Abstract

We have demonstrated a simple and efficient method to fabricate OLEDs with enhanced out-coupling efficiencies and with low pixel blurring by inserting nano-pillar arrays prepared through the lateral phase separation of two immiscible polymers in a blend film. By selecting a proper solvent for the polymer and controlling the composition of the polymer blend, the nano-pillar arrays were formed directly after spin-coating of the polymer blend and selective removal of one phase, needing no complicated processes such as nano-imprint lithography. Pattern size and distribution were easily controlled by changing the composition and thickness of the polymer blend film. Phosphorescent OLEDs using the internal light extraction layer containing the nano-pillar arrays showed a 30% enhancement of the power efficiency, no spectral variation with the viewing angle, and only a small increment in pixel blurring. With these advantages, this newly developed method can be adopted for the commercial fabrication process of OLEDs for lighting and display applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  8. E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “A facile route to efficient, low-cost flexible organic light-emitting diodes: utilizing the high refractive index and built-in scattering properties of industrial-grade PEN substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1624–1631 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  25. L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(4040), 4040 (2014).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  29. S. Y. Heriot and R. A. L. Jones, “An interfacial instability in a transient wetting layer leads to lateral phase separation in thin spin-cast polymer-blend films,” Nat. Mater. 4(10), 782–786 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. Vrij and J. Th. G. Overbeek, “Rupture of thin liquid films due to spontaneous fluctuations in thickness,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90(12), 3074–3078 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. Seemann, S. Herminghaus, and K. Jacobs, “Gaining control of pattern formation of dewetting liquid films,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(21), 4925–4938 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. S. Chiou, J. W. Barlow, and D. R. Paul, “Miscibility of bisphenol-A polycarbonate with poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B. Polym. Phys. 25(7), 1459–1471 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. B. Lhoest, P. Bertrand, L. T. Weng, and J. L. Dewez, “Combined time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the surface segregation of poly(methy1 methacrylate) (PMMA) in bisphenol A polycarbonate PMMA blends,” Macromolecules 28(13), 4631–4637 (1995).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  35. I. Prosycevas, S. Tamulevicius, and A. Guobiene, “The surface properties of PSyPMMA blends nanostructured polymeric Layers,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 304–311 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (4)

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “A facile route to efficient, low-cost flexible organic light-emitting diodes: utilizing the high refractive index and built-in scattering properties of industrial-grade PEN substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1624–1631 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qu, M. Slootsky, and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices using a sub-anode grid,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 758–763 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Jeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Jeong, Y. S. Song, C.-K. Moon, J.-J. Kim, and J. R. Youn, “Vacuum nanohole array embedded phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5(8685), 8685 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Chen, W.-K. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices with nanostructured composite electrodes consisting of indium tin oxide nanomesh and conducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. 27(33), 4883–4888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

C. Lee, D. J. Kang, H. Kang, T. Kim, J. Park, J. Lee, S. Yoo, and B. J. Kim, “Simultaneously enhancing light extraction and device stability of organic light-emitting diodes using a corrugated polymer nanosphere templated PEDOT:PSS layer,” Adv. Mater. 4(8), 1301345 (2014).

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4(4307), 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Ding, Y. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Plasmonic nanocavity organic light‐emitting diode with significantly enhanced light extraction, contrast, viewing angle, brightness, and low‐glare,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(40), 6329–6339 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(4040), 4040 (2014).
[PubMed]

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Kim, K.-H. Han, S.-J. Park, J.-B. Kim, J.-H. Shin, J.-J. Kim, and H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency in organic light emitting diodes using a tetragonal photonic crystal with hydrogen silsesquioxane,” Opt. Lett. 39(20), 5901–5904 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lee and J.-J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J.-W. Lim, S. J. Kang, S. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Transparent Ti-In-Sn-O multicomponent anodes for highly efficient phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023513 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

S. Chen and H. S. Kwok, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand-blasting substrates,” Opt. Express 18(1), 37–42 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Y. Heriot and R. A. L. Jones, “An interfacial instability in a transient wetting layer leads to lateral phase separation in thin spin-cast polymer-blend films,” Nat. Mater. 4(10), 782–786 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

I. Prosycevas, S. Tamulevicius, and A. Guobiene, “The surface properties of PSyPMMA blends nanostructured polymeric Layers,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 304–311 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Seemann, S. Herminghaus, and K. Jacobs, “Gaining control of pattern formation of dewetting liquid films,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(21), 4925–4938 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. C. Davies, K. M. Shakesheff, A. G. Shard, A. Domb, C. J. Roberts, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “Surface analysis of biodegradable polymer blends of poly(sebacic anhydride) and poly(DL-lactic acid),” Macromolecules 29(6), 2205–2212 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. B. Lhoest, P. Bertrand, L. T. Weng, and J. L. Dewez, “Combined time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the surface segregation of poly(methy1 methacrylate) (PMMA) in bisphenol A polycarbonate PMMA blends,” Macromolecules 28(13), 4631–4637 (1995).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. S. Chiou, J. W. Barlow, and D. R. Paul, “Miscibility of bisphenol-A polycarbonate with poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B. Polym. Phys. 25(7), 1459–1471 (1987).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

A. Vrij and J. Th. G. Overbeek, “Rupture of thin liquid films due to spontaneous fluctuations in thickness,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90(12), 3074–3078 (1968).
[Crossref]

Altun, A. O.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barlow, J. W.

