Abstract

We demonstrate a modal approach to simultaneous recovery of a sample transmission function and coherence properties of an illuminating X-ray beam that works from a single measurement. The approach based on coherence diffractive imaging, does not depend on a particular model for the coherence function. This single shot imaging method separates the effects of partial coherence in the illuminating beam from the sample, allowing the recovery of high quality sample information.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2013 (2)

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. van Riessen, M. Junker, N. W. Phillips, and A. G. Peele, “A soft x-ray beamline for quantitative nanotomography using ptychography,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885117 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark and A. G. Peele, “Simultaneous sample and partial coherence characterisation using diffractive imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 154103 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

I. A. Vartanyants and A. Singer, “Coherence properties of hard x-ray synchrotron sources and x-ray free-electron lasers,” New J. Phys. 12(3), 035004 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59(1), 1–99 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. M. Quiney, “Coherent diffractive imaging using short wavelength light sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(13), 1109–1149 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Flewett, H. M. Quiney, C. Q. Tran, and K. A. Nugent, “Extracting coherent modes from partially coherent wavefields,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2198–2200 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. Singer, I. A. Vartanyants, M. Kuhlmann, S. Duesterer, R. Treusch, and J. Feldhaus, “Transverse-Coherence Properties of the Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 254801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, “Transverse coherence properties of X-ray beams in third-generation synchrotron radiation source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 588(3), 463–493 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Marchesini, H. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, R. London, A. Szoke, H. He, M. Howells, H. Padmore, R. Rosen, J. Spence, and U. Weierstall, “Coherent x-ray diffractive imaging: applications and limitations,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2344–2353 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of x-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline spicemens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(6), 1662–1669 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Coïsson and S. Marchesini, “Gauss-Schell Sources as Models for Synchrotron Radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 4(5), 263–266 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35(2), 237–246 (1971).

Abbey, B.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Acremann, Y.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allman, B. E.

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of x-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balaur, E.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bang, E.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauschke, H. H.

Cadenazzi, G.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cadenazzi, G. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chantler, C. T.

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of x-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chapman, H.

Chapman, H. N.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(6), 1662–1669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline spicemens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Clark, J. N.

J. N. Clark and A. G. Peele, “Simultaneous sample and partial coherence characterisation using diffractive imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 154103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coïsson, R.

R. Coïsson and S. Marchesini, “Gauss-Schell Sources as Models for Synchrotron Radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 4(5), 263–266 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Combettes, P. L.

Dilanian, R. A.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duesterer, S.

A. Singer, I. A. Vartanyants, M. Kuhlmann, S. Duesterer, R. Treusch, and J. Feldhaus, “Transverse-Coherence Properties of the Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 254801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldhaus, J.

A. Singer, I. A. Vartanyants, M. Kuhlmann, S. Duesterer, R. Treusch, and J. Feldhaus, “Transverse-Coherence Properties of the Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 254801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez-Perea, M.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Flewett, S.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Flewett, H. M. Quiney, C. Q. Tran, and K. A. Nugent, “Extracting coherent modes from partially coherent wavefields,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2198–2200 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geloni, G.

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, “Transverse coherence properties of X-ray beams in third-generation synchrotron radiation source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 588(3), 463–493 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35(2), 237–246 (1971).

Graves, C.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hau-Riege, S.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Hau-Riege, S. P.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
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S. Marchesini, H. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, R. London, A. Szoke, H. He, M. Howells, H. Padmore, R. Rosen, J. Spence, and U. Weierstall, “Coherent x-ray diffractive imaging: applications and limitations,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2344–2353 (2003).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
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Howells, M.

Howells, M. R.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
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D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of x-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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G. van Riessen, M. Junker, N. W. Phillips, and A. G. Peele, “A soft x-ray beamline for quantitative nanotomography using ptychography,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885117 (2013).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline spicemens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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Luke, D. R.

Lüning, J.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline spicemens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
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J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(6), 1662–1669 (1998).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of x-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
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I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
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D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of x-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
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Paterson, D.

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of x-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
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G. van Riessen, M. Junker, N. W. Phillips, and A. G. Peele, “A soft x-ray beamline for quantitative nanotomography using ptychography,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885117 (2013).
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G. van Riessen, M. Junker, N. W. Phillips, and A. G. Peele, “A soft x-ray beamline for quantitative nanotomography using ptychography,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885117 (2013).
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D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of x-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline spicemens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(6), 1662–1669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Scherz, A.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlotter, W. F.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneidmiller, E.

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, “Transverse coherence properties of X-ray beams in third-generation synchrotron radiation source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 588(3), 463–493 (2008).
[Crossref]

Singer, A.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Vartanyants and A. Singer, “Coherence properties of hard x-ray synchrotron sources and x-ray free-electron lasers,” New J. Phys. 12(3), 035004 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Singer, I. A. Vartanyants, M. Kuhlmann, S. Duesterer, R. Treusch, and J. Feldhaus, “Transverse-Coherence Properties of the Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 254801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinn, H.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soufli, R.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spence, J.

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Szoke, A.

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, C. Q.

Treusch, R.

A. Singer, I. A. Vartanyants, M. Kuhlmann, S. Duesterer, R. Treusch, and J. Feldhaus, “Transverse-Coherence Properties of the Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 254801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, J. J.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Riessen, G.

