Abstract

We generated a 12.5-GHz-spacing optical frequency comb that can be resolved over 100 THz, from 1040 to 1750 nm, without spectral mode filtering. To cover such a broad spectrum, we used electro-optic modulation of single frequency light and line-by-line pulse synthesis to produce a clear pulse train and subsequent spectral broadening in highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs). We numerically and experimentally investigated a configuration of the HNLFs and find that a two-stage broadening through different HNLFs is required when using limited pulse energy at a high repetition rate. We designed and fabricated solid silica-based HNLFs with small zero-dispersion wavelengths to obtain strong spectral broadening, especially at the shorter wavelengths. The individual lines of the proposed frequency comb are resolvable with high contrast over the entire spectral range. The results described in this paper should lead to the development of multicarrier sources for wavelength-division-multiplexing communication and super-multi-point frequency calibration for spectrometers, especially in astrophysics.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

2012 (2)

S. Choi, K. Kasiwagi, Y. Kasuya, S. Kojima, T. Shioda, and T. Kurokawa, “Multi-gigahertz frequency comb-based interferometry using frequency-variable supercontinuum generated by optical pulse synthesizer,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27820–27829 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Choi, N. Tamura, K. Kashiwagi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, “Supercontinuum Comb Generation Using Optical Pulse Synthesizer and Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09LF01 (2009).

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Tanaka, R. Kobe, T. Shioda, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, “Generation of 100-Gb/s Packets Having 8-Bit Return-to-Zero Patterns Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer With a Lookup Table,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(1), 39–41 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Pulse compression techniques using highly nonlinear fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 83–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

K. Mori, H. Takara, and S. Kawanishi, “Analysis and design of supercontinuum pulse generation in a single-mode optical fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(12), 1780–1792 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Abe, M.

Agrawal, G. P.

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Benedick, A. J.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, K. Kasiwagi, Y. Kasuya, S. Kojima, T. Shioda, and T. Kurokawa, “Multi-gigahertz frequency comb-based interferometry using frequency-variable supercontinuum generated by optical pulse synthesizer,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27820–27829 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Choi, N. Tamura, K. Kashiwagi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, “Supercontinuum Comb Generation Using Optical Pulse Synthesizer and Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09LF01 (2009).

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curto, G. L.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Odorico, S.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dekker, H.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fendel, P.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

Fischer, M.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Glenday, A. G.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

González Hernández, J. I.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, H. Hundertmark, S. P. Stark, G. K. L. Wong, P. S. J. Russell, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11670–11687 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Herrmann, J.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirano, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, H. Hundertmark, S. P. Stark, G. K. L. Wong, P. S. J. Russell, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11670–11687 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

Huang, C.

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hundertmark, H.

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inaba, H.

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Pulse compression techniques using highly nonlinear fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 83–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ishizawa, A.

Ishizu, H.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, C. G.

Kärtner, F. X.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kashiwagi, K.

K. Kashiwagi, H. Ishizu, Y. Kodama, and T. Kurokawa, “Background suppression in synthesized pulse waveform by feedback control optimization for flatly broadened supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3001–3009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Choi, N. Tamura, K. Kashiwagi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, “Supercontinuum Comb Generation Using Optical Pulse Synthesizer and Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09LF01 (2009).

Kasiwagi, K.

Kasuya, Y.

Kato, T.

Kawanishi, S.

Kobe, R.

Y. Tanaka, R. Kobe, T. Shioda, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, “Generation of 100-Gb/s Packets Having 8-Bit Return-to-Zero Patterns Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer With a Lookup Table,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(1), 39–41 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kodama, Y.

Koga, M.

Kojima, S.

Krausz, F.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurokawa, T.

K. Kashiwagi, H. Ishizu, Y. Kodama, and T. Kurokawa, “Background suppression in synthesized pulse waveform by feedback control optimization for flatly broadened supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3001–3009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Choi, K. Kasiwagi, Y. Kasuya, S. Kojima, T. Shioda, and T. Kurokawa, “Multi-gigahertz frequency comb-based interferometry using frequency-variable supercontinuum generated by optical pulse synthesizer,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27820–27829 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, R. Kobe, T. Shioda, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, “Generation of 100-Gb/s Packets Having 8-Bit Return-to-Zero Patterns Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer With a Lookup Table,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(1), 39–41 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, N. Tamura, K. Kashiwagi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, “Supercontinuum Comb Generation Using Optical Pulse Synthesizer and Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09LF01 (2009).