J. S. Chiou, J. W. Barlow, and D. R. Paul, “Miscibility of bisphenol-A polycarbonate with poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B. Polym. Phys. 25(7), 1459–1471 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bertrand, P.

J. B. Lhoest, P. Bertrand, L. T. Weng, and J. L. Dewez, “Combined time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the surface segregation of poly(methy1 methacrylate) (PMMA) in bisphenol A polycarbonate PMMA blends,” Macromolecules 28(13), 4631–4637 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bi, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-F. Li, Y. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, X.-C. Han, and H.-B. Sun, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated red emission from organic light-emitting devices based on metallic electrodes integrated with dual-periodic corrugation,” Sci. Rep.4(7108), (2015).

Boltau, M.

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-W.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. Muller-Meskamp, B. Lussem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.113(204502), (2013).

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, W.-K. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices with nanostructured composite electrodes consisting of indium tin oxide nanomesh and conducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. 27(33), 4883–4888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

W. Ding, Y. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Plasmonic nanocavity organic light‐emitting diode with significantly enhanced light extraction, contrast, viewing angle, brightness, and low‐glare,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(40), 6329–6339 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.-D.

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(4040), 4040 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chen, K.-Y.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-F. Li, Y. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, X.-C. Han, and H.-B. Sun, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated red emission from organic light-emitting devices based on metallic electrodes integrated with dual-periodic corrugation,” Sci. Rep.4(7108), (2015).

Chen, Y.-J.

C.-Y. Chen, W.-K. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices with nanostructured composite electrodes consisting of indium tin oxide nanomesh and conducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. 27(33), 4883–4888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.-H.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chiou, J. S.

J. S. Chiou, J. W. Barlow, and D. R. Paul, “Miscibility of bisphenol-A polycarbonate with poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B. Polym. Phys. 25(7), 1459–1471 (1987).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-O.

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cho, D.-H.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “A facile route to efficient, low-cost flexible organic light-emitting diodes: utilizing the high refractive index and built-in scattering properties of industrial-grade PEN substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1624–1631 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, N. S.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.-G.

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Kim, E.

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Kim, J.-J.

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C. Lee and J.-J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
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J.-W. Lim, S. J. Kang, S. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Transparent Ti-In-Sn-O multicomponent anodes for highly efficient phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023513 (2012).
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A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
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E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “A facile route to efficient, low-cost flexible organic light-emitting diodes: utilizing the high refractive index and built-in scattering properties of industrial-grade PEN substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1624–1631 (2015).
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Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
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Kim, Y. D.

Kim, Y. H.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. Muller-Meskamp, B. Lussem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.113(204502), (2013).

Kim, Y.-C.

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W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
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Lee, C.

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C. Lee and J.-J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
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Lee, H.

Lee, H. J.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, I.

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “A facile route to efficient, low-cost flexible organic light-emitting diodes: utilizing the high refractive index and built-in scattering properties of industrial-grade PEN substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1624–1631 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

C. Lee, D. J. Kang, H. Kang, T. Kim, J. Park, J. Lee, S. Yoo, and B. J. Kim, “Simultaneously enhancing light extraction and device stability of organic light-emitting diodes using a corrugated polymer nanosphere templated PEDOT:PSS layer,” Adv. Mater. 4(8), 1301345 (2014).

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. Muller-Meskamp, B. Lussem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.113(204502), (2013).

Lee, J.-H.

S. Jeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Jeong, Y. S. Song, C.-K. Moon, J.-J. Kim, and J. R. Youn, “Vacuum nanohole array embedded phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5(8685), 8685 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
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Lee, J.-L.

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.-C. M.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Lim, S. J. Kang, S. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Transparent Ti-In-Sn-O multicomponent anodes for highly efficient phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023513 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-T.

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(4040), 4040 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.-W.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

C.-Y. Chen, W.-K. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices with nanostructured composite electrodes consisting of indium tin oxide nanomesh and conducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. 27(33), 4883–4888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. Muller-Meskamp, B. Lussem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.113(204502), (2013).

Lhoest, J. B.

