Abstract

We demonstrate that energetic femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.3 to 1.7 µm can be achieved using self-phase modulation enabled spectral broadening followed by spectral lobe filtering. Based on a home-built 5-W Er-fiber laser system operating at 31-MHz repetition rate, we obtain femtosecond pulses that can be continuously tuned from 1.3 to 1.7 µm with >4.5 nJ pulse energy. We further optimize the spectral broadening process using a fiber with larger mode area and scale up the pulse energy to >10 nJ; the resulting pulse duration is as short as ~50 fs. Such a widely tunable, energetic femtosecond source is well suited for driving a laser scanning microscope to perform deep tissue multiphoton microscopy.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S.-H. Chia, H.-Y. Chung, R. Greinert, F. X. Kärtner, and G. Chang, “Energetic ultrafast fiber laser sources tunable in 1030-1215 nm for deep tissue multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6822–6831 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (2)

2014 (4)

2013 (5)

2011 (1)

K. Wang and C. Xu, “Tunable high-energy soliton pulse generation from a large-mode-area fiber and its application to third harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. Takayanagi, T. Sugiura, M. Yoshida, and N. Nishizawa, “1.0-1.7-um wavelength tunable ultrashort-pulse generation using femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2284–2286 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 microns,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Tauser, F. Adler, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Widely tunable sub-30-fs pulses from a compact erbium-doped fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 516–518 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. M. Malak, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 71–74 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, F.

Aramaki, M.

Bahlmann, K.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. M. Malak, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 71–74 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boller, K. J.

Boppart, S. A.

Brinkmann, M.

Buckley, J.

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 microns,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chan, M.-C.

M.-C. Chan, C.-H. Lien, J.-Y. Lu, and B.-H. Lyu, “High power NIR fiber-optic femtosecond Cherenkov radiation and its application on nonlinear light microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9498–9507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.

Charan, K.

K. Wang, N. G. Horton, and K. Charan, “Advanced fiber soliton sources for nonlinear deep tissue imaging in biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).

Chen, H.-W.

Cheng, Y.-T.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chia, S.-H.

W. Liu, S.-H. Chia, H.-Y. Chung, R. Greinert, F. X. Kärtner, and G. Chang, “Energetic ultrafast fiber laser sources tunable in 1030-1215 nm for deep tissue multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6822–6831 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chong, A.

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 microns,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chung, H.-Y.

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cruz-Hernández, J. C.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desantolo, A.

Dobner, S.

Epping, J. P.

Fallnich, C.

Fehrenbacher, D.

Feng, D. D.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottschall, T.

Greinert, R.

Gryczynski, I.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. M. Malak, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 71–74 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haider, Z.

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. M. Malak, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 71–74 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, M.-C.

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hoover, E. E.

E. E. Hoover and J. A. Squier, “Advances in multiphoton microscopy technology,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 93–101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horton, N. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, N. G. Horton, and K. Charan, “Advanced fiber soliton sources for nonlinear deep tissue imaging in biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishida, S.

Ivanov, A. A.

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kaenders, W.

Kälberer, T.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kataura, H.

Kawagoe, H.

Kobat, D.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kues, M.

Lægsgaard, J.

Lakowicz, J. R.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. M. Malak, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 71–74 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. J.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Li, C.

Liehl, A.

Lien, C.-H.

Lim, H.

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 microns,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

Limpert, J.

Liu, H.-L.

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.-Y.

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.-M.

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Liu, Y.

Lu, J.-Y.

Lyu, B.-H.

Malak, H. M.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. M. Malak, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 71–74 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, T.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishimura, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, N.

H. Kawagoe, S. Ishida, M. Aramaki, Y. Sakakibara, E. Omoda, H. Kataura, and N. Nishizawa, “Development of a high power supercontinuum source in the 1.7 μm wavelength region for highly penetrative ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3), 932–943 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Takayanagi, T. Sugiura, M. Yoshida, and N. Nishizawa, “1.0-1.7-um wavelength tunable ultrashort-pulse generation using femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2284–2286 (2006).
[Crossref]

Omoda, E.

