Abstract

We report a remarkable photoinduced relaxation process and its dependence of thickness and temperature in mixed-phase BiFeO3 films grown on (001) LaAlO3 substrates. When the films are illuminated by the light above the bandgap, their resistances are reduced with the increase of temperature. The photoinduced change of resistance reaches to the maximum of about 2.17 × 105% at 300 K. It is noted that the relaxation processes of the resistance are significantly different between T-like phase and T-R mixed phase due to structural strain, symmetry breaking and built-in electric field at the phase boundaries. These results provide more insights into intrinsic mechanisms of mixed-phase multiferroic materials and potential applications in all-oxide photoelectric devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

D. Sando, Y. Yang, E. Bousquet, C. Carrétéro, V. Garcia, S. Fusil, D. Dolfi, A. Barthélémy, P. Ghosez, L. Bellaiche, and M. Bibes, “Large elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3.,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10718 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

K. Chu, B.-K. Jang, J. H. Sung, Y. A. Shin, E.-S. Lee, K. Song, J. H. Lee, C.-S. Woo, S. J. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, T. Y. Koo, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Oh, M. H. Jo, and C. H. Yang, “Enhancement of the anisotropic photocurrent in ferroelectric oxides by strain gradients,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 972–979 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sone, H. Naganuma, M. Ito, T. Miyazaki, T. Nakajima, and S. Okamura, “100-nm-sized magnetic domain reversal by the magneto-electric effect in self-assembled BiFeO3/CoFe2O4 bilayer films,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9348 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Himcinschi, A. Bhatnagar, A. Talkenberger, M. Barchuk, D. R. Zahn, D. Rafaja, J. Kortus, and M. Alexe, “Optical properties of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films grown on LaAlO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 012908 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

D. Schick, M. Herzog, H. Wen, P. Chen, C. Adamo, P. Gaal, D. G. Schlom, P. G. Evans, Y. Li, and M. Bargheer, “Localized excited charge carriers generate ultrafast inhomogeneous strain in the multiferroic BiFeO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 097602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bhatnagar, Y. H. Kim, D. Hesse, and M. Alexe, “Persistent photoconductivity in strained epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5224–5228 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lejman, G. Vaudel, I. C. Infante, P. Gemeiner, V. E. Gusev, B. Dkhil, and P. Ruello, “Giant ultrafast photo-induced shear strain in ferroelectric BiFeO3.,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, M. Trassin, Y. Zhang, P. Maksymovych, T. Uhlig, P. Milde, D. Köhler, A. P. Baddorf, S. V. Kalinin, L. M. Eng, X. Pan, and R. Ramesh, “Electronic properties of isosymmetric phase boundaries in highly strained Ca-doped BiFeO₃,” Adv. Mater. 26(25), 4376–4380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Garcia and M. Bibes, “Ferroelectric tunnel junctions for information storage and processing,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, J. Jian, A. Chen, L. Jiao, F. Khatkhatay, L. Li, F. Chu, Q. Jia, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, and H. Wang, “Strain relaxation and enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in BiFeO3: CoFe2O4 vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062402 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. K. Choi, N. M. Aimon, D. H. Kim, X. Y. Sun, J. Gwyther, I. Manners, and C. A. Ross, “Hierarchical Templating of a BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 Multiferroic Nanocomposite by a Triblock Terpolymer Film,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9248–9254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Huang, Y. Liu, Y. T. Lin, H. J. Liu, Q. He, J. Li, Y. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chu, “Giant enhancement of ferroelectric retention in BiFeO3 mixed-phase boundary,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6335–6340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

C. Beekman, W. Siemons, T. Z. Ward, M. Chi, J. Howe, M. D. Biegalski, N. Balke, P. Maksymovych, A. K. Farrar, J. B. Romero, P. Gao, X. Q. Pan, D. A. Tenne, and H. M. Christen, “Phase transitions, phase coexistence, and piezoelectric switching behavior in highly strained BiFeO3 films,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5561–5567 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jin, B. Luo, Y. Li, C. Chen, and T. Wu, “Photoinduced phase transition and relaxation in bare SrTiO3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033509 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, B. M. Howe, L. Grazulis, K. Mahalingam, T. Nan, N. X. Sun, and G. J. Brown, “Voltage-impulse-induced non-volatile ferroelastic switching of ferromagnetic resonance for reconfigurable magnetoelectric microwave devices,” Adv. Mater. 25(35), 4886–4892 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (10)

J. Kreisel, M. Alexe, and P. A. Thomas, “A photoferroelectric material is more than the sum of its parts,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 260 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, Z. Chen, X. Zou, H. Ding, W. Chen, L. Chen, G. Yuan, and J. Wang, “Characterization and manipulation of mixed phase nanodomains in highly strained BiFeO3 thin films,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5388–5394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Fan, B. Luo, M. Duan, H. Xing, K. Jin, and C. Chen, “Ferroelectric domain switching investigation of BiFeO3 thin film on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7412–7416 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. R. Damodaran, S. Lee, J. Karthik, S. MacLaren, and L. W. Martin, “Temperature and thickness evolution and epitaxial breakdown in highly strained BiFeO3 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(2), 024113 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Li, K. Jin, S. Yang, J. Wang, M. He, B. Luo, J. Wang, C. Chen, and T. Wu, “Ultraviolet photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3/Nb-SrTiO3 heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(8), 083506 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. M. Lee, J. H. Sung, K. Chu, X. Moya, D. Lee, C. J. Kim, N. D. Mathur, S. W. Cheong, C. H. Yang, and M. H. Jo, “Spatially resolved photodetection in leaky ferroelectric BiFeO3.,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP49–OP53 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Liu, C.-W. Liang, W.-I. Liang, H.-J. Chen, J.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Peng, G.-F. Wang, F.-N. Chu, Y.-C. Chen, H.-Y. Lee, L. Chang, S.-J. Lin, and Y.-H. Chu, “Strain-driven phase boundaries in BiFeO3 thin films studied by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 85(1), 014104 (2012).
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Y. C. Chen, Q. He, F. N. Chu, Y. C. Huang, J. W. Chen, W. I. Liang, R. K. Vasudevan, V. Nagarajan, E. Arenholz, S. V. Kalinin, and Y. H. Chu, “Electrical control of multiferroic orderings in mixed-phase BiFeO₃ films,” Adv. Mater. 24(22), 3070–3075 (2012).
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Z. Jin, H. Ma, G. Li, Y. Xu, G. Ma, and Z. Cheng, “Ultrafast dynamics of the Mn3+ d-d transition and spin-lattice interaction in YMnO3 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021106 (2012).
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Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, G. Li, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Structural dependent ultrafast electron-phonon coupling in multiferroic BiFeO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071105 (2012).
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2011 (10)