J. B. Lhoest, P. Bertrand, L. T. Weng, and J. L. Dewez, “Combined time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the surface segregation of poly(methy1 methacrylate) (PMMA) in bisphenol A polycarbonate PMMA blends,” Macromolecules 28(13), 4631–4637 (1995).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4(4307), 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Li, Y.-F.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-F. Li, Y. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, X.-C. Han, and H.-B. Sun, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated red emission from organic light-emitting devices based on metallic electrodes integrated with dual-periodic corrugation,” Sci. Rep.4(7108), (2015).

Li, Y.-Q.

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(4040), 4040 (2014).
[PubMed]

Liang, J.

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4(4307), 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lim, J.-W.

J.-W. Lim, S. J. Kang, S. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Transparent Ti-In-Sn-O multicomponent anodes for highly efficient phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023513 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

C.-Y. Chen, W.-K. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices with nanostructured composite electrodes consisting of indium tin oxide nanomesh and conducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. 27(33), 4883–4888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H.-Y.

Lin, J.-R.

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-S.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-F. Li, Y. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, X.-C. Han, and H.-B. Sun, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated red emission from organic light-emitting devices based on metallic electrodes integrated with dual-periodic corrugation,” Sci. Rep.4(7108), (2015).

Lu, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, W.-K. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices with nanostructured composite electrodes consisting of indium tin oxide nanomesh and conducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. 27(33), 4883–4888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lussem, B.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. Muller-Meskamp, B. Lussem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.113(204502), (2013).

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moon, C.-K.

S. Jeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Jeong, Y. S. Song, C.-K. Moon, J.-J. Kim, and J. R. Youn, “Vacuum nanohole array embedded phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5(8685), 8685 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muller-Meskamp, L.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. Muller-Meskamp, B. Lussem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.113(204502), (2013).

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Niu, X.

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4(4307), 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ou, Q.-D.

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(4040), 4040 (2014).
[PubMed]

Overbeek, J. Th. G.

A. Vrij and J. Th. G. Overbeek, “Rupture of thin liquid films due to spontaneous fluctuations in thickness,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90(12), 3074–3078 (1968).
[Crossref]

Park, C. H.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-D.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

C. Lee, D. J. Kang, H. Kang, T. Kim, J. Park, J. Lee, S. Yoo, and B. J. Kim, “Simultaneously enhancing light extraction and device stability of organic light-emitting diodes using a corrugated polymer nanosphere templated PEDOT:PSS layer,” Adv. Mater. 4(8), 1301345 (2014).

Park, S. K.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

Park, Y.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “A facile route to efficient, low-cost flexible organic light-emitting diodes: utilizing the high refractive index and built-in scattering properties of industrial-grade PEN substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1624–1631 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y. W.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Park, S. Lee, K.-H. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Lee, and J.-J. Kim, “Exciplex-forming co-host for organic light-emitting diodes with ultimate efficiency,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(39), 4914–4920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paul, D. R.

J. S. Chiou, J. W. Barlow, and D. R. Paul, “Miscibility of bisphenol-A polycarbonate with poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Polym. Sci. Part B. Polym. Phys. 25(7), 1459–1471 (1987).
[Crossref]

Pei, Q.

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4(4307), 4307 (2014).
[PubMed]

Prosycevas, I.

I. Prosycevas, S. Tamulevicius, and A. Guobiene, “The surface properties of PSyPMMA blends nanostructured polymeric Layers,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 304–311 (2004).
[Crossref]

Qu, Y.

Y. Qu, M. Slootsky, and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices using a sub-anode grid,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 758–763 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, C. J.

M. C. Davies, K. M. Shakesheff, A. G. Shard, A. Domb, C. J. Roberts, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “Surface analysis of biodegradable polymer blends of poly(sebacic anhydride) and poly(DL-lactic acid),” Macromolecules 29(6), 2205–2212 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seemann, R.

R. Seemann, S. Herminghaus, and K. Jacobs, “Gaining control of pattern formation of dewetting liquid films,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(21), 4925–4938 (2001).
[Crossref]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shakesheff, K. M.

M. C. Davies, K. M. Shakesheff, A. G. Shard, A. Domb, C. J. Roberts, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “Surface analysis of biodegradable polymer blends of poly(sebacic anhydride) and poly(DL-lactic acid),” Macromolecules 29(6), 2205–2212 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shard, A. G.

M. C. Davies, K. M. Shakesheff, A. G. Shard, A. Domb, C. J. Roberts, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “Surface analysis of biodegradable polymer blends of poly(sebacic anhydride) and poly(DL-lactic acid),” Macromolecules 29(6), 2205–2212 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(4040), 4040 (2014).
[PubMed]

Shim, J.-Y.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shim, Y. S.

Y. S. Shim, J. H. Hwang, H. J. Lee, K. B. Choi, K. N. Kim, C. H. Park, S.-G. Jung, Y. W. Park, and B.-K. Ju, “Nanoshuttered OLEDs: unveiