, A. Gruber, and J. Wrachtrup, “Observation of coherent oscillation of a single nuclear spin and realization of a two-qubit conditional quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 130501 (2004).

F. L. Yan and T. Gao, “Quantum secret sharing between multiparty and multiparty without entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012304 (2005).

N. Gisin and S. Massar, “Optimal quantum cloning machines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2153 (1997).

R. Heilmanna, M. Gräfea, S. Noltea, and A. Szameita, “A novel integrated quantum circuit for high-order W-state generation and its highly precise characterization,” Sci. Bulletin 60, 96–100 (2015).

T. Gaebel, M. Domhan, I. Popa, C. Wittmann, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. R. Rabeau, N. Stavrias, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature coherent coupling of single spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 2, 408–413 (2006).

C. Santori, D. Fattal, S. M. Spillane, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, A. D. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, J. R. Rabeau, P. Reichart, S. Rubanov, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Coherent population trapping in diamond N-V centers at zero magnetic field,” Opt. Express 14, 7986–7994 (2006).

F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, A. Gruber, and J. Wrachtrup, “Observation of coherent oscillation of a single nuclear spin and realization of a two-qubit conditional quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 130501 (2004).

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J. Pearson, G. R. Feng, C. Zheng, and G. L. Long, “Experimental quantum simulation of Avian Compass in a nuclear magnetic resonance system,” Sci. China Phys 59, 120312 (2016).

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M. Murao, D. Jonathan, M. B. Plenio, and V. Vedral, “Quantum telecloning and multiparticle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 156 (1999).

T. Gaebel, M. Domhan, I. Popa, C. Wittmann, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. R. Rabeau, N. Stavrias, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature coherent coupling of single spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 2, 408–413 (2006).

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C. Santori, D. Fattal, S. M. Spillane, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, A. D. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, J. R. Rabeau, P. Reichart, S. Rubanov, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Coherent population trapping in diamond N-V centers at zero magnetic field,” Opt. Express 14, 7986–7994 (2006).

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G. Y. Wang, D. Y. Wang, W. X. Cui, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Direct conversion of a three-atom W state to a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state in spatially separated cavities,” J. Phys. B: Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. 49, 065501 (2016).

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T. J. Wang, Y. Lu, and G. L. Long, “Generation and complete analysis of the hyperentangled Bell state for photons assisted by quantumdot spins in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 042337 (2012).

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W. Liu, Y. B. Wang, and Z. T. Jiang, “An efficient protocol for the quantum private comparison of equality with W state,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3160 (2011).

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X. Q. Shao, H. F. Wang, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Converting two-atom singlet state into three-atom singlet state via quantum Zeno dynamics,” New. J. Phys. 12, 023040 (2010).

X. Q. Shao, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Deterministic generation of arbitrary multi-atom symmetric Dicke states by a combination of quantum Zeno dynamics and adiabatic passage,” Europhys. Lett. 90, 50003 (2010).

X. Q. Shao, J. H. Wu, and X. X Yi, “Dissipative stabilization of quantum-feedback-based multipartite entanglement with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 022317 (2017).

X. Q. Shao, Z. H. Wang, H. D. Liu, and X. X. Yi, “Dissipative preparation of a tripartite singlet state in coupled arrays of cavities via quantum feedback control,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 032307 (2016).

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, A. D. Zhu, X. X. Yi, and K. H. Yeon, “Local conversion of four Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen photon pairs into four-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states with non-photon-number-resolving detectors,” Opt. Express 19, 25433–25440 (2011).

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B. Gu, L. L. Mu, L. G. Ding, C. Y. Zhang, and C. Q. Li, “Fault tolerant three-party quantum secret sharing against collective noise,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3099–3103 (2010).

J. Song, X. D. Sun, Q. X. Mu, L. L. Zhang, Y. Xia, and H. S. Song, “Direct conversion of a four-atom W state to a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state via a dissipative process,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 024305 (2013).

J. Wang, Q. Zhang, and C. J. Tang, “Quantum secure communication scheme with W state,” Commun. Theor. Phys. 48, 637 (2007).

W. X. Cui, S. Hu, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Deterministic conversion of a four-photon GHZ state to a W state via homodyne measurement,” Opt. Express 24, 15319–15327 (2016).

G. Y. Wang, D. Y. Wang, W. X. Cui, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Direct conversion of a three-atom W state to a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state in spatially separated cavities,” J. Phys. B: Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. 49, 065501 (2016).

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, A. D. Zhu, X. X. Yi, and K. H. Yeon, “Local conversion of four Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen photon pairs into four-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states with non-photon-number-resolving detectors,” Opt. Express 19, 25433–25440 (2011).

X. Q. Shao, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Deterministic generation of arbitrary multi-atom symmetric Dicke states by a combination of quantum Zeno dynamics and adiabatic passage,” Europhys. Lett. 90, 50003 (2010).

X. Q. Shao, H. F. Wang, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Converting two-atom singlet state into three-atom singlet state via quantum Zeno dynamics,” New. J. Phys. 12, 023040 (2010).

A. D. Zhu, Y. Xia, Q. B. Fan, and S. Zhang, “Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006).

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W. H. Xu, X. Zhao, and G. L. Long, “Efficient generation of multi-photon W states by joint-measurement,” Nat. Sci. 18, 119–122 (2008).

X. Q. Shao, H. F. Wang, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Converting two-atom singlet state into three-atom singlet state via quantum Zeno dynamics,” New. J. Phys. 12, 023040 (2010).

X. Q. Shao, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Deterministic generation of arbitrary multi-atom symmetric Dicke states by a combination of quantum Zeno dynamics and adiabatic passage,” Europhys. Lett. 90, 50003 (2010).

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X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 054302 (2006).

F. G. Deng, C. Y. Li, Y. S. Li, H. Y. Zhou, and Y. Wang, “Multiparty quantum-state sharing of an arbitrary two-particle state with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 022338 (2005).

Y. B. Sheng, J. Pan, R. Guo, L. Zhou, and L. Wang, “Efficient N-particle W state concentration with different parity check gates,” Sci. China Phys. 58, 1–11 (2015).

W. Zhang, D. S. Ding, Y. B. Sheng, L. Zhou, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Quantum secure direct communication with quantum memory,” arXiv:1609.09184 (2016).

G. Y. Wang, D. Y. Wang, W. X. Cui, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Direct conversion of a three-atom W state to a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state in spatially separated cavities,” J. Phys. B: Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. 49, 065501 (2016).

W. X. Cui, S. Hu, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Deterministic conversion of a four-photon GHZ state to a W state via homodyne measurement,” Opt. Express 24, 15319–15327 (2016).

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, A. D. Zhu, X. X. Yi, and K. H. Yeon, “Local conversion of four Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen photon pairs into four-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states with non-photon-number-resolving detectors,” Opt. Express 19, 25433–25440 (2011).

A. D. Zhu, Y. Xia, Q. B. Fan, and S. Zhang, “Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 022338 (2006).

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).

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Z. X. Man, Z. J. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Deterministic secure direct communication by using swapping quantum entanglement and local unitary operations,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 18–21 (2005).

J. Wang, Q. Zhang, and C. J. Tang, “Quantum secure communication scheme with W state,” Commun. Theor. Phys. 48, 637 (2007).

J. Song, Y. Xia, and H. S. Song, “Quantum gate operations using atomic qubits through cavity input-output process,” Europhys. Lett. 87, 50005 (2009).

X. Q. Shao, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Deterministic generation of arbitrary multi-atom symmetric Dicke states by a combination of quantum Zeno dynamics and adiabatic passage,” Europhys. Lett. 90, 50003 (2010).

G. Y. Wang, D. Y. Wang, W. X. Cui, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Direct conversion of a three-atom W state to a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state in spatially separated cavities,” J. Phys. B: Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. 49, 065501 (2016).

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, “Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres,” Nano Lett. 6, 2075–2079 (2006).

M. Larsson, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “Composite optical microcavity of diamond nanopillar and silica microsphere,” Nano Lett. 9, 1447–1450 (2009).

T. Gaebel, M. Domhan, I. Popa, C. Wittmann, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. R. Rabeau, N. Stavrias, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Room-temperature coherent coupling of single spins in diamond,” Nat. Phys. 2, 408–413 (2006).

W. H. Xu, X. Zhao, and G. L. Long, “Efficient generation of multi-photon W states by joint-measurement,” Nat. Sci. 18, 119–122 (2008).

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466, 730–734 (2010).

X. Q. Shao, H. F. Wang, L. Chen, S. Zhang, Y. F. Zhao, and K. H. Yeon, “Converting two-atom singlet state into three-atom singlet state via quantum Zeno dynamics,” New. J. Phys. 12, 023040 (2010).

B. Gu, L. L. Mu, L. G. Ding, C. Y. Zhang, and C. Q. Li, “Fault tolerant three-party quantum secret sharing against collective noise,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3099–3103 (2010).

W. Liu, Y. B. Wang, and Z. T. Jiang, “An efficient protocol for the quantum private comparison of equality with W state,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3160 (2011).

W. X. Cui, S. Hu, H. F. Wang, A. D. Zhu, and S. Zhang, “Deterministic conversion of a four-photon GHZ state to a W state via homodyne measurement,” Opt. Express 24, 15319–15327 (2016).

H. F. Wang, S. Zhang, A. D. Zhu, X. X. Yi, and K. H. Yeon, “Local conversion of four Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen photon pairs into four-photon polarization-entangled decoherence-free states with non-photon-number-resolving detectors,” Opt. Express 19, 25433–25440 (2011).

R. J. Barbour, K. N. Dinyari, and H. Wang, “A composite microcavity of diamond nanopillar and deformed silica microsphere with enhanced evanescent decay length,” Opt. Express 18, 18968–18974 (2010).

C. Santori, D. Fattal, S. M. Spillane, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, A. D. Greentree, P. Olivero, M. Draganski, J. R. Rabeau, P. Reichart, S. Rubanov, D. N. Jamieson, and S. Prawer, “Coherent population trapping in diamond N-V centers at zero magnetic field,” Opt. Express 14, 7986–7994 (2006).

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S. D. Barrett, P. Kok, K. Nemoto, R. G. Beausoleil, W. J. Munro, and T. P. Spiller, “Symmetry analyzer for nondestructive Bell-state detection using weak nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 060302 (2005).

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Q. Chen, W. L. Yang, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “Entangling separate nitrogen-vacancy centers in a scalable fashion via coupling to microtoroidal resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 054305 (2011).

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J. Song, X. D. Sun, Q. X. Mu, L. L. Zhang, Y. Xia, and H. S. Song, “Direct conversion of a four-atom W state to a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state via a dissipative process,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 024305 (2013).

M. Murao, D. Jonathan, M. B. Plenio, and V. Vedral, “Quantum telecloning and multiparticle entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 156 (1999).

X. Q. Shao, Z. H. Wang, H. D. Liu, and X. X. Yi, “Dissipative preparation of a tripartite singlet state in coupled arrays of cavities via quantum feedback control,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 032307 (2016).

W. Dür, G. Vidal, and J. I. Cirac, “Three qubits can be entangled in two inequivalent ways,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 062314 (2000).

T. J. Wang, Y. Lu, and G. L. Long, “Generation and complete analysis of the hyperentangled Bell state for photons assisted by quantumdot spins in optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 042337 (2012).

X. Q. Shao, J. H. Wu, and X. X Yi, “Dissipative stabilization of quantum-feedback-based multipartite entanglement with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 022317 (2017).

G. L. Long and X. S. Liu, “Theoretically efficient high-capacity quantum-key-distribution scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 032302 (2002).

X. H. Li, F. G. Deng, and H. Y. Zhou, “Improving the security of secure direct communication based on the secret transmitting order of particles,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 054302 (2006).

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