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popp, J.

Reimer, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riek, C.

Sakakibara, Y.

Schaffer, C. B.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, M.

Schrader, M.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. M. Malak, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 71–74 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seletskiy, D. V.

Shear, J. B.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soini, A.

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. M. Malak, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 71–74 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

E. E. Hoover and J. A. Squier, “Advances in multiphoton microscopy technology,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 93–101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugiura, T.

J. Takayanagi, T. Sugiura, M. Yoshida, and N. Nishizawa, “1.0-1.7-um wavelength tunable ultrashort-pulse generation using femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2284–2286 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sulzer, P.

Sun, C.-K.

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takayanagi, J.

J. Takayanagi, T. Sugiura, M. Yoshida, and N. Nishizawa, “1.0-1.7-um wavelength tunable ultrashort-pulse generation using femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2284–2286 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tauser, F.

Tolias, A. S.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, S.

Tsai, T.-H.

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tu, H.

Tünnermann, A.

van der Slot, P. J. M.

Wang, K.

K. Wang, N. G. Horton, and K. Charan, “Advanced fiber soliton sources for nonlinear deep tissue imaging in biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang and C. Xu, “Tunable high-energy soliton pulse generation from a large-mode-area fiber and its application to third harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 microns,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang and C. Xu, “Tunable high-energy soliton pulse generation from a large-mode-area fiber and its application to third harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071112 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

Yang, Z.

Yasuda, R.

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, M.

J. Takayanagi, T. Sugiura, M. Yoshida, and N. Nishizawa, “1.0-1.7-um wavelength tunable ultrashort-pulse generation using femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2284–2286 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zach, A.

Zhang, R.

Zhang, Z.

Zheltikov, A. M.

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zipfel, W.

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Wang and C. Xu, “Tunable high-energy soliton pulse generation from a large-mode-area fiber and its application to third harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 microns,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Wang, N. G. Horton, and K. Charan, “Advanced fiber soliton sources for nonlinear deep tissue imaging in biophotonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 6800311 (2014).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Takayanagi, T. Sugiura, M. Yoshida, and N. Nishizawa, “1.0-1.7-um wavelength tunable ultrashort-pulse generation using femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2284–2286 (2006).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2-2.2-um tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:Forsterite-laser and a Photonic-Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. W. Hell, K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. M. Malak, I. Gryczynski, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1), 71–74 (1996).
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Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

D. G. Ouzounov, T. Wang, M. Wang, D. D. Feng, N. G. Horton, J. C. Cruz-Hernández, Y.-T. Cheng, J. Reimer, A. S. Tolias, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon imaging of activity of GCaMP6-labeled neurons deep in intact mouse brain,” Nat. Methods 14(4), 388–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Hoover and J. A. Squier, “Advances in multiphoton microscopy technology,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 93–101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuron (1)

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

M.-C. Chan, C.-H. Lien, J.-Y. Lu, and B.-H. Lyu, “High power NIR fiber-optic femtosecond Cherenkov radiation and its application on nonlinear light microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9498–9507 (2014).
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T. Gottschall, T. Meyer, M. Schmitt, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Four-wave-mixing-based optical parametric oscillator delivering energetic, tunable, chirped femtosecond pulses for non-linear biomedical applications,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23968–23977 (2015).
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J. P. Epping, M. Kues, P. J. M. van der Slot, C. J. Lee, C. Fallnich, and K. J. Boller, “Integrated CARS source based on seeded four-wave mixing in silicon nitride,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32123–32129 (2013).
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H. Tu, J. Lægsgaard, R. Zhang, S. Tong, Y. Liu, and S. A. Boppart, “Bright broadband coherent fiber sources emitting strongly blue-shifted resonant dispersive wave pulses,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23188–23196 (2013).
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J. W. Nicholson, A. Desantolo, W. Kaenders, and A. Zach, “Self-frequency-shifted solitons in a polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode area, Er-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 24(20), 23396–23402 (2016).
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W. Liu, C. Li, Z. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and G. Chang, “Self-phase modulation enabled, wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser sources: an energy scalable approach,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15328–15340 (2016).
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W. Liu, S.-H. Chia, H.-Y. Chung, R. Greinert, F. X. Kärtner, and G. Chang, “Energetic ultrafast fiber laser sources tunable in 1030-1215 nm for deep tissue multi-photon microscopy,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6822–6831 (2017).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. Xu, W. Zipfel, J. B. Shear, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Multiphoton fluorescence excitation: new spectral windows for biological nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93(20), 10763–10768 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