Y. Q. An, A. J. Taylor, S. D. Conradson, S. A. Trugman, T. Durakiewicz, and G. Rodriguez, “Ultrafast hopping dynamics of 5f electrons in the Mott insulator UO₂ studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 207402 (2011).
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C.-J. Cheng, C. Lu, Z. Chen, L. You, L. Chen, J. Wang, and T. Wu, “Thickness-dependent magnetism and spin-glass behaviors in compressively strained BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 242502 (2011).
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Q. He, Y.-H. Chu, J. T. Heron, S. Y. Yang, W. I. Liang, C. Y. Kuo, H. J. Lin, P. Yu, C. W. Liang, R. J. Zeches, W. C. Kuo, J. Y. Juang, C. T. Chen, E. Arenholz, A. Scholl, and R. Ramesh, “Electrically controllable spontaneous magnetism in nanoscale mixed phase multiferroics,” Nat. Commun. 2, 225 (2011).
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J. X. Zhang, B. Xiang, Q. He, J. Seidel, R. J. Zeches, P. Yu, S. Y. Yang, C. H. Wang, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, A. M. Minor, and R. Ramesh, “Large field-induced strains in a lead-free piezoelectric material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 98–102 (2011).
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A. R. Damodaran, C. W. Liang, Q. He, C. Y. Peng, L. Chang, Y. H. Chu, and L. W. Martin, “Nanoscale structure and mechanism for enhanced electromechanical response of highly strained BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3170–3175 (2011).
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J. X. Zhang, Q. He, M. Trassin, W. Luo, D. Yi, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, L. You, C. H. Wang, C. Y. Kuo, J. T. Heron, Z. Hu, R. J. Zeches, H. J. Lin, A. Tanaka, C. T. Chen, L. H. Tjeng, Y. H. Chu, and R. Ramesh, “Microscopic origin of the giant ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal-like BiFeO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 147602 (2011).
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I. C. Infante, J. Juraszek, S. Fusil, B. Dupé, P. Gemeiner, O. Diéguez, F. Pailloux, S. Jouen, E. Jacquet, G. Geneste, J. Pacaud, J. Íñiguez, L. Bellaiche, A. Barthélémy, B. Dkhil, and M. Bibes, “Multiferroic phase transition near room temperature in BiFeO3 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 237601 (2011).
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J. Wu, J. Wang, D. Xiao, and J. Zhu, “Ferroelectric behavior in bismuth ferrite thin films of different thickness,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(9), 3261–3263 (2011).
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M. Alexe and D. Hesse, “Tip-enhanced photovoltaic effects in bismuth ferrite,” Nat. Commun. 2, 256 (2011).
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J. Seidel, D. Fu, S.-Y. Yang, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Wu, R. Ramesh, and J. W. Ager, “Efficient photovoltaic current generation at ferroelectric domain walls,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(12), 126805 (2011).
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2010 (8)

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y.-H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
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D. Lebeugle, A. Mougin, M. Viret, D. Colson, J. Allibe, H. Béa, E. Jacquet, C. Deranlot, M. Bibes, and A. Barthélémy, “Exchange coupling with the multiferroic compound BiFeO3 in antiferromagnetic multidomain films and single-domain crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(13), 134411 (2010).
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Y. Wang, J. Hu, Y. Lin, and C.-W. Nan, “Multiferroic magnetoelectric composite nanostructures,” NPG Asia Mater. 2(2), 61–68 (2010).
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W. Ji, K. Yao, and Y. C. Liang, “Bulk photovoltaic effect at visible wavelength in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 22(15), 1763–1766 (2010).
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B. Kundys, M. Viret, D. Colson, and D. O. Kundys, “Light-induced size changes in BiFeO3 crystals,” Nat. Mater. 9(10), 803–805 (2010).
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C. Liu, P. Liu, J.-P. Zhou, Y. He, L.-N. Su, L. Cao, and H.-W. Zhang, “Colossal dielectric constant and relaxation behaviors in Pr: SrTiO3 ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 094108 (2010).
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Z. Chen, L. You, C. Huang, Y. Qi, J. Wang, T. Sritharan, and L. Chen, “Nanoscale domains in strained epitaxial BiFeO3 thin Films on LaSrAlO4 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 252903 (2010).
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P. Chen, N. Podraza, X. Xu, A. Melville, E. Vlahos, V. Gopalan, R. Ramesh, D. Schlom, and J. Musfeldt, “Optical properties of quasi-tetragonal BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131907 (2010).
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2009 (3)

