Abstract

In this paper, a high-speed non-mechanical two-dimensional KTN beam deflector is reported. The scanning mechanism is based on the combination of space charge controlled beam deflection and temperature gradient enabled beam deflection in a nanodisordered KTN crystal. Both theoretical analyses and experimental investigations are provided, which agree relatively well with each other. This work provides an effective way for realizing multi-dimensional high-speed non-mechanical beam deflection, which can be very useful for a variety of applications, including high-speed 3D laser printing, high resolution high speed scanning imaging, and free space reconfigurable laser communications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, and L. R. Bloom, “Electro-optic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE 52(2), 193–194 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Nashimoto, S. Nakamura, T. Morikawa, H. Moriyama, M. Watanabe, and E. Osakabe, “Fabrication of electro-optic Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 heterostructure waveguides on Nb-doped SrTiO3 by solid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2761–2763 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(8), 141–143 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y.-C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Giant electro-optic effect in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4574–4577 (2013).
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  12. M. Ohmi, A. Fukuda, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, and J. Kobayashi, “Development of novel high-speed enface optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 027001 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Sasaki, “High-speed spectrometer using KTN optical beam scanner,” NTT Tech. Rev. 7(12), 1–5 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
  15. W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C. Wang, J. Yao, and S. Yin, “Design and implementation of super broadband high speed waveguide switches,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860W (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Non-uniform space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580S (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Permittivity changes induced by injected electrons and field-induced phase transition in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9S), 09PB02 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C.-J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Safioui, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Pyroliton: pyroelectric spatial soliton,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22209–22216 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: Optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light Modulation and Beam Deflection with Potassium Tantalate‐Niobate Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 388–398 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. P. McKelvey, “Electrostatic fields in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Am. J. Phys. 56(8), 713–718 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  26. T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Charge distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors formed by voltage application,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14114–14126 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Non-uniform space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580S (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C.-J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

M. Ohmi, A. Fukuda, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, and J. Kobayashi, “Development of novel high-speed enface optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 027001 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wu and S. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable laser based on electro-optic effect,” Proc. SPIE 9343, 934321 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C. Wang, J. Yao, and S. Yin, “Design and implementation of super broadband high speed waveguide switches,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860W (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J. Yao, J.-H. Chao, and S. Yin, “Alignment free all solid state angularly multiplexed holographic memory systems,” Asian J. Phys. 24(12), 1651–1658 (2015).

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yao, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Nanosecond speed pre-injected space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860T (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Permittivity changes induced by injected electrons and field-induced phase transition in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9S), 09PB02 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Charge distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors formed by voltage application,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14114–14126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Y. Sasaki, “High-speed spectrometer using KTN optical beam scanner,” NTT Tech. Rev. 7(12), 1–5 (2009).

J. Safioui, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Pyroliton: pyroelectric spatial soliton,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22209–22216 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: Optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Nashimoto, S. Nakamura, T. Morikawa, H. Moriyama, M. Watanabe, and E. Osakabe, “Fabrication of electro-optic Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 heterostructure waveguides on Nb-doped SrTiO3 by solid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2761–2763 (1999).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, I. Yoshizawa, and T. Asakura, “Laser-beam scanning system using an acoustic-optic deflector: its application to fundus imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(2), 151–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

J. P. McKelvey, “Electrostatic fields in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Am. J. Phys. 56(8), 713–718 (1988).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light Modulation and Beam Deflection with Potassium Tantalate‐Niobate Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

1964 (2)

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, and L. R. Bloom, “Electro-optic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE 52(2), 193–194 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, K.

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, I. Yoshizawa, and T. Asakura, “Laser-beam scanning system using an acoustic-optic deflector: its application to fundus imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(2), 151–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

An, D.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Asakura, T.

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, I. Yoshizawa, and T. Asakura, “Laser-beam scanning system using an acoustic-optic deflector: its application to fundus imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(2), 151–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bloom, L. R.

