Abstract

Light extraction from InGaN/GaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) light emitters is enhanced using a simple, scalable, and reproducible method to create hexagonally close-packed conical nano- and micro-scale features on the backside outcoupling surface. Colloidal lithography via Langmuir-Blodgett dip-coating using silica masks (d = 170–2530 nm) and Cl2/N2-based plasma etching produced features with aspect ratios of 3:1 on devices grown on semipolar GaN substrates. InGaN/GaN MQW structures were optically pumped at 266 nm and light extraction enhancement was quantified using angle-resolved photoluminescence. A 4.8-fold overall enhancement in light extraction (9-fold at normal incidence) relative to a flat outcoupling surface was achieved using a feature pitch of 2530 nm. This performance is on par with current photoelectrochemical (PEC) nitrogen-face roughening methods, which positions the technique as a strong alternative for backside structuring of c-plane devices. Also, because colloidal lithography functions independently of GaN crystal orientation, it is applicable to semipolar and nonpolar GaN devices, for which PEC roughening is ineffective.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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2016 (3)

2015 (4)

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kowsz, C. D. Pynn, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of phosphor-free polarized white light emission from monolithically integrated semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, K. C. Jung, J. H. Baek, J.-S. Ha, W.-S. Choi, and S.-H. Park, “Light output improvement of 10 W operated vertical LEDs via surface roughening using a commercialized developer,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(6), 3397–3402 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

F. Lora Gonzalez, L. Chan, A. Berry, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Simple colloidal lithography method to fabricate large-area moth-eye antireflective structures on Si, Ge, and GaAs for IR applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 051213 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Lora Gonzalez, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Importance of diffuse scattering phenomena in moth-eye arrays for broadband infrared applications,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 13–16 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Becerra, Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, C. D. Pynn, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power low-droop violet semipolar (3031) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171106 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

F.-I. Lai and J.-F. Yang, “Enhancement of light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic quasi-crystal patterned on p-GaN surface and n-side sidewall roughing,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 8(1), 244 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jung, K. R. Song, S. N. Lee, and H. Kim, “Wet chemical etching of semipolar GaN planes to obtain brighter and cost-competitive light emitters,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4470–4476 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: A photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Nanostructuring GaN using microsphere lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(1), 76–79 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening Hexagonal Surface Morphology on Laser Lift-Off (LLO) N-Face GaN with Simple Photo-Enhanced Chemical Wet Etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Addin, B. S.

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alhassan, A. I.

Ali, M.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Baek, J. H.

T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, K. C. Jung, J. H. Baek, J.-S. Ha, W.-S. Choi, and S.-H. Park, “Light output improvement of 10 W operated vertical LEDs via surface roughening using a commercialized developer,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(6), 3397–3402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Becerra, D. L.

D. L. Becerra, Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, C. D. Pynn, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power low-droop violet semipolar (3031) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berry, A.

F. Lora Gonzalez, L. Chan, A. Berry, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Simple colloidal lithography method to fabricate large-area moth-eye antireflective structures on Si, Ge, and GaAs for IR applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 051213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bradford, C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brinkley, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Campos, L. M.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cantore, M.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chan, L.

F. Lora Gonzalez, L. Chan, A. Berry, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Simple colloidal lithography method to fabricate large-area moth-eye antireflective structures on Si, Ge, and GaAs for IR applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 051213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.-Y.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-W.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. W.

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: A photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133125 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Nanostructuring GaN using microsphere lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(1), 76–79 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.-S.

T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, K. C. Jung, J. H. Baek, J.-S. Ha, W.-S. Choi, and S.-H. Park, “Light output improvement of 10 W operated vertical LEDs via surface roughening using a commercialized developer,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(6), 3397–3402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Craven, M. D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dang, P.-Y.

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

David, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Day, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

DeLille, R. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kowsz, C. D. Pynn, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of phosphor-free polarized white light emission from monolithically integrated semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, C. D. Pynn, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power low-droop violet semipolar (3031) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171106 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening Hexagonal Surface Morphology on Laser Lift-Off (LLO) N-Face GaN with Simple Photo-Enhanced Chemical Wet Etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ee, Y. K.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ellis, B.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kowsz, C. D. Pynn, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of phosphor-free polarized white light emission from monolithically integrated semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fleury, B.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, W. Y.

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: A photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening Hexagonal Surface Morphology on Laser Lift-Off (LLO) N-Face GaN with Simple Photo-Enhanced Chemical Wet Etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fujito, K.

D. L. Becerra, Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, C. D. Pynn, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power low-droop violet semipolar (3031) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening Hexagonal Surface Morphology on Laser Lift-Off (LLO) N-Face GaN with Simple Photo-Enhanced Chemical Wet Etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening Hexagonal Surface Morphology on Laser Lift-Off (LLO) N-Face GaN with Simple Photo-Enhanced Chemical Wet Etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gordon, M. J.

F. Lora Gonzalez, L. Chan, A. Berry, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Simple colloidal lithography method to fabricate large-area moth-eye antireflective structures on Si, Ge, and GaAs for IR applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 051213 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Lora Gonzalez, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Importance of diffuse scattering phenomena in moth-eye arrays for broadband infrared applications,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 13–16 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundmann, M. J.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ha, J.-S.

T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, K. C. Jung, J. H. Baek, J.-S. Ha, W.-S. Choi, and S.-H. Park, “Light output improvement of 10 W operated vertical LEDs via surface roughening using a commercialized developer,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(6), 3397–3402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hardy, M. T.

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, R.

J.-I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hawker, C. J.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, M.-Y.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsu, P. S.

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening Hexagonal Surface Morphology on Laser Lift-Off (LLO) N-Face GaN with Simple Photo-Enhanced Chemical Wet Etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.-L.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. F.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. J.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D.

Hwang, J.-I.

J.-I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, T.

T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, K. C. Jung, J. H. Baek, J.-S. Ha, W.-S. Choi, and S.-H. Park, “Light output improvement of 10 W operated vertical LEDs via surface roughening using a commercialized developer,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(6), 3397–3402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jung, K. C.

T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, K. C. Jung, J. H. Baek, J.-S. Ha, W.-S. Choi, and S.-H. Park, “Light output improvement of 10 W operated vertical LEDs via surface roughening using a commercialized developer,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(6), 3397–3402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.

S. Jung, K. R. Song, S. N. Lee, and H. Kim, “Wet chemical etching of semipolar GaN planes to obtain brighter and cost-competitive light emitters,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4470–4476 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ke, M.-Y.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kelchner, K. M.

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

S. Jung, K. R. Song, S. N. Lee, and H. Kim, “Wet chemical etching of semipolar GaN planes to obtain brighter and cost-competitive light emitters,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4470–4476 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klonner, M.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koslow, I.

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koslow, I. L.

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kowsz, S. J.

S. J. Kowsz, C. D. Pynn, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of phosphor-free polarized white light emission from monolithically integrated semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kumnorkaew, P.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lai, F.-I.

F.-I. Lai and J.-F. Yang, “Enhancement of light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic quasi-crystal patterned on p-GaN surface and n-side sidewall roughing,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 8(1), 244 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, P. T.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Nanostructuring GaN using microsphere lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(1), 76–79 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. N.

S. Jung, K. R. Song, S. N. Lee, and H. Kim, “Wet chemical etching of semipolar GaN planes to obtain brighter and cost-competitive light emitters,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4470–4476 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, C. H.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Nanostructuring GaN using microsphere lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(1), 76–79 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lie, D. Y. C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.-P.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lingley, A. R.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lipsanen, H.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lora Gonzalez, F.

F. Lora Gonzalez, L. Chan, A. Berry, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Simple colloidal lithography method to fabricate large-area moth-eye antireflective structures on Si, Ge, and GaAs for IR applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 051213 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Lora Gonzalez, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Importance of diffuse scattering phenomena in moth-eye arrays for broadband infrared applications,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 13–16 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C.-F.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meinel, I.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mirjalili, R.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morse, D. E.

F. Lora Gonzalez, L. Chan, A. Berry, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Simple colloidal lithography method to fabricate large-area moth-eye antireflective structures on Si, Ge, and GaAs for IR applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 051213 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Lora Gonzalez, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Importance of diffuse scattering phenomena in moth-eye arrays for broadband infrared applications,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 13–16 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mughal, A.

Nakamura, S.

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kowsz, C. D. Pynn, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of phosphor-free polarized white light emission from monolithically integrated semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, C. D. Pynn, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power low-droop violet semipolar (3031) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171106 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening Hexagonal Surface Morphology on Laser Lift-Off (LLO) N-Face GaN with Simple Photo-Enhanced Chemical Wet Etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nedy, J. G.

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ng, W. N.

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Nanostructuring GaN using microsphere lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(1), 76–79 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nunoue, S.

J.-I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kowsz, C. D. Pynn, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of phosphor-free polarized white light emission from monolithically integrated semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101104 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, C. D. Pynn, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power low-droop violet semipolar (3031) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ohta, H.

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Otis, B. P.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.-C.

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-J.

T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, K. C. Jung, J. H. Baek, J.-S. Ha, W.-S. Choi, and S.-H. Park, “Light output improvement of 10 W operated vertical LEDs via surface roughening using a commercialized developer,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(6), 3397–3402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-H.

T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, K. C. Jung, J. H. Baek, J.-S. Ha, W.-S. Choi, and S.-H. Park, “Light output improvement of 10 W operated vertical LEDs via surface roughening using a commercialized developer,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(6), 3397–3402 (2015).
[Crossref]

Parviz, B. A.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Petroff, P. M.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pfaff, N.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pynn, C. D.

S. J. Kowsz, C. D. Pynn, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of phosphor-free polarized white light emission from monolithically integrated semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101104 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, C. D. Pynn, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power low-droop violet semipolar (3031) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rangel, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Romanov, A.

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saifaddin, B.

Saito, M.

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Saito, S.

J.-I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening Hexagonal Surface Morphology on Laser Lift-Off (LLO) N-Face GaN with Simple Photo-Enhanced Chemical Wet Etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, T.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, K. R.

S. Jung, K. R. Song, S. N. Lee, and H. Kim, “Wet chemical etching of semipolar GaN planes to obtain brighter and cost-competitive light emitters,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4470–4476 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonoda, J.

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sopanen, M.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sota, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kowsz, C. D. Pynn, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of phosphor-free polarized white light emission from monolithically integrated semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Suihkonen, S.

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tong, H.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Truong, T. A.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-Y.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. K.-Y.

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: A photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133125 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrell, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-R.

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-F.

F.-I. Lai and J.-F. Yang, “Enhancement of light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic quasi-crystal patterned on p-GaN surface and n-side sidewall roughing,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 8(1), 244 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, D.-M.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yonkee, B. P.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, B. P. Yonkee, B. S. Addin, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Photoelectrochemical liftoff of LEDs grown on freestanding c-plane GaN substrates,” Opt. Express 24(20), 22875–22880 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, E. C.

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Young, N. G.

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

D. L. Becerra, Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, C. D. Pynn, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power low-droop violet semipolar (3031) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Jung, K. R. Song, S. N. Lee, and H. Kim, “Wet chemical etching of semipolar GaN planes to obtain brighter and cost-competitive light emitters,” Adv. Mater. 25(32), 4470–4476 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (3)

Y. Zhao, J. Sonoda, C.-C. Pan, S. Brinkley, I. Koslow, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “30-mW-Class High-Power and High-Efficiency Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Obtained by Backside Roughening Technique, ” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

I. L. Koslow, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, P.-Y. Dang, F. Wu, A. Romanov, Y.-R. Wu, E. C. Young, S. Nakamura, J. S. Speck, and S. P. Denbaars, “Performance and polarization effects in (112¯2) long wavelength light emitting diodes grown on stress relaxed InGaN buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. L. Becerra, Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, C. D. Pynn, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power low-droop violet semipolar (3031) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Kowsz, C. D. Pynn, S. H. Oh, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of phosphor-free polarized white light emission from monolithically integrated semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 101104 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Fu, K. K.-Y. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: A photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133125 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

M.-Y. Hsieh, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Y. Chen, T.-P. Lin, M.-Y. Ke, Y.-W. Cheng, Y. Yu, C. P. Chen, D.-M. Yeh, C.-F. Lu, C. F. Huang, C. C. Yang, and J. J. Huang, “Improvement of external extraction efficiency in GaN-based LEDs by SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(7), 658–660 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

A. David, “Surface-Roughened Light-Emitting Diodes: An Accurate Model,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 301–316 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, K. C. Jung, J. H. Baek, J.-S. Ha, W.-S. Choi, and S.-H. Park, “Light output improvement of 10 W operated vertical LEDs via surface roughening using a commercialized developer,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26(6), 3397–3402 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. R. Lingley, M. Ali, Y. Liao, R. Mirjalili, M. Klonner, M. Sopanen, S. Suihkonen, T. Shen, B. P. Otis, H. Lipsanen, and B. A. Parviz, “A single-pixel wireless contact lens display,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(12), 125014 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Nanostructuring GaN using microsphere lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(1), 76–79 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Lora Gonzalez, L. Chan, A. Berry, D. E. Morse, and M. J. Gordon, “Simple colloidal lithography method to fabricate large-area moth-eye antireflective structures on Si, Ge, and GaAs for IR applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(5), 051213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening Hexagonal Surface Morphology on Laser Lift-Off (LLO) N-Face GaN with Simple Photo-Enhanced Chemical Wet Etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, N. Pfaff, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Enhancing the Light Extraction Efficiency of Blue Semipolar (101¯1¯) Nitride-Based Light Emitting Diodes through Surface Patterning, ” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

F.-I. Lai and J.-F. Yang, “Enhancement of light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic quasi-crystal patterned on p-GaN surface and n-side sidewall roughing,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 8(1), 244 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. G. Nedy, N. G. Young, K. M. Kelchner, Y. Hu, R. M. Farrell, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and J. S. Speck, “Low damage dry etch for III-nitride light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(8), 085019 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic views of light rays propagating through (a) a thin-film sapphire/GaN LED and (b) a backside micro-structured free-standing GaN/GaN LED. In (a), thin-film TIR creates guided modes strongly coupled to the device topside. In (b), TIR modes are delocalized throughout the bulk chip, and backside outcoupling causes forward and reverse specular and diffuse (dashed) scattering. (c) SEM image of silica colloidal crystal mask and process flow to create moth-eye-like features on the backside outcoupling surface of the LED chip.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a-c) SEM images of moth-eye-like surface structures in GaN realized using colloidal lithography via Langmuir-Blodgett dip-coating and plasma dry etching; initial silica mask sizes were (a) 170 nm, (b) 960 nm, and (c) 2530 nm. (d) SEM image of photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched c-plane GaN nitrogen face using KOH.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Polar plot of integrated (λ = 375-550 nm) total PL emission from five-period InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum well (MQW) structures on GaN substrates roughened using 170 nm and 2530 nm silica colloids. Integrated PL emission for a polished reference surface and for an ideal Lambertian diffuser are also shown for comparison. (b) Polar plot of enhancement in PL extraction from MQW devices with roughened GaN-air interfaces, normalized by the emission from a flat GaN device surface. MQWs were excited using 266 nm light at 8° incidence from normal, and curve annotations represent the initial silica colloid size (e.g., d = 170, 310, etc. nm) used as the etch mask.

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