T. Choi, S. Lee, Y. J. Choi, V. Kiryukhin, and S.-W. Cheong, “Switchable ferroelectric diode and photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3.,” Science 324(5923), 63–66 (2009).
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S. Yang, L. Martin, S. Byrnes, T. Conry, S. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y.-H. Chu, C.-H. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
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R. J. Zeches, M. D. Rossell, J. X. Zhang, A. J. Hatt, Q. He, C.-H. Yang, A. Kumar, C. H. Wang, A. Melville, C. Adamo, G. Sheng, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Ihlefeld, R. Erni, C. Ederer, V. Gopalan, L. Q. Chen, D. G. Schlom, N. A. Spaldin, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “A strain-driven morphotropic phase boundary in BiFeO3.,” Science 326(5955), 977–980 (2009).
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2008 (2)

S. Basu, L. Martin, Y. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. Rai, X. Xu, and J. Musfeldt, “Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091905 (2008).
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H. Tütüncü and G. Srivastava, “Electronic structure and lattice dynamical properties of different tetragonal phases of BiFeO3,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 235209 (2008).
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2007 (2)

A. P. Ramirez, “Oxide electronics emerge,” Science 315(5817), 1377–1378 (2007).
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S.-W. Cheong and M. Mostovoy, “Multiferroics: a magnetic twist for ferroelectricity,” Nat. Mater. 6(1), 13–20 (2007).
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2006 (3)

D. Ricinschi, K.-Y. Yun, and M. Okuyama, “A mechanism for the 150 µC cm-2 polarization of BiFeO3 films based on first-principles calculations and new structural data,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(6), L97–L105 (2006).
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D. Johnston, “Stretched exponential relaxation arising from a continuous sum of exponential decays,” Phys. Rev. B 74(18), 184430 (2006).
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P. Ravindran, R. Vidya, A. Kjekshus, H. Fjellvåg, and O. Eriksson, “Theoretical investigation of magnetoelectric behavior in BiFeO3,” Phys. Rev. B 74(22), 224412 (2006).
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2005 (2)

C. Ederer and N. A. Spaldin, “Effect of epitaxial strain on the spontaneous polarization of thin film ferroelectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257601 (2005).
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R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and M. Godinez, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO/polymer heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2005–2008 (2005).
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2004 (1)

C. H. Ahn, K. M. Rabe, and J.-M. Triscone, “Ferroelectricity at the nanoscale: Local polarization in oxide thin films and heterostructures,” Science 303(5657), 488–491 (2004).
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2003 (1)

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, “Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures,” Science 299(5613), 1719–1722 (2003).
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1984 (1)

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, “Models of hierarchically constrained dynamics for glassy relaxation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(10), 958–961 (1984).
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1982 (1)

G. Smolenskiĭ and I. Chupis, “Ferroelectromagnets,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 25(7), 475–493 (1982).
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1980 (1)

P. Fischer, M. Polomska, I. Sosnowska, and M. Szymanski, “Temperature dependence of the crystal and magnetic structures of BiFeO3,” J. Phys. Chem. 13, 1931 (1980).

Abrahams, E.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, “Models of hierarchically constrained dynamics for glassy relaxation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(10), 958–961 (1984).
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Adamo, C.

D. Schick, M. Herzog, H. Wen, P. Chen, C. Adamo, P. Gaal, D. G. Schlom, P. G. Evans, Y. Li, and M. Bargheer, “Localized excited charge carriers generate ultrafast inhomogeneous strain in the multiferroic BiFeO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 097602 (2014).
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S. Yang, L. Martin, S. Byrnes, T. Conry, S. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y.-H. Chu, C.-H. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
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R. J. Zeches, M. D. Rossell, J. X. Zhang, A. J. Hatt, Q. He, C.-H. Yang, A. Kumar, C. H. Wang, A. Melville, C. Adamo, G. Sheng, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Ihlefeld, R. Erni, C. Ederer, V. Gopalan, L. Q. Chen, D. G. Schlom, N. A. Spaldin, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “A strain-driven morphotropic phase boundary in BiFeO3.,” Science 326(5955), 977–980 (2009).
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Ager, J. W.

J. Seidel, D. Fu, S.-Y. Yang, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Wu, R. Ramesh, and J. W. Ager, “Efficient photovoltaic current generation at ferroelectric domain walls,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(12), 126805 (2011).
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S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y.-H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
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S. Yang, L. Martin, S. Byrnes, T. Conry, S. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y.-H. Chu, C.-H. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
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Ahn, C. H.

C. H. Ahn, K. M. Rabe, and J.-M. Triscone, “Ferroelectricity at the nanoscale: Local polarization in oxide thin films and heterostructures,” Science 303(5657), 488–491 (2004).
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Aimon, N. M.

H. K. Choi, N. M. Aimon, D. H. Kim, X. Y. Sun, J. Gwyther, I. Manners, and C. A. Ross, “Hierarchical Templating of a BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 Multiferroic Nanocomposite by a Triblock Terpolymer Film,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9248–9254 (2014).
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Alarcón-Lladó, E.

J. Seidel, D. Fu, S.-Y. Yang, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Wu, R. Ramesh, and J. W. Ager, “Efficient photovoltaic current generation at ferroelectric domain walls,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(12), 126805 (2011).
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Alexe, M.

C. Himcinschi, A. Bhatnagar, A. Talkenberger, M. Barchuk, D. R. Zahn, D. Rafaja, J. Kortus, and M. Alexe, “Optical properties of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films grown on LaAlO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 012908 (2015).
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A. Bhatnagar, Y. H. Kim, D. Hesse, and M. Alexe, “Persistent photoconductivity in strained epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5224–5228 (2014).
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J. Kreisel, M. Alexe, and P. A. Thomas, “A photoferroelectric material is more than the sum of its parts,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 260 (2012).
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M. Alexe and D. Hesse, “Tip-enhanced photovoltaic effects in bismuth ferrite,” Nat. Commun. 2, 256 (2011).
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Allibe, J.

D. Lebeugle, A. Mougin, M. Viret, D. Colson, J. Allibe, H. Béa, E. Jacquet, C. Deranlot, M. Bibes, and A. Barthélémy, “Exchange coupling with the multiferroic compound BiFeO3 in antiferromagnetic multidomain films and single-domain crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(13), 134411 (2010).
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An, Y. Q.

Y. Q. An, A. J. Taylor, S. D. Conradson, S. A. Trugman, T. Durakiewicz, and G. Rodriguez, “Ultrafast hopping dynamics of 5f electrons in the Mott insulator UO₂ studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 207402 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, P. W.

R. G. Palmer, D. L. Stein, E. Abrahams, and P. W. Anderson, “Models of hierarchically constrained dynamics for glassy relaxation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(10), 958–961 (1984).
[Crossref]

Arenholz, E.

Y. C. Chen, Q. He, F. N. Chu, Y. C. Huang, J. W. Chen, W. I. Liang, R. K. Vasudevan, V. Nagarajan, E. Arenholz, S. V. Kalinin, and Y. H. Chu, “Electrical control of multiferroic orderings in mixed-phase BiFeO₃ films,” Adv. Mater. 24(22), 3070–3075 (2012).
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Q. He, Y.-H. Chu, J. T. Heron, S. Y. Yang, W. I. Liang, C. Y. Kuo, H. J. Lin, P. Yu, C. W. Liang, R. J. Zeches, W. C. Kuo, J. Y. Juang, C. T. Chen, E. Arenholz, A. Scholl, and R. Ramesh, “Electrically controllable spontaneous magnetism in nanoscale mixed phase multiferroics,” Nat. Commun. 2, 225 (2011).
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Baddorf, A. P.

J. Seidel, M. Trassin, Y. Zhang, P. Maksymovych, T. Uhlig, P. Milde, D. Köhler, A. P. Baddorf, S. V. Kalinin, L. M. Eng, X. Pan, and R. Ramesh, “Electronic properties of isosymmetric phase boundaries in highly strained Ca-doped BiFeO₃,” Adv. Mater. 26(25), 4376–4380 (2014).
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Balke, N.

C. Beekman, W. Siemons, T. Z. Ward, M. Chi, J. Howe, M. D. Biegalski, N. Balke, P. Maksymovych, A. K. Farrar, J. B. Romero, P. Gao, X. Q. Pan, D. A. Tenne, and H. M. Christen, “Phase transitions, phase coexistence, and piezoelectric switching behavior in highly strained BiFeO3 films,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5561–5567 (2013).
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Barchuk, M.

C. Himcinschi, A. Bhatnagar, A. Talkenberger, M. Barchuk, D. R. Zahn, D. Rafaja, J. Kortus, and M. Alexe, “Optical properties of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films grown on LaAlO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 012908 (2015).
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Bargheer, M.

D. Schick, M. Herzog, H. Wen, P. Chen, C. Adamo, P. Gaal, D. G. Schlom, P. G. Evans, Y. Li, and M. Bargheer, “Localized excited charge carriers generate ultrafast inhomogeneous strain in the multiferroic BiFeO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(9), 097602 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barthélémy, A.

D. Sando, Y. Yang, E. Bousquet, C. Carrétéro, V. Garcia, S. Fusil, D. Dolfi, A. Barthélémy, P. Ghosez, L. Bellaiche, and M. Bibes, “Large elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3.,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10718 (2016).
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I. C. Infante, J. Juraszek, S. Fusil, B. Dupé, P. Gemeiner, O. Diéguez, F. Pailloux, S. Jouen, E. Jacquet, G. Geneste, J. Pacaud, J. Íñiguez, L. Bellaiche, A. Barthélémy, B. Dkhil, and M. Bibes, “Multiferroic phase transition near room temperature in BiFeO3 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 237601 (2011).
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D. Lebeugle, A. Mougin, M. Viret, D. Colson, J. Allibe, H. Béa, E. Jacquet, C. Deranlot, M. Bibes, and A. Barthélémy, “Exchange coupling with the multiferroic compound BiFeO3 in antiferromagnetic multidomain films and single-domain crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(13), 134411 (2010).
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Basu, S.

S. Yang, L. Martin, S. Byrnes, T. Conry, S. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y.-H. Chu, C.-H. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
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S. Basu, L. Martin, Y. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. Rai, X. Xu, and J. Musfeldt, “Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091905 (2008).
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Béa, H.

D. Lebeugle, A. Mougin, M. Viret, D. Colson, J. Allibe, H. Béa, E. Jacquet, C. Deranlot, M. Bibes, and A. Barthélémy, “Exchange coupling with the multiferroic compound BiFeO3 in antiferromagnetic multidomain films and single-domain crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(13), 134411 (2010).
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Beekman, C.

C. Beekman, W. Siemons, T. Z. Ward, M. Chi, J. Howe, M. D. Biegalski, N. Balke, P. Maksymovych, A. K. Farrar, J. B. Romero, P. Gao, X. Q. Pan, D. A. Tenne, and H. M. Christen, “Phase transitions, phase coexistence, and piezoelectric switching behavior in highly strained BiFeO3 films,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5561–5567 (2013).
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Bellaiche, L.

D. Sando, Y. Yang, E. Bousquet, C. Carrétéro, V. Garcia, S. Fusil, D. Dolfi, A. Barthélémy, P. Ghosez, L. Bellaiche, and M. Bibes, “Large elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3.,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10718 (2016).
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I. C. Infante, J. Juraszek, S. Fusil, B. Dupé, P. Gemeiner, O. Diéguez, F. Pailloux, S. Jouen, E. Jacquet, G. Geneste, J. Pacaud, J. Íñiguez, L. Bellaiche, A. Barthélémy, B. Dkhil, and M. Bibes, “Multiferroic phase transition near room temperature in BiFeO3 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 237601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhatnagar, A.

C. Himcinschi, A. Bhatnagar, A. Talkenberger, M. Barchuk, D. R. Zahn, D. Rafaja, J. Kortus, and M. Alexe, “Optical properties of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films grown on LaAlO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 012908 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bhatnagar, Y. H. Kim, D. Hesse, and M. Alexe, “Persistent photoconductivity in strained epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Nano Lett. 14(9), 5224–5228 (2014).
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Bibes, M.

D. Sando, Y. Yang, E. Bousquet, C. Carrétéro, V. Garcia, S. Fusil, D. Dolfi, A. Barthélémy, P. Ghosez, L. Bellaiche, and M. Bibes, “Large elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3.,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10718 (2016).
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V. Garcia and M. Bibes, “Ferroelectric tunnel junctions for information storage and processing,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4289 (2014).
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I. C. Infante, J. Juraszek, S. Fusil, B. Dupé, P. Gemeiner, O. Diéguez, F. Pailloux, S. Jouen, E. Jacquet, G. Geneste, J. Pacaud, J. Íñiguez, L. Bellaiche, A. Barthélémy, B. Dkhil, and M. Bibes, “Multiferroic phase transition near room temperature in BiFeO3 films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 237601 (2011).
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D. Lebeugle, A. Mougin, M. Viret, D. Colson, J. Allibe, H. Béa, E. Jacquet, C. Deranlot, M. Bibes, and A. Barthélémy, “Exchange coupling with the multiferroic compound BiFeO3 in antiferromagnetic multidomain films and single-domain crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(13), 134411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Biegalski, M. D.

C. Beekman, W. Siemons, T. Z. Ward, M. Chi, J. Howe, M. D. Biegalski, N. Balke, P. Maksymovych, A. K. Farrar, J. B. Romero, P. Gao, X. Q. Pan, D. A. Tenne, and H. M. Christen, “Phase transitions, phase coexistence, and piezoelectric switching behavior in highly strained BiFeO3 films,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5561–5567 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bousquet, E.

D. Sando, Y. Yang, E. Bousquet, C. Carrétéro, V. Garcia, S. Fusil, D. Dolfi, A. Barthélémy, P. Ghosez, L. Bellaiche, and M. Bibes, “Large elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3.,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10718 (2016).
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Brown, G. J.

M. Liu, B. M. Howe, L. Grazulis, K. Mahalingam, T. Nan, N. X. Sun, and G. J. Brown, “Voltage-impulse-induced non-volatile ferroelastic switching of ferromagnetic resonance for reconfigurable magnetoelectric microwave devices,” Adv. Mater. 25(35), 4886–4892 (2013).
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K. Jin, B. Luo, Y. Li, C. Chen, and T. Wu, “Photoinduced phase transition and relaxation in bare SrTiO3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(3), 033509 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Li, K. Jin, S. Yang, J. Wang, M. He, B. Luo, J. Wang, C. Chen, and T. Wu, “Ultraviolet photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3/Nb-SrTiO3 heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(8), 083506 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-J. Cheng, C. Lu, Z. Chen, L. You, L. Chen, J. Wang, and T. Wu, “Thickness-dependent magnetism and spin-glass behaviors in compressively strained BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 242502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wuttig, M.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, “Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures,” Science 299(5613), 1719–1722 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, B.

J. X. Zhang, B. Xiang, Q. He, J. Seidel, R. J. Zeches, P. Yu, S. Y. Yang, C. H. Wang, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, A. M. Minor, and R. Ramesh, “Large field-induced strains in a lead-free piezoelectric material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 98–102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, D.

J. Wu, J. Wang, D. Xiao, and J. Zhu, “Ferroelectric behavior in bismuth ferrite thin films of different thickness,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(9), 3261–3263 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, H.

F. Fan, B. Luo, M. Duan, H. Xing, K. Jin, and C. Chen, “Ferroelectric domain switching investigation of BiFeO3 thin film on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7412–7416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

P. Chen, N. Podraza, X. Xu, A. Melville, E. Vlahos, V. Gopalan, R. Ramesh, D. Schlom, and J. Musfeldt, “Optical properties of quasi-tetragonal BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131907 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Basu, L. Martin, Y. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. Rai, X. Xu, and J. Musfeldt, “Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, G. Li, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Structural dependent ultrafast electron-phonon coupling in multiferroic BiFeO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Jin, H. Ma, G. Li, Y. Xu, G. Ma, and Z. Cheng, “Ultrafast dynamics of the Mn3+ d-d transition and spin-lattice interaction in YMnO3 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. H.

K. Chu, B.-K. Jang, J. H. Sung, Y. A. Shin, E.-S. Lee, K. Song, J. H. Lee, C.-S. Woo, S. J. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, T. Y. Koo, Y. H. Kim, S. H. Oh, M. H. Jo, and C. H. Yang, “Enhancement of the anisotropic photocurrent in ferroelectric oxides by strain gradients,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 972–979 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Lee, J. H. Sung, K. Chu, X. Moya, D. Lee, C. J. Kim, N. D. Mathur, S. W. Cheong, C. H. Yang, and M. H. Jo, “Spatially resolved photodetection in leaky ferroelectric BiFeO3.,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP49–OP53 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.-H.

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y.-H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zeches, M. D. Rossell, J. X. Zhang, A. J. Hatt, Q. He, C.-H. Yang, A. Kumar, C. H. Wang, A. Melville, C. Adamo, G. Sheng, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Ihlefeld, R. Erni, C. Ederer, V. Gopalan, L. Q. Chen, D. G. Schlom, N. A. Spaldin, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “A strain-driven morphotropic phase boundary in BiFeO3.,” Science 326(5955), 977–980 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, L. Martin, S. Byrnes, T. Conry, S. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y.-H. Chu, C.-H. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-C.