G. van Riessen, M. Junker, N. W. Phillips, and A. G. Peele, “A soft x-ray beamline for quantitative nanotomography using ptychography,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vartanyants, I. A.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Vartanyants and A. Singer, “Coherence properties of hard x-ray synchrotron sources and x-ray free-electron lasers,” New J. Phys. 12(3), 035004 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Singer, I. A. Vartanyants, M. Kuhlmann, S. Duesterer, R. Treusch, and J. Feldhaus, “Transverse-Coherence Properties of the Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 254801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vine, D. J.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weckert, E.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weierstall, U.

S. Marchesini, H. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, R. London, A. Szoke, H. He, M. Howells, H. Padmore, R. Rosen, J. Spence, and U. Weierstall, “Coherent x-ray diffractive imaging: applications and limitations,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2344–2353 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Whitehead, L. W.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, G. J.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wurth, W.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yefanov, O. M.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yurkov, M.

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, “Transverse coherence properties of X-ray beams in third-generation synchrotron radiation source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 588(3), 463–493 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59(1), 1–99 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. N. Clark and A. G. Peele, “Simultaneous sample and partial coherence characterisation using diffractive imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 154103 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. M. Quiney, “Coherent diffractive imaging using short wavelength light sources,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(13), 1109–1149 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(6), 1662–1669 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

R. Coïsson and S. Marchesini, “Gauss-Schell Sources as Models for Synchrotron Radiation,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 4(5), 263–266 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline spicemens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

I. A. Vartanyants and A. Singer, “Coherence properties of hard x-ray synchrotron sources and x-ray free-electron lasers,” New J. Phys. 12(3), 035004 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

G. Geloni, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, “Transverse coherence properties of X-ray beams in third-generation synchrotron radiation source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 588(3), 463–493 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of x-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35(2), 237–246 (1971).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Singer, I. A. Vartanyants, M. Kuhlmann, S. Duesterer, R. Treusch, and J. Feldhaus, “Transverse-Coherence Properties of the Free-Electron-Laser FLASH at DESY,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 254801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Vartanyants, A. Singer, A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, E. Bang, G. J. Williams, G. Cadenazzi, B. Abbey, H. Sinn, D. Attwood, K. A. Nugent, E. Weckert, T. Wang, D. Zhu, B. Wu, C. Graves, A. Scherz, J. J. Turner, W. F. Schlotter, M. Messerschmidt, J. Lüning, Y. Acremann, P. Heimann, D. C. Mancini, V. Joshi, J. Krzywinski, R. Soufli, M. Fernandez-Perea, S. Hau-Riege, A. G. Peele, Y. Feng, O. Krupin, S. Moeller, and W. Wurth, “Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 144801 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. van Riessen, M. Junker, N. W. Phillips, and A. G. Peele, “A soft x-ray beamline for quantitative nanotomography using ptychography,” Proc. SPIE 8851, 885117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. Cadenazzi, Developments in X-ray diffraction microscopy with applications in biological imaging, PhD Thesis (University of Melbourne, 2013).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C. The Art of scientific Computing. Second Edition (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

A. Singer, Coherence properties of third and fourth generation x-ray sources. Theory and experiment, PhD Thesis (University of Hamburg, 2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Binary object used. (b) Logarithm of the diffraction pattern. (c) and (d) GSM recovered magnitudes for 10 modes and 66 modes. (e) and (f) FMM recovered magnitudes for 3 modes and 10 modes. (g) The deviation along the line shown in (d) for the recovered magnitudes: black = GSM, 66 modes; red = GSM, 10 modes; green = FMM, 3 modes; Blue = FMM, 5 modes; and cyan = FMM, 10 modes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The results obtained for the FMM and the GSM using different numbers of modes in the reconstruction and characterisation. (a) The mode occupancies obtained using the FMM for 3, 5, 10 modes and the values for the input GSM. (b) The logarithm of the fidelity for the recovered magnitude. (c) The actual coherence length and the recovered coherence length obtained using the FMM and the GSM, where, the black dashed line represents the actual coherence length, the red solid line is the coherence length recovered from the FMM and the green solid line is the coherence length obtained from the GSM, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Geometry of a CDI experiment. A planar wavefield coming to the sample is limited by the exit slit (EXS) before interacting with the sample. The diffracted wavefield or exit surface wave (ESW) is recorded in the farfield by a CCD detector.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The results obtained from 600 μm exit slit width CDI experiment. (a) and (b) SEM image of the object used and the logarithm of the diffraction pattern, respectively. (c) and (d) The reconstructed magnitudes obtained from the FMM using 10 modes and the GSM using 135 modes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The results of our experiment. (a) The logarithm of χ 2 and (b) the recovered coherence lengths for 50 μm and 600 μm data using the FMM (black points), GSM (red points) and YDS (green points) approaches. For the GSM, 45 and 135 modes were respectively used for 50 and 600 μm data reconstructions while 10 FMM modes were used for both cases.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ j (x,z)= A 1 1 π 1 4 ( 2 j j! ) 1 2 H j ( A 2 x )exp[ - ( A 2 x ) 2 2 ]exp{ i[ kz-( j+1 )φ( z ) ]+ ik x 2 2R( z ) },
Φ j = Φ 0j T,
I est. = j=0 m1 μ j ( P Φ j ) * ( P Φ j ) ,
Φ j i+1 = π s π m Φ j i ,
π s Φ j ={ Φ j if rS Φ 0j if rS ,
π m Φ j = P 1 I I est. P Φ j ,
χ 2 = k=0 N1 ( I k I est . k ) 2 k=0 N1 I k ,
χ f 2 = k=0 N1 ( | T k || T est.k | ) 2 k=0 N1 | T k | 2 ,

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