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, “Waveform-controllable optical pulse generation using an optical pulse synthesizer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(5), 721–723 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leaird, D. E.

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, C. H.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Q.

Mandai, K.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, “Waveform-controllable optical pulse generation using an optical pulse synthesizer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(5), 721–723 (2006).
[Crossref]

Manescau, A.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Masuda, H.

Matsumoto, H.

Minoshima, K.

Miyamoto, D.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, “Waveform-controllable optical pulse generation using an optical pulse synthesizer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(5), 721–723 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mizutori, A.

Mori, K.

Morioka, T.

Murphy, M. T.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakanishi, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Namiki, S.

T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Pulse compression techniques using highly nonlinear fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 83–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishikawa, T.

Nishimura, M.

Ohara, T.

Okuno, T.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Onae, A.

Onishi, M.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Osterman, S.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasquini, L.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. F.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Probst, R. A.

R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, H. Hundertmark, S. P. Stark, G. K. L. Wong, P. S. J. Russell, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11670–11687 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinlan, F.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rebolo, R.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Sasaoka, E.

Sasselov, D.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Schiller, S.

Shioda, T.

S. Choi, K. Kasiwagi, Y. Kasuya, S. Kojima, T. Shioda, and T. Kurokawa, “Multi-gigahertz frequency comb-based interferometry using frequency-variable supercontinuum generated by optical pulse synthesizer,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27820–27829 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, R. Kobe, T. Shioda, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, “Generation of 100-Gb/s Packets Having 8-Bit Return-to-Zero Patterns Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer With a Lookup Table,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(1), 39–41 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, N. Tamura, K. Kashiwagi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, “Supercontinuum Comb Generation Using Optical Pulse Synthesizer and Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09LF01 (2009).

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, “Waveform-controllable optical pulse generation using an optical pulse synthesizer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(5), 721–723 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sizmann, A.

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sogawa, T.

Spielmann, C.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stark, S. P.

Steinmetz, T.

R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, H. Hundertmark, S. P. Stark, G. K. L. Wong, P. S. J. Russell, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11670–11687 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suetsugu, Y.

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takada, A.

Takagi, M.

Takahashi, H.

Takara, H.

Takeda, S.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, “Waveform-controllable optical pulse generation using an optical pulse synthesizer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(5), 721–723 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tamura, N.

S. Choi, N. Tamura, K. Kashiwagi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, “Supercontinuum Comb Generation Using Optical Pulse Synthesizer and Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09LF01 (2009).

Tanaka, Y.

S. Choi, N. Tamura, K. Kashiwagi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, “Supercontinuum Comb Generation Using Optical Pulse Synthesizer and Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09LF01 (2009).

Y. Tanaka, R. Kobe, T. Shioda, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, “Generation of 100-Gb/s Packets Having 8-Bit Return-to-Zero Patterns Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer With a Lookup Table,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(1), 39–41 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tempea, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuda, H.

Y. Tanaka, R. Kobe, T. Shioda, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, “Generation of 100-Gb/s Packets Having 8-Bit Return-to-Zero Patterns Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer With a Lookup Table,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(1), 39–41 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, “Waveform-controllable optical pulse generation using an optical pulse synthesizer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(5), 721–723 (2006).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, H. Hundertmark, S. P. Stark, G. K. L. Wong, P. S. J. Russell, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11670–11687 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsworth, R. L.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

Weiner, A. M.

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wilken, T.

R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, H. Hundertmark, S. P. Stark, G. K. L. Wong, P. S. J. Russell, T. W. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, and T. Udem, “Nonlinear amplification of side-modes in frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11670–11687 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, G. K. L.

Yamamoto, T.

Yan, M. F.