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, and L. R. Bloom, “Electro-optic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE 52(2), 193–194 (1964).
[Crossref]

Buhrer, C. F.

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, and L. R. Bloom, “Electro-optic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE 52(2), 193–194 (1964).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Giant electro-optic effect in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4574–4577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, J.-H.

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C.-J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Non-uniform space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580S (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C. Wang, J. Yao, and S. Yin, “Design and implementation of super broadband high speed waveguide switches,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860W (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J. Yao, J.-H. Chao, and S. Yin, “Alignment free all solid state angularly multiplexed holographic memory systems,” Asian J. Phys. 24(12), 1651–1658 (2015).

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yao, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Nanosecond speed pre-injected space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860T (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
[Crossref]

Chauvet, M.

Chen, C. J.

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Non-uniform space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580S (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-J.

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C.-J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light Modulation and Beam Deflection with Potassium Tantalate‐Niobate Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Devaux, F.

Fowler, V. J.

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, and L. R. Bloom, “Electro-optic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE 52(2), 193–194 (1964).
[Crossref]

Fujiura, K.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: Optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, A.

M. Ohmi, A. Fukuda, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, and J. Kobayashi, “Development of novel high-speed enface optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 027001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geusic, J. E.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light Modulation and Beam Deflection with Potassium Tantalate‐Niobate Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Haruna, M.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hisatake, S.

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, R. C.

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C.-J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Non-uniform space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580S (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yao, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Nanosecond speed pre-injected space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860T (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Giant electro-optic effect in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4574–4577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imai, T.

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Charge distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors formed by voltage application,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14114–14126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Permittivity changes induced by injected electrons and field-induced phase transition in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9S), 09PB02 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: Optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jang, C.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kato, K.

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, J.

M. Ohmi, A. Fukuda, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, and J. Kobayashi, “Development of novel high-speed enface optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 027001 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Permittivity changes induced by injected electrons and field-induced phase transition in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9S), 09PB02 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Charge distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors formed by voltage application,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14114–14126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, I. Yoshizawa, and T. Asakura, “Laser-beam scanning system using an acoustic-optic deflector: its application to fundus imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(2), 151–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kojima, S.

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Permittivity changes induced by injected electrons and field-induced phase transition in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9S), 09PB02 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, S. K.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light Modulation and Beam Deflection with Potassium Tantalate‐Niobate Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
[Crossref]

Maki, J. J.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

McKelvey, J. P.

J. P. McKelvey, “Electrostatic fields in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Am. J. Phys. 56(8), 713–718 (1988).
[Crossref]

Miyazu, J.

M. Ohmi, A. Fukuda, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, and J. Kobayashi, “Development of novel high-speed enface optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 027001 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, J. Miyazu, and J. Kobayashi, “Charge distributions in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors formed by voltage application,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14114–14126 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Permittivity changes induced by injected electrons and field-induced phase transition in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9S), 09PB02 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: Optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Morikawa, T.

K. Nashimoto, S. Nakamura, T. Morikawa, H. Moriyama, M. Watanabe, and E. Osakabe, “Fabrication of electro-optic Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 heterostructure waveguides on Nb-doped SrTiO3 by solid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2761–2763 (1999).
[Crossref]

Moriyama, H.

K. Nashimoto, S. Nakamura, T. Morikawa, H. Moriyama, M. Watanabe, and E. Osakabe, “Fabrication of electro-optic Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 heterostructure waveguides on Nb-doped SrTiO3 by solid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2761–2763 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mott, A. G.

Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Giant electro-optic effect in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4574–4577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naganuma, K.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: Optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

K. Nashimoto, S. Nakamura, T. Morikawa, H. Moriyama, M. Watanabe, and E. Osakabe, “Fabrication of electro-optic Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 heterostructure waveguides on Nb-doped SrTiO3 by solid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2761–2763 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nashimoto, K.

K. Nashimoto, S. Nakamura, T. Morikawa, H. Moriyama, M. Watanabe, and E. Osakabe, “Fabrication of electro-optic Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 heterostructure waveguides on Nb-doped SrTiO3 by solid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2761–2763 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ohmi, M.

M. Ohmi, A. Fukuda, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, and J. Kobayashi, “Development of novel high-speed enface optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 027001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Okabe, Y.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Omiya, K.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Osakabe, E.

K. Nashimoto, S. Nakamura, T. Morikawa, H. Moriyama, M. Watanabe, and E. Osakabe, “Fabrication of electro-optic Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 heterostructure waveguides on Nb-doped SrTiO3 by solid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2761–2763 (1999).
[Crossref]

Safioui, J.

Sakai, Y.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Sasaki, “High-speed spectrometer using KTN optical beam scanner,” NTT Tech. Rev. 7(12), 1–5 (2009).

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: Optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sasaura, M.

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: Optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shibuya, K.

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Skinner, J. G.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light Modulation and Beam Deflection with Potassium Tantalate‐Niobate Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taboada, J. M.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tang, S.

P. Wu and S. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable laser based on electro-optic effect,” Proc. SPIE 9343, 934321 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, S.

M. Ohmi, A. Fukuda, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, and J. Kobayashi, “Development of novel high-speed enface optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 027001 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Permittivity changes induced by injected electrons and field-induced phase transition in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9S), 09PB02 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ueno, M.

M. Ohmi, A. Fukuda, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, and J. Kobayashi, “Development of novel high-speed enface optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 027001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Uitert, L. G.

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C. Wang, J. Yao, and S. Yin, “Design and implementation of super broadband high speed waveguide switches,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860W (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yao, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Nanosecond speed pre-injected space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860T (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Giant electro-optic effect in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4574–4577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

K. Nashimoto, S. Nakamura, T. Morikawa, H. Moriyama, M. Watanabe, and E. Osakabe, “Fabrication of electro-optic Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 heterostructure waveguides on Nb-doped SrTiO3 by solid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2761–2763 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wemple, S. H.

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light Modulation and Beam Deflection with Potassium Tantalate‐Niobate Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.

P. Wu and S. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable laser based on electro-optic effect,” Proc. SPIE 9343, 934321 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yagi, S.

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yao, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Nanosecond speed pre-injected space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860T (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C. Wang, J. Yao, and S. Yin, “Design and implementation of super broadband high speed waveguide switches,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860W (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J. Yao, J.-H. Chao, and S. Yin, “Alignment free all solid state angularly multiplexed holographic memory systems,” Asian J. Phys. 24(12), 1651–1658 (2015).

Yin, S.

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Non-uniform space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580S (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C.-J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, J. Yao, J.-H. Chao, and S. Yin, “Alignment free all solid state angularly multiplexed holographic memory systems,” Asian J. Phys. 24(12), 1651–1658 (2015).

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C. Wang, J. Yao, and S. Yin, “Design and implementation of super broadband high speed waveguide switches,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860W (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yao, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Nanosecond speed pre-injected space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860T (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, C. Wang, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, and A. G. Mott, “Giant electro-optic effect in nanodisordered KTN crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4574–4577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshizawa, I.

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, I. Yoshizawa, and T. Asakura, “Laser-beam scanning system using an acoustic-optic deflector: its application to fundus imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(2), 151–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. H.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C.-J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Non-uniform space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580S (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yao, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Nanosecond speed pre-injected space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860T (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J. Yao, J.-H. Chao, and S. Yin, “Alignment free all solid state angularly multiplexed holographic memory systems,” Asian J. Phys. 24(12), 1651–1658 (2015).

