Abstract

A simple method for reducing thermal lensing in an end-pumped solid state laser using a ring-shaped pump beam is reported. Analytical expressions for the temperature distribution and the thermal lensing focal length in a laser medium end-pumped by a beam with a ring-shaped intensity profile are derived. The results indicate that thermal effects including thermal lensing can be significantly reduced due to a more uniform temperature distribution. This approach has been applied to a Nd:YVO4 amplifier operating at 1064 nm confirming that the brightness of the output beam can be remarkably improved at high power levels due to the better beam quality for the ring-shaped pumping compared to the conventional quasi-top-hat pumping. The prospects for power scaling and further improvement in laser performance will be discussed.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and P. J. Harshman, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Contag, M. Karszewski, C. Stewen, A. Giesen, and H. Hugel, “Theoretical modelling and experimental investigations of the diode-pumped thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Quantum Electron. 29(8), 697–703 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Simmons, T. Y. Chung, and M. Bass, “Thermal Lensing of Edge-pumped Slab Lasers-I,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 413–418 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. K. Cousins, “Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1057–1069 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
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  9. P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, S. C. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. C. Jacinto, A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, S. M. Lima, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens spectroscopy of Nd:YAG,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 034104 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Jaque, J. C. Lagomancini, C. Jacinto, and T. Catunda, “Continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb:glass laser with near 90% slope efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121101 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, L. E. Bausá, and J. García-Solé, “Thermal lens and heat generation of Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1.064 and 1.34 microm,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6317–6323 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  17. D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Sangla, M. Castaing, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 laser by direct in-band diode pumping at 914 nm,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2159–2161 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J. W. Kim, M. J. Yarrow, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power single-frequency continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 master-oscillator power amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 539–543 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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  22. A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
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    [Crossref]
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  27. L. C. Malacarne, N. G. C. Astrath, and L. S. Herculano, “Laser-induced wavefront distortion in optical materials: a general model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(12), 3355–3359 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. C. Malacarne, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Unified theoretical model for calculating laser-induced wavefront distortion in optical materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(7), 1772–1777 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. W. Kim and W. A. Clarkson, “Selective generation of Laguerre–Gaussian(LG0n) mode output in a diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 296, 109–112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, J. R. Hayes, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power Er:YAG laser with radially-polarized Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) mode output,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14526–14531 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. W. Kim and W. A. Clarkson, “Selective generation of Laguerre–Gaussian(LG0n) mode output in a diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 296, 109–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

D. Sangla, M. Castaing, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 laser by direct in-band diode pumping at 914 nm,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2159–2161 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 626–637 (2009).

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

J. W. Kim, M. J. Yarrow, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power single-frequency continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 master-oscillator power amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 539–543 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Jaque, J. C. Lagomancini, C. Jacinto, and T. Catunda, “Continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb:glass laser with near 90% slope efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121101 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and P. J. Harshman, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Simmons, T. Y. Chung, and M. Bass, “Thermal Lensing of Edge-pumped Slab Lasers-I,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 413–418 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Jacinto, A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, S. M. Lima, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens spectroscopy of Nd:YAG,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 034104 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Z. Xiong, G. L. Zhigang, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, “Reduced thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. 178(4–6), 383–393 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2–3), 245–254 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Contag, M. Karszewski, C. Stewen, A. Giesen, and H. Hugel, “Theoretical modelling and experimental investigations of the diode-pumped thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Quantum Electron. 29(8), 697–703 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, S. C. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

A. K. Cousins, “Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1057–1069 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abdolvand, A.

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alcock, A. J.

Andrade, A. A.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Jacinto, A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, S. M. Lima, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens spectroscopy of Nd:YAG,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 034104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Astrath, N. G. C.

Baesso, M. L.

L. C. Malacarne, N. G. C. Astrath, and M. L. Baesso, “Unified theoretical model for calculating laser-induced wavefront distortion in optical materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(7), 1772–1777 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Jacinto, A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, S. M. Lima, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens spectroscopy of Nd:YAG,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 034104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Balembois, F.

D. Sangla, M. Castaing, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 laser by direct in-band diode pumping at 914 nm,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2159–2161 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and P. J. Harshman, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

Balmer, J. E.

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, “Reduced thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. 178(4–6), 383–393 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bass, M.

B. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Simmons, T. Y. Chung, and M. Bass, “Thermal Lensing of Edge-pumped Slab Lasers-I,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 413–418 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bausá, L. E.

Bernard, J. E.

Castaing, M.

Catunda, T.