Ycas, G.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, “Waveform-controllable optical pulse generation using an optical pulse synthesizer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(5), 721–723 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Tanaka, R. Kobe, T. Shioda, H. Tsuda, and T. Kurokawa, “Generation of 100-Gb/s Packets Having 8-Bit Return-to-Zero Patterns Using an Optical Pulse Synthesizer With a Lookup Table,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(1), 39–41 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Choi, N. Tamura, K. Kashiwagi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, “Supercontinuum Comb Generation Using Optical Pulse Synthesizer and Highly Nonlinear Dispersion-Shifted Fiber,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 09LF01 (2009).

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Pulse compression techniques using highly nonlinear fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 83–99 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. T. Murphy, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, A. Sizmann, L. Pasquini, C. Araujo-Hauck, H. Dekker, S. D’Odorico, M. Fischer, T. W. Hänsch, and A. Manescau, “High-precision wavelength calibration of astronomical spectrographs with laser frequency combs,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380(2), 839–847 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1.,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(4), 740–743 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K. Kashiwagi, S. Suzuki, Y. Tanaka, T. Kotani, J. Nishikawa, H. Suto, M. Tamura, and T. Kurokawa, “400-nm-Spanning Astro-Comb Directly Generated from Synthesized Pump Pulse with Repetition Rate of 12.5 GHz,” in Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (OSA, 2013), p. CTu1I.1.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for broadband OFC generation with 12.5 GHz spacing. LN: lithium niobate, Rb Osc.: rubidium oscillator, SG: signal generator, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, AWG: arrayed-waveguide grating, BPF: band-pass filter, FPF: Fabry–Pérot filter, HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Spectra and (b) autocorrelation traces of synthesized and compressed pulses.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Nonlinearly broadened comb spectrum. The black solid line is experimentally obtained spectrum and the red dashed line is spectrum calculated by numerical simulation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comb spectra expanded around (a) 1040 nm, and (b) 1300 nm, and (c) spectrum of the heterodyne signal at 1565 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectra calculated by using different nonlinear coefficient profiles of HNLFs. Black solid line is for a constant nonlinear coefficient and red dashed line is for a wavelength-dependent nonlinear coefficient in wavelength (also shown in Fig. 3).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated parameters of fabricated HNLFs. (a) dispersion, (b) nonlinear coefficient.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulation result for spectral broadening with various fibers.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spectral envelope for various lengths of HNLF1430 in first position. (a) experiment, (b) simulation.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spectra generated by using different second-stage HNLFs. The first HNLF was the 50-cm-long HNLF1430, and the lengths of HNLF1380, HNLF1325, and HNLF1303 were 20, 17, and 15 cm, respectively. Panel (a) shows experimental results and panel (b) shows the results of simulation.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Calculated spectrum generated by using different configurations of HNLFs. The first HNLF was the 50-cm-long HNLF1430. Red-dashed: The second HNLF was the 17-cm-long HNLF1325. Black-solid (case 1): The second and third HNLF were 8-cm-long HNLF1325 and 10-cm-long HNLF1303. Blue-solid (case 2): The second and third HNLF were 3-cm-long HNLF1380 and 10-cm-long HNLF1325. Purple solid (case 3): The second and third HNLF were 5-cm-long HNLF1380 and 10-cm-long HNLF1303. Green-solid (case 4): The second, third and fourth HNLF were 5-cm-long HNLF1380, 3-cm-long HNLF1325 and 10-cm-long HNLF1303. (a) whole spectrum, (b) magnified spectrum from 1000 nm to 1100 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristics of in-house-designed HNLFs and simulation results for spectral bandwidth.

Equations (4)

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A z + α 2 A+ k2 i k1 β k k! A t k =iγ( 1+ i ω 0 t )[ A( z,t )× R( t' ) | A( z,tt' ) | 2 dt' ]
R(t)=(1 f R )δ(t)+ f R [( f a + f c ) h a (τ)+ f b h b (τ)].
h a ( τ )= τ 1 ( τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 )exp( τ / τ 2 )sin( τ/ τ 1 ), h b ( τ )=[ ( 2 τ b τ ) / τ b ]exp( τ / τ b ).
γ= n 2 ω 0 c A eff

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