P. Cadroas, L. Kotov, L. Abdeladim, M. Likhachev, D. Lipatov, A. Hideur, W. Supatto, J. Livet, E. Beaurepaire, and S. Février, “Three-photon microscopy with a monolithic all-fiber format laser emitting at 1650 nm,” in Advanced Photonics Congress 2016 (IPR, NOMA, Sensors, Networks, SPPCom, SOF), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper SoM4F.4.
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulation results of a 300-fs pulse with 40-nJ pulse energy propagating in an optical fiber with zero GVD. (a) spectral evolution along fiber length. The pulse and the spectrum after 4-cm propagation are plotted in (b) and (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Corresponding optical pulses (blue curve) and the calculated TL pulses (red curve) from the filtered spectra are shown in (a) for the leftmost lobe and in (b) for the rightmost lobe. Insets: filtered optical spectra. TL: transform-limited.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulation results of a 300-fs pulse with 40-nJ pulse energy propagating in 4-cm optical fiber (MFD of 4 µm) with different dispersion combinations: ( β 2 =40 fs2/mm, β 3 =0), ( β 2 =40 fs2/mm, β 3 =200 fs3/mm), and ( β 2 =40 fs2/mm, β 3 =200 fs3/mm). β 2 and β 3 denote the GVD and the TOD.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation results of a 300-fs hyperbolic-secant pulse propagating in an optical fiber (MFD of 4 µm) with different combination of input pulse energy (E) and fiber length (L). The fiber has a positive GVD of 40 fs2/mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup. WDM: wavelength-division multiplexing, EDF: erbium-doped fiber, EYDF: erbium ytterbium co-doped fiber, L: lens, M: mirror, ISO: isolator, HWP: half-wave plate, PBS: polarization beam splitter, LPF: long pass filter.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) GDD contribution of 1-m PM DCF, 1-m PM1550, and 1-mm diffraction-grating pair. (b) Measured autocorrelation trace (red) of the compressed pulse and calculated autocorrelation trace (black dashed) of the transform-limited pulse allowed by the optical spectrum. Inset: Optical spectrum of the compressed pulse. It is plotted in linear scale.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Output spectra from HNLF at different fiber length (4 cm versus 2 cm) and pulse energy. We adjust the input pulse energy such that the spectra generated by both fibers have their rightmost spectral lobes peaking at (a) 1.59 μm, (b) 1.63 μm, (c) 1.66 μm, (d) 1.68 μm, and (e) 1.71 μm. Coupled pulse energies for each fiber are presented in each figure as well.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (Left column) Filtered optical spectra from 2-cm HNLF; their peak wavelength, average power, and pulse energy are labeled in the figure. (Right column) Measured autocorrelation traces (red solid curves) and autocorrelation traces calculated from the transform-limited pulses allowed by the filtered spectra (black dotted curves).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Output spectra from DCF3 and DCF38. Both of them are 4-cm long. Inset: dispersion of DCF3 and DCF38.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (Left column) Filtered optical spectra from 4-cm DCF38. Their peak wavelength, pulse energy, and average power are labeled in the figure. (Right column) Measured autocorrelation traces of the pulses before (red curves) and after (purple curves) being dechirped by fused silica plates. Black dashed curves plot the calculated autocorrelation traces of the transform-limited pulses allowed by the filtered spectra.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Properties of optical fibers used for spectrum broadening

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