H.-J. Liu, C.-W. Liang, W.-I. Liang, H.-J. Chen, J.-C. Yang, C.-Y. Peng, G.-F. Wang, F.-N. Chu, Y.-C. Chen, H.-Y. Lee, L. Chang, S.-J. Lin, and Y.-H. Chu, “Strain-driven phase boundaries in BiFeO3 thin films studied by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 85(1), 014104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

H. Li, K. Jin, S. Yang, J. Wang, M. He, B. Luo, J. Wang, C. Chen, and T. Wu, “Ultraviolet photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3/Nb-SrTiO3 heterostructure,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(8), 083506 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, L. Martin, S. Byrnes, T. Conry, S. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y.-H. Chu, C.-H. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. Y.

J. X. Zhang, B. Xiang, Q. He, J. Seidel, R. J. Zeches, P. Yu, S. Y. Yang, C. H. Wang, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, A. M. Minor, and R. Ramesh, “Large field-induced strains in a lead-free piezoelectric material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 98–102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. He, Y.-H. Chu, J. T. Heron, S. Y. Yang, W. I. Liang, C. Y. Kuo, H. J. Lin, P. Yu, C. W. Liang, R. J. Zeches, W. C. Kuo, J. Y. Juang, C. T. Chen, E. Arenholz, A. Scholl, and R. Ramesh, “Electrically controllable spontaneous magnetism in nanoscale mixed phase multiferroics,” Nat. Commun. 2, 225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y.-H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.-Y.

J. Seidel, D. Fu, S.-Y. Yang, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Wu, R. Ramesh, and J. W. Ager, “Efficient photovoltaic current generation at ferroelectric domain walls,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(12), 126805 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

D. Sando, Y. Yang, E. Bousquet, C. Carrétéro, V. Garcia, S. Fusil, D. Dolfi, A. Barthélémy, P. Ghosez, L. Bellaiche, and M. Bibes, “Large elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3.,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10718 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, K.

W. Ji, K. Yao, and Y. C. Liang, “Bulk photovoltaic effect at visible wavelength in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 22(15), 1763–1766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, D.

J. X. Zhang, Q. He, M. Trassin, W. Luo, D. Yi, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, L. You, C. H. Wang, C. Y. Kuo, J. T. Heron, Z. Hu, R. J. Zeches, H. J. Lin, A. Tanaka, C. T. Chen, L. H. Tjeng, Y. H. Chu, and R. Ramesh, “Microscopic origin of the giant ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal-like BiFeO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 147602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, L.

L. You, Z. Chen, X. Zou, H. Ding, W. Chen, L. Chen, G. Yuan, and J. Wang, “Characterization and manipulation of mixed phase nanodomains in highly strained BiFeO3 thin films,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5388–5394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. X. Zhang, Q. He, M. Trassin, W. Luo, D. Yi, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, L. You, C. H. Wang, C. Y. Kuo, J. T. Heron, Z. Hu, R. J. Zeches, H. J. Lin, A. Tanaka, C. T. Chen, L. H. Tjeng, Y. H. Chu, and R. Ramesh, “Microscopic origin of the giant ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal-like BiFeO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 147602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-J. Cheng, C. Lu, Z. Chen, L. You, L. Chen, J. Wang, and T. Wu, “Thickness-dependent magnetism and spin-glass behaviors in compressively strained BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 242502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, L. You, C. Huang, Y. Qi, J. Wang, T. Sritharan, and L. Chen, “Nanoscale domains in strained epitaxial BiFeO3 thin Films on LaSrAlO4 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 252903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Q. He, Y.-H. Chu, J. T. Heron, S. Y. Yang, W. I. Liang, C. Y. Kuo, H. J. Lin, P. Yu, C. W. Liang, R. J. Zeches, W. C. Kuo, J. Y. Juang, C. T. Chen, E. Arenholz, A. Scholl, and R. Ramesh, “Electrically controllable spontaneous magnetism in nanoscale mixed phase multiferroics,” Nat. Commun. 2, 225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. X. Zhang, B. Xiang, Q. He, J. Seidel, R. J. Zeches, P. Yu, S. Y. Yang, C. H. Wang, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, A. M. Minor, and R. Ramesh, “Large field-induced strains in a lead-free piezoelectric material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 98–102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. X. Zhang, Q. He, M. Trassin, W. Luo, D. Yi, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, L. You, C. H. Wang, C. Y. Kuo, J. T. Heron, Z. Hu, R. J. Zeches, H. J. Lin, A. Tanaka, C. T. Chen, L. H. Tjeng, Y. H. Chu, and R. Ramesh, “Microscopic origin of the giant ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal-like BiFeO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 147602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Yang, J. Seidel, S. J. Byrnes, P. Shafer, C.-H. Yang, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, Y.-H. Chu, J. F. Scott, J. W. Ager, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “Above-bandgap voltages from ferroelectric photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 143–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, G.

L. You, Z. Chen, X. Zou, H. Ding, W. Chen, L. Chen, G. Yuan, and J. Wang, “Characterization and manipulation of mixed phase nanodomains in highly strained BiFeO3 thin films,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5388–5394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, K.-Y.

D. Ricinschi, K.-Y. Yun, and M. Okuyama, “A mechanism for the 150 µC cm-2 polarization of BiFeO3 films based on first-principles calculations and new structural data,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(6), L97–L105 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zahn, D. R.

C. Himcinschi, A. Bhatnagar, A. Talkenberger, M. Barchuk, D. R. Zahn, D. Rafaja, J. Kortus, and M. Alexe, “Optical properties of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films grown on LaAlO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 012908 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeches, R. J.