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, L. E. Bausá, and J. García-Solé, “Thermal lens and heat generation of Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1.064 and 1.34 microm,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6317–6323 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Jaque, J. C. Lagomancini, C. Jacinto, and T. Catunda, “Continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb:glass laser with near 90% slope efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121101 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Jacinto, A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, S. M. Lima, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens spectroscopy of Nd:YAG,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 034104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Simmons, T. Y. Chung, and M. Bass, “Thermal Lensing of Edge-pumped Slab Lasers-I,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 413–418 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

B. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Simmons, T. Y. Chung, and M. Bass, “Thermal Lensing of Edge-pumped Slab Lasers-I,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 413–418 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, S. C. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chenais, S.

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and P. J. Harshman, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chung, T. Y.

B. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Simmons, T. Y. Chung, and M. Bass, “Thermal Lensing of Edge-pumped Slab Lasers-I,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 413–418 (2006).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

J. W. Kim and W. A. Clarkson, “Selective generation of Laguerre–Gaussian(LG0n) mode output in a diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 296, 109–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, J. R. Hayes, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power Er:YAG laser with radially-polarized Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) mode output,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14526–14531 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient in-band pumped Ho:LuLiF(4) 2 microm laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 420–422 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, M. J. Yarrow, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power single-frequency continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 master-oscillator power amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 539–543 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[Crossref]

Contag, K.

K. Contag, M. Karszewski, C. Stewen, A. Giesen, and H. Hugel, “Theoretical modelling and experimental investigations of the diode-pumped thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Quantum Electron. 29(8), 697–703 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cooper, L. J.

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cousins, A. K.

A. K. Cousins, “Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1057–1069 (1992).
[Crossref]

Druon, F.

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and P. J. Harshman, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[Crossref]

Forget, S.

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and P. J. Harshman, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

Friel, G. J.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (2002).
[Crossref]

García-Solé, J.

Georges, P.

D. Sangla, M. Castaing, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 laser by direct in-band diode pumping at 914 nm,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2159–2161 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and P. J. Harshman, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

Giesen, A.

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Contag, M. Karszewski, C. Stewen, A. Giesen, and H. Hugel, “Theoretical modelling and experimental investigations of the diode-pumped thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Quantum Electron. 29(8), 697–703 (1999).
[Crossref]

Graf, Th.

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, “Reduced thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. 178(4–6), 383–393 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hardman, P. J.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harshman, P. J.

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and P. J. Harshman, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hayes, J. R.

Herculano, L. S.

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, S. C. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huang, W. L.

Z. Xiong, G. L. Zhigang, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hugel, H.

K. Contag, M. Karszewski, C. Stewen, A. Giesen, and H. Hugel, “Theoretical modelling and experimental investigations of the diode-pumped thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Quantum Electron. 29(8), 697–703 (1999).
[Crossref]

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jacinto, C.

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, L. E. Bausá, and J. García-Solé, “Thermal lens and heat generation of Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1.064 and 1.34 microm,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6317–6323 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jaque, J. C. Lagomancini, C. Jacinto, and T. Catunda, “Continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb:glass laser with near 90% slope efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121101 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Jacinto, A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, S. M. Lima, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens spectroscopy of Nd:YAG,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 034104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, L. E. Bausá, and J. García-Solé, “Thermal lens and heat generation of Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1.064 and 1.34 microm,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6317–6323 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jaque, J. C. Lagomancini, C. Jacinto, and T. Catunda, “Continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb:glass laser with near 90% slope efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kao, C. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, S. C. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997).
[Crossref]

Karszewski, M.

K. Contag, M. Karszewski, C. Stewen, A. Giesen, and H. Hugel, “Theoretical modelling and experimental investigations of the diode-pumped thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Quantum Electron. 29(8), 697–703 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

J. W. Kim and W. A. Clarkson, “Selective generation of Laguerre–Gaussian(LG0n) mode output in a diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 296, 109–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, J. R. Hayes, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power Er:YAG laser with radially-polarized Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) mode output,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14526–14531 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient in-band pumped Ho:LuLiF(4) 2 microm laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 420–422 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, M. J. Yarrow, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power single-frequency continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 master-oscillator power amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 539–543 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lagomancini, J. C.

D. Jaque, J. C. Lagomancini, C. Jacinto, and T. Catunda, “Continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb:glass laser with near 90% slope efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lim, G. C.

Z. Xiong, G. L. Zhigang, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lima, S. M.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Jacinto, A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, S. M. Lima, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens spectroscopy of Nd:YAG,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 034104 (2005).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, “Reduced thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. 178(4–6), 383–393 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mackenzie, J. I.

Malacarne, L. C.

Messias, D. N.

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moore, N.

Z. Xiong, G. L. Zhigang, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neuenschwander, B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2–3), 245–254 (1999).
[Crossref]

Parisi, D.

Pollnau, M.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sangla, D.

Shen, D. Y.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

Simmons, J.

B. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Simmons, T. Y. Chung, and M. Bass, “Thermal Lensing of Edge-pumped Slab Lasers-I,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 413–418 (2006).
[Crossref]

Speiser, J.

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stewen, C.

K. Contag, M. Karszewski, C. Stewen, A. Giesen, and H. Hugel, “Theoretical modelling and experimental investigations of the diode-pumped thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Quantum Electron. 29(8), 697–703 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tonelli, M.

Veronesi, S.

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, S. C. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, S. C. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weber, H. P.

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, “Reduced thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. 178(4–6), 383–393 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2–3), 245–254 (1999).
[Crossref]

Weber, R.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2–3), 245–254 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Z.

Z. Xiong, G. L. Zhigang, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yarrow, M. J.

J. W. Kim, M. J. Yarrow, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power single-frequency continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 master-oscillator power amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 539–543 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zhigang, G. L.

Z. Xiong, G. L. Zhigang, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

B. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Simmons, T. Y. Chung, and M. Bass, “Thermal Lensing of Edge-pumped Slab Lasers-I,” Appl. Phys. B 82(3), 413–418 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, M. J. Yarrow, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power single-frequency continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 master-oscillator power amplifier,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 539–543 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Jacinto, A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, S. M. Lima, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens spectroscopy of Nd:YAG,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 034104 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Jaque, J. C. Lagomancini, C. Jacinto, and T. Catunda, “Continuous-wave diode-pumped Yb:glass laser with near 90% slope efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

A. K. Cousins, “Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(4), 1057–1069 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 647–655 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, S. C. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: Influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997).
[Crossref]

Z. Xiong, G. L. Zhigang, N. Moore, W. L. Huang, and G. C. Lim, “Detailed investigation of thermal effects in longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 979–986 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 626–637 (2009).

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: Thermal and optical properties of laser glasses-A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(32-35), 3582–3597 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

W. A. Clarkson, “Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2381–2395 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. W. Kim and W. A. Clarkson, “Selective generation of Laguerre–Gaussian(LG0n) mode output in a diode-laser pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 296, 109–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, “Reduced thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods,” Opt. Commun. 178(4–6), 383–393 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, and H. P. Weber, “Thermal effects in solid-state laser materials,” Opt. Mater. 11(2–3), 245–254 (1999).
[Crossref]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Chenais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and P. J. Harshman, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: The case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Contag, M. Karszewski, C. Stewen, A. Giesen, and H. Hugel, “Theoretical modelling and experimental investigations of the diode-pumped thin-disk Yb:YAG laser,” Quantum Electron. 29(8), 697–703 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

W. Koechner, Sold-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, 2006), Chap. 7.

S. M. Ahn, J. G. Hwang, D. J. Kim, and J. W. Kim, “Reduced thermal effects in a ring-shaped solid state laser,” in 10th Asia-Pacific Advanced Lasers and Their Applications (2016).

D. Lin and W. A. Clarkson, “Reduced thermal lensing in an end-pumped Nd: YVO4 laser using a ring-shaped pump beam.” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper SM3M.5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Geometry of the end-pumped rod and the ring-shaped intensity distribution.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized temperature distribution along the radial direction for the ring-shaped pump beams (a) with different values of wa/wb, (b) an enlarged picture of (a), and (c) different values of wb/r0.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for measurement of the thermal lens power and power amplification.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Thermal lens powers of the probe beams with different sizes for the quasi-top-hat (solid line) and ring-shaped (dashed line) pump beams.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Amplified output power and beam quality as a function of absorbed pump power, and (b) calculated brightness for the quasi-top-hat and ring-shaped pump beams.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r ( r T r )+ 2 T z 2 = Q(r,z) K c
Q(r,z)={ 0,0r< w a P h π( w b 2 w a 2 ) α 1 e αl e αz , w a r w b 0, w a <r
ΔT(r,z)=T(r,z)T(0,z) = P h 4π K c α 1 e αl e αz ×{ 1+ w a 2 w b 2 w a 2 ln( w a 2 w b 2 )+ln( r 0 2 w b 2 ),0r< w a w b 2 r 2 w b 2 w a 2 + w a 2 w b 2 w a 2 ln( r 2 w b 2 )+ln( r 0 2 w b 2 ), w a r w b ln( r 0 2 r 2 ), w b <r
f th (r)= 2πr λ( dΔφ / dr)
Δφ(r)= 2π λ 0 l ΔT(r,z) dn dT dz
f th (r)={ ,0r< w a 2π K c ( w b 2 w a 2 ) P h ( dn / dT ) r 2 r 2 w a 2 , w a r w b 2π K c r 2 P h ( dn / dT ) , w b <r
B= CP λ 2 ( M 2 ) 2

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