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C. Wang, J. Yao, and S. Yin, “Design and implementation of super broadband high speed waveguide switches,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860W (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

J. P. McKelvey, “Electrostatic fields in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Am. J. Phys. 56(8), 713–718 (1988).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

M. Ohmi, A. Fukuda, J. Miyazu, M. Ueno, S. Toyoda, and J. Kobayashi, “Development of novel high-speed enface optical coherence tomography system using KTN optical beam deflector,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 027001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Miyazu, T. Imai, S. Toyoda, M. Sasaura, S. Yagi, K. Kato, Y. Sasaki, and K. Fujiura, “New beam scanning model for high-speed operation using KTa1-xNbxO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(11), 111501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Nashimoto, S. Nakamura, T. Morikawa, H. Moriyama, M. Watanabe, and E. Osakabe, “Fabrication of electro-optic Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 heterostructure waveguides on Nb-doped SrTiO3 by solid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(19), 2761–2763 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Hisatake, K. Shibuya, and T. Kobayashi, “Ultrafast traveling-wave electro-optic deflector using domain engineered LiTaO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081101 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. G. Van Uitert, and S. H. Wemple, “Electro-optic properties of some ABO3 perovskites in the paraelectric phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(8), 141–143 (1964).
[Crossref]

Asian J. Phys. (1)

W. Zhu, J. Yao, J.-H. Chao, and S. Yin, “Alignment free all solid state angularly multiplexed holographic memory systems,” Asian J. Phys. 24(12), 1651–1658 (2015).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Okabe, Y. Sasaki, M. Ueno, T. Sakamoto, S. Toyoda, S. Yagi, K. Naganuma, K. Fujiura, Y. Sakai, J. Kobayashi, K. Omiya, M. Ohmi, and M. Haruna, “200 kHz swept light source equipped with KTN deflector for optical coherence tomography,” Electron. Lett. 48(4), 201–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Nakamura, J. Miyazu, Y. Sasaki, T. Imai, M. Sasaura, and K. Fujiura, “Space-charge-controlled electro-optic effect: Optical beam deflection by electro-optic effect and space-charge-controlled electrical conduction,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(1), 013105 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. S. Chen, J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, J. G. Skinner, and S. H. Wemple, “Light Modulation and Beam Deflection with Potassium Tantalate‐Niobate Crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 388–398 (1966).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Imai, S. Toyoda, J. Miyazu, J. Kobayashi, and S. Kojima, “Permittivity changes induced by injected electrons and field-induced phase transition in KTa1-xNbxO3 optical beam deflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9S), 09PB02 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Kobayashi, K. Akiyama, I. Yoshizawa, and T. Asakura, “Laser-beam scanning system using an acoustic-optic deflector: its application to fundus imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(2), 151–157 (1990).
[Crossref]

NTT Tech. Rev. (1)

Y. Sasaki, “High-speed spectrometer using KTN optical beam scanner,” NTT Tech. Rev. 7(12), 1–5 (2009).

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Sun, J. Kim, C. Jang, D. An, X. Lu, Q. Zhou, J. M. Taboada, R. T. Chen, J. J. Maki, S. Tang, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, C. H. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymeric waveguide prism-based electro-optic beam deflector,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1217–1222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

V. J. Fowler, C. F. Buhrer, and L. R. Bloom, “Electro-optic light beam deflector,” Proc. IEEE 52(2), 193–194 (1964).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (5)

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. Wang, J. Yao, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Nanosecond speed pre-injected space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860T (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wu and S. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable laser based on electro-optic effect,” Proc. SPIE 9343, 934321 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C. Wang, J. Yao, and S. Yin, “Design and implementation of super broadband high speed waveguide switches,” Proc. SPIE 9586, 95860W (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Chao, W. Zhu, C. J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Non-uniform space charge controlled KTN beam deflector,” Proc. SPIE 9958, 99580S (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, S. Yin, R. C. Hoffman, A. G. Mott, and C. Luo, “Super broadband ultrafast waveguide switches based on dynamic waveguiding effect,” Proc. SPIE 9200, 92000X (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Zhu, J.-H. Chao, C.-J. Chen, S. Yin, and R. C. Hoffman, “Three order increase in scanning speed of space charge-controlled KTN deflector by eliminating electric field induced phase transition in nanodisordered KTN,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 33143 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. Zhou, F. Mok, and D. Psaltis, “Beam deflectors and spatial light modulators for holographic storage application,” Holographic Data Storage, H. J. Coufal, Springer, (2000).