J. X. Zhang, B. Xiang, Q. He, J. Seidel, R. J. Zeches, P. Yu, S. Y. Yang, C. H. Wang, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, A. M. Minor, and R. Ramesh, “Large field-induced strains in a lead-free piezoelectric material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 98–102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. He, Y.-H. Chu, J. T. Heron, S. Y. Yang, W. I. Liang, C. Y. Kuo, H. J. Lin, P. Yu, C. W. Liang, R. J. Zeches, W. C. Kuo, J. Y. Juang, C. T. Chen, E. Arenholz, A. Scholl, and R. Ramesh, “Electrically controllable spontaneous magnetism in nanoscale mixed phase multiferroics,” Nat. Commun. 2, 225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. X. Zhang, Q. He, M. Trassin, W. Luo, D. Yi, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, L. You, C. H. Wang, C. Y. Kuo, J. T. Heron, Z. Hu, R. J. Zeches, H. J. Lin, A. Tanaka, C. T. Chen, L. H. Tjeng, Y. H. Chu, and R. Ramesh, “Microscopic origin of the giant ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal-like BiFeO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 147602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zeches, M. D. Rossell, J. X. Zhang, A. J. Hatt, Q. He, C.-H. Yang, A. Kumar, C. H. Wang, A. Melville, C. Adamo, G. Sheng, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Ihlefeld, R. Erni, C. Ederer, V. Gopalan, L. Q. Chen, D. G. Schlom, N. A. Spaldin, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “A strain-driven morphotropic phase boundary in BiFeO3.,” Science 326(5955), 977–980 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.-W.

C. Liu, P. Liu, J.-P. Zhou, Y. He, L.-N. Su, L. Cao, and H.-W. Zhang, “Colossal dielectric constant and relaxation behaviors in Pr: SrTiO3 ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 094108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. X.

J. X. Zhang, B. Xiang, Q. He, J. Seidel, R. J. Zeches, P. Yu, S. Y. Yang, C. H. Wang, Y. H. Chu, L. W. Martin, A. M. Minor, and R. Ramesh, “Large field-induced strains in a lead-free piezoelectric material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 98–102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. X. Zhang, Q. He, M. Trassin, W. Luo, D. Yi, M. D. Rossell, P. Yu, L. You, C. H. Wang, C. Y. Kuo, J. T. Heron, Z. Hu, R. J. Zeches, H. J. Lin, A. Tanaka, C. T. Chen, L. H. Tjeng, Y. H. Chu, and R. Ramesh, “Microscopic origin of the giant ferroelectric polarization in tetragonal-like BiFeO3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 147602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zeches, M. D. Rossell, J. X. Zhang, A. J. Hatt, Q. He, C.-H. Yang, A. Kumar, C. H. Wang, A. Melville, C. Adamo, G. Sheng, Y. H. Chu, J. F. Ihlefeld, R. Erni, C. Ederer, V. Gopalan, L. Q. Chen, D. G. Schlom, N. A. Spaldin, L. W. Martin, and R. Ramesh, “A strain-driven morphotropic phase boundary in BiFeO3.,” Science 326(5955), 977–980 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, J. Jian, A. Chen, L. Jiao, F. Khatkhatay, L. Li, F. Chu, Q. Jia, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, and H. Wang, “Strain relaxation and enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in BiFeO3: CoFe2O4 vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

J. Seidel, M. Trassin, Y. Zhang, P. Maksymovych, T. Uhlig, P. Milde, D. Köhler, A. P. Baddorf, S. V. Kalinin, L. M. Eng, X. Pan, and R. Ramesh, “Electronic properties of isosymmetric phase boundaries in highly strained Ca-doped BiFeO₃,” Adv. Mater. 26(25), 4376–4380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, G. Li, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Structural dependent ultrafast electron-phonon coupling in multiferroic BiFeO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

J. Wang, J. B. Neaton, H. Zheng, V. Nagarajan, S. B. Ogale, B. Liu, D. Viehland, V. Vaithyanathan, D. G. Schlom, U. V. Waghmare, N. A. Spaldin, K. M. Rabe, M. Wuttig, and R. Ramesh, “Epitaxial BiFeO3 multiferroic thin film heterostructures,” Science 299(5613), 1719–1722 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.-P.

C. Liu, P. Liu, J.-P. Zhou, Y. He, L.-N. Su, L. Cao, and H.-W. Zhang, “Colossal dielectric constant and relaxation behaviors in Pr: SrTiO3 ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 094108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Wu, J. Wang, D. Xiao, and J. Zhu, “Ferroelectric behavior in bismuth ferrite thin films of different thickness,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(9), 3261–3263 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, X.

L. You, Z. Chen, X. Zou, H. Ding, W. Chen, L. Chen, G. Yuan, and J. Wang, “Characterization and manipulation of mixed phase nanodomains in highly strained BiFeO3 thin films,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5388–5394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

J. Wu, J. Wang, D. Xiao, and J. Zhu, “Ferroelectric behavior in bismuth ferrite thin films of different thickness,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(9), 3261–3263 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

H. K. Choi, N. M. Aimon, D. H. Kim, X. Y. Sun, J. Gwyther, I. Manners, and C. A. Ross, “Hierarchical Templating of a BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 Multiferroic Nanocomposite by a Triblock Terpolymer Film,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9248–9254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, Z. Chen, X. Zou, H. Ding, W. Chen, L. Chen, G. Yuan, and J. Wang, “Characterization and manipulation of mixed phase nanodomains in highly strained BiFeO3 thin films,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5388–5394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (8)

W. Ji, K. Yao, and Y. C. Liang, “Bulk photovoltaic effect at visible wavelength in epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 22(15), 1763–1766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Lee, J. H. Sung, K. Chu, X. Moya, D. Lee, C. J. Kim, N. D. Mathur, S. W. Cheong, C. H. Yang, and M. H. Jo, “Spatially resolved photodetection in leaky ferroelectric BiFeO3.,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP49–OP53 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, M. Trassin, Y. Zhang, P. Maksymovych, T. Uhlig, P. Milde, D. Köhler, A. P. Baddorf, S. V. Kalinin, L. M. Eng, X. Pan, and R. Ramesh, “Electronic properties of isosymmetric phase boundaries in highly strained Ca-doped BiFeO₃,” Adv. Mater. 26(25), 4376–4380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, B. M. Howe, L. Grazulis, K. Mahalingam, T. Nan, N. X. Sun, and G. J. Brown, “Voltage-impulse-induced non-volatile ferroelastic switching of ferromagnetic resonance for reconfigurable magnetoelectric microwave devices,” Adv. Mater. 25(35), 4886–4892 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Damodaran, C. W. Liang, Q. He, C. Y. Peng, L. Chang, Y. H. Chu, and L. W. Martin, “Nanoscale structure and mechanism for enhanced electromechanical response of highly strained BiFeO3 thin films,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3170–3175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Beekman, W. Siemons, T. Z. Ward, M. Chi, J. Howe, M. D. Biegalski, N. Balke, P. Maksymovych, A. K. Farrar, J. B. Romero, P. Gao, X. Q. Pan, D. A. Tenne, and H. M. Christen, “Phase transitions, phase coexistence, and piezoelectric switching behavior in highly strained BiFeO3 films,” Adv. Mater. 25(39), 5561–5567 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Huang, Y. Liu, Y. T. Lin, H. J. Liu, Q. He, J. Li, Y. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chu, “Giant enhancement of ferroelectric retention in BiFeO3 mixed-phase boundary,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6335–6340 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chen, Q. He, F. N. Chu, Y. C. Huang, J. W. Chen, W. I. Liang, R. K. Vasudevan, V. Nagarajan, E. Arenholz, S. V. Kalinin, and Y. H. Chu, “Electrical control of multiferroic orderings in mixed-phase BiFeO₃ films,” Adv. Mater. 24(22), 3070–3075 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

C.-J. Cheng, C. Lu, Z. Chen, L. You, L. Chen, J. Wang, and T. Wu, “Thickness-dependent magnetism and spin-glass behaviors in compressively strained BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 242502 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, L. You, C. Huang, Y. Qi, J. Wang, T. Sritharan, and L. Chen, “Nanoscale domains in strained epitaxial BiFeO3 thin Films on LaSrAlO4 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 252903 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Chen, N. Podraza, X. Xu, A. Melville, E. Vlahos, V. Gopalan, R. Ramesh, D. Schlom, and J. Musfeldt, “Optical properties of quasi-tetragonal BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 131907 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, G. Li, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Structural dependent ultrafast electron-phonon coupling in multiferroic BiFeO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Jin, H. Ma, G. Li, Y. Xu, G. Ma, and Z. Cheng, “Ultrafast dynamics of the Mn3+ d-d transition and spin-lattice interaction in YMnO3 film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021106 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, J. Jian, A. Chen, L. Jiao, F. Khatkhatay, L. Li, F. Chu, Q. Jia, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, and H. Wang, “Strain relaxation and enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in BiFeO3: CoFe2O4 vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 062402 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Basu, L. Martin, Y. Chu, M. Gajek, R. Ramesh, R. Rai, X. Xu, and J. Musfeldt, “Photoconductivity in BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091905 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Himcinschi, A. Bhatnagar, A. Talkenberger, M. Barchuk, D. R. Zahn, D. Rafaja, J. Kortus, and M. Alexe, “Optical properties of epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films grown on LaAlO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 012908 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, L. Martin, S. Byrnes, T. Conry, S. Basu, D. Paran, L. Reichertz, J. Ihlefeld, C. Adamo, A. Melville, Y.-H. Chu, C.-H. Yang, J. L. Musfeldt, D. G. Schlom, J. W. Ager, and R. Ramesh, “Photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062909 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

F. Fan, B. Luo, M. Duan, H. Xing, K. Jin, and C. Chen, “Ferroelectric domain switching investigation of BiFeO3 thin film on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (111) substrate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7412–7416 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) XRD patterns of BFO films with different thicknesses grown on (001) LAO substrates. (b) Out-of-plane lattice parameter as a function of thickness.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 AFM images of BFO films on LAO substrates illustrating the thickness-dependence of the morphology. (a) 20 nm; (b) 33 nm; (c) 47 nm; (d) 75 nm; (e) 104 nm. Each image has the square size of 2 um × 2 um.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The variation of (ahν)2 with the photon energy for the BFO films grown on LAO substrates. Inset shows the bandgap of BFO films as a function of thickness.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The resistance of BFO films illuminated at room temperature with a 473 nm light at the intensity of 11.4 mW/mm2 as a function of time. (b) The resistance vs. time fitting curve of film with the thickness of 104 nm at room temperature using Eq. (1). (c) Time constants (τ) and the relaxation order (β) of BFO films at room temperature as a function of thickness when the light is off.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The current-voltage behavior for the BFO film of 47 nm in darkness and under the illumination. The measuring schematic diagram of film is displayed in the inset.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The resistance of the 47 nm BFO film at different temperatures as a function of time with the light (11.4 mW/mm2) at a time period of 80 s each. (b) The resistance of the film versus the temperature in the dark and under the illumination, inset is the temperature dependence of the photoinduced relative change in the resistance. (c) and (d) The energy band diagram of the BFO film. (c) The film is under illumination at low temperatures, and the red and blue dots show electron and holes, respectively; (d) Efn moves toward the middle of the band gap at higher temperatures. (e) Time constants τ and the relaxation order β of the film as a function of temperature when the light is off. (f) Logarithm of the time constant τ as a function of the reciprocal temperature. The red solid lines are the fitting curves.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The ON/OFF state of the 47 nm BFO film at different light intensities as a function of time at a time period of 80 s each. (b) The ON/OFF state of 47 nm BFO film illuminated by the light with different wavelengths as a function of time at a period of 80 s each.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The photoinduced relative changes in the resistance of BFO film as a function of the light intensities and wavelengths.

Equations (1)

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R= R 0 +Aexp( (t/τ) β )

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