Abstract

We present a Moiré method that can be used to investigate positional instabilities in a scanning hard x-ray microscope with nanometer precision. The development of diffraction-limited storage rings offering highly-brilliant synchrotron radiation and improvements of nanofocusing x-ray optics paves the way towards 3D nanotomography with 10 nm resolution or below. However, this trend demands improved designs of x-ray microscope instruments which should offer few-nm beam stabilities with respect to the sample. Our technique can measure the position of optics and sample stage relative to each other in the two directions perpendicular to the beam propagation in a scanning x-ray microscope using simple optical components and visible light. The usefulness of the method was proven by measuring short and long term instabilities of a zone-plate-optics-based prototype microscope. We think it can become an important tool for the characterization of scanning x-ray microscopes, especially prior to experiments with an actual x-ray beam.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. E. Moon, L. Chen, P. N. Everett, M. K. Mondol, and H. I. Smith, “Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for six-axis mask control,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 21, 3112–3115 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, and Y. Tang, “Alignment method based on matched dual-grating moiré fringe for proximity lithograph,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 113603 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

2015 (1)

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, and Y. Tang, “Alignment method based on matched dual-grating moiré fringe for proximity lithograph,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 113603 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

E. E. Moon, L. Chen, P. N. Everett, M. K. Mondol, and H. I. Smith, “Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for six-axis mask control,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 21, 3112–3115 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ade, H.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alves, F.

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

Anderson, E.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bouet, N.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Budai, J. D.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cauchon, G.

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

Chen, L.

E. E. Moon, L. Chen, P. N. Everett, M. K. Mondol, and H. I. Smith, “Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for six-axis mask control,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 21, 3112–3115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. S.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Conley, R.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engblohm, C.

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

Everett, P. N.

E. E. Moon, L. Chen, P. N. Everett, M. K. Mondol, and H. I. Smith, “Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for six-axis mask control,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 21, 3112–3115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fakra, S.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Färm, Elina

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franck, K.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gofron, K.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Härkönen, Emma

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harteneck, B.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hitchcock, A. P.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hitchcock, P.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Holler, M.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, and Y. Tang, “Alignment method based on matched dual-grating moiré fringe for proximity lithograph,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 113603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ice, G. E.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jobert, N.

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

Kalbfleisch, S.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karvinen, P.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kubsky, S.

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

Langlois, F.

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

Lauer, K.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lestrade, A.

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Menzel, A.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, G. E.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mondol, M. K.

E. E. Moon, L. Chen, P. N. Everett, M. K. Mondol, and H. I. Smith, “Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for six-axis mask control,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 21, 3112–3115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moon, E. E.

E. E. Moon, L. Chen, P. N. Everett, M. K. Mondol, and H. I. Smith, “Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for six-axis mask control,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 21, 3112–3115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nazaretski, E.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pang, J. W. L.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quitmann, C.

M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raabe, J.

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rau, C.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rightor, E. G.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ritala, Mikko

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakdinawat, A.

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smith, H. I.

E. E. Moon, L. Chen, P. N. Everett, M. K. Mondol, and H. I. Smith, “Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for six-axis mask control,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 21, 3112–3115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stankevic, T.

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

Steele, W. F.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, and Y. Tang, “Alignment method based on matched dual-grating moiré fringe for proximity lithograph,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 113603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tyliszczak, T.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vogt, U.

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

Wagner, U.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Warwick, T.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, and Y. Tang, “Alignment method based on matched dual-grating moiré fringe for proximity lithograph,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 113603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhong, M.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, and Y. Tang, “Alignment method based on matched dual-grating moiré fringe for proximity lithograph,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 113603 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Rad. (2)

E. Nazaretski, K. Lauer, H. Yan, N. Bouet, J. Zhou, R. Conley, X. Huang, W. Xu, M. Lu, K. Gofron, S. Kalbfleisch, U. Wagner, C. Rau, and Y. S. Chu, “Pushing the limits: an instrument for hard X-ray imaging below 20 nm,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 22(2), 336–341 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at the Advanced Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 10(2), 125–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B (1)

E. E. Moon, L. Chen, P. N. Everett, M. K. Mondol, and H. I. Smith, “Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for six-axis mask control,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 21, 3112–3115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 840–848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, and Y. Tang, “Alignment method based on matched dual-grating moiré fringe for proximity lithograph,” Opt. Eng. 51(11), 113603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. Zhu, S. Hu, J. Yu, S. Zhou, Y. Tang, M. Zhong, L. Zhao, M. Chen, L. Li, Y. He, and W. Jiang, “Four-quadrant gratings moiré fringe alignment measurement in proximity lithograph,” Opt. Exp. 21(3), 3463–3473 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Holler, J. Raabe, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Quitmann, A. Menzel, and O. Bunk, “An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(7), 073703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Holler, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, P. Karvinen, Elina Färm, Emma Härkönen, Mikko Ritala, A. Menzel, J. Raabe, and O. Bunk, “X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3857 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, and J. W. L. Pang, “The race to x-ray microbeam and nanobeam science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. Stankevič, C. Engblohm, F. Langlois, F. Alves, A. Lestrade, N. Jobert, G. Cauchon, U. Vogt, and S. Kubsky, “Interferometric characterizaion of rotation stages for x-ray nanotomography,” submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2017).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic arrangement of the method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photograph of the experiment with (from right to left): LED, zone plate stage with image grating, triplet lens, sample stage with reference grating and long-working distance microscope objective.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) Example of a Moiré image obtained from the detector. The white rectangular marks one area that is used for analysis, and the coordinate system is indicated in the top right corner. b) Discrete Fourier transform (absolute value) of the signal in the white rectangular area after integration in vertical y direction. The Moiré frequencies are marked with crosses. c) Phase angle representation of the same data. The phase values at the Moiré frequencies that are used for displacement calculations are indicated with crosses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Examples of different types of measurements performed with Moiré interferometry. a) Steady-state vibration level measured at 40 Hz is within ±5 nm. b) “Pyramid” scan step test of the linear bottom stage performing 10 nm steps along x. No parasitic motion along y indicates good quality of the drive mechanics. c) Response to a strong punch applied in horizontal direction to the underlying granite block. Measurements show irreversible displacement of 5.8 µm and oscillations at the frequency of 34 Hz. in x direction d) Long term thermal drifts measured during 10 hours correlate along x with changes of the ambient temperature by 60 mK.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p M o i r é = p 1 p 2 | p 1 p 2 | .
Δ x = Δ δ p 1 p 2 2 π ( p 1 + p 2 ) .
Δ δ = δ u p p e r δ l o w e r .

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