D. E. Holmgren, and W. Robinett, “Scanned laser displays for head mounted displays,” University of North Carolina Department of Computer Science Technical Report, TR92–029 (1992).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A sketch of a 1-D space-charge-controlled (SCC) KTN beam deflector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A sketch of a 2-D temperature-gradient and SCC combined KTN beam deflector.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The calculated relative permittivity, ε r (y), as a function of location y with following parameters: T 1 =23  C o , T 2 =38  C o , T c =23  C o , C 1 =110,000, and H=3 mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The calculated electric field under an external biasing field (a) without temperature gradient, in which case, E y =0, and (b) with a temperature gradient of T 1 = 23  C o  and  T 2 =38  C o , in which case, E y 0. The colors bar show the magnitude of electric field in V/m.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The calculated refractive index distribution (a) without the temperature gradient (i.e., T 1 = T 2 ) and (b) with a temperature gradient of T 1 = 23  C o  and  T 2 =38  C o .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The experimental setup used to measure the deflection angle.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The deflection angles (a) in x direction at different applied voltages with the circularly shaped dots being the experimentally measured results and the solid line denoting the calculated deflection angles based on Eqs. (17)(a), and 17(b) in y direction at different applied voltages, with the triangularly shaped dots being the experimentally measured results and the solid line denoting the calculated deflection angles based on Eq. (17)(b).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The deflection locations in x-y plane measured at different voltages 100V-800V with a step of 100V and under different temperature gradients. The square, diamond, and circular dots denote the measured deflection locations corresponding to the temperature gradients 23-28 °C, 23-33 °C, and 23-38 °C, respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The experimental setup used to measure the deflection speed
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The experimentally measured time response of the beam deflection.

Equations (22)

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E(x)= eN ε ( x G 2 + εV eNG ),
Δn(x)= 1 2 n 3 g 11 ε 2 E (x) 2 = 1 2 n 3 g 11 e 2 N 2 ( x G 2 + εV eNG ) 2 ,
θ(x)=L d dx Δn(x) = n 3 g 11 e 2 N 2 L( x G 2 + εV eNG ).
T(y)= T 1 +( T 2 T 1 ) y H ,
ε r = C 1 T T c ,
ε r (y)= C 1 T 1 +( T 2 T 1 ) y H T c .
×E=0,
D=ρ.
E x z =0,
E y z =0,
E x y = E y x .
(ε(y) E x ) x + (ε(y) E y ) y =ρ.
ε(y) E x x + dε(y) dy E y +ε(y) E y y =ρ.
ε(y) 2 E x x 2 + dε(y) dy E y x +ε(y) E y x y =0.
ε(y) 2 E x x 2 + dε(y) dy E x y +ε(y) 2 Ex y 2 =0,
ε(y)( 2 E y x 2 + 2 E y y 2 )+ dε(y) dy E y y + [ d 2 ε(y) d y 2 1 ε(y) ( dε(y) dy ) 2 ] E y + 1 ε(y) dε(y) dy ρ=0,
E y (0,y)=0,
E y (G,y)=0,
0 G E x dx=V ,
Δn(x,y)= 1 2 n 3 g 11 ε 0 2 ( ε r (y)1) 2 E x 2 1 2 n 3 g 12 ε 0 2 ( ε r (y)1) 2 E y 2 ,
θ x =L Δn(x,y) x =L n 3 g 11 ε 0 2 ( ε r (y)1) 2 E x E x x L n 3 g 12 ε 0 2 ( ε r (y)1) 2 E y E y x ,
θ y =L Δn(x,y) y =L n 3 g 11 ε 0 2 ( ε r (y)1) d ε r (y) dy E x 2 L n 3 g 11 ε 0 2 ( ε r (y)1) 2 E x E x y =L n 3 g 12 ε 0 2 ( ε r (y)1) d ε r (y) dy E y 2 L n 3 g 12 ε 0 2 ( ε r (y)1) 2 E y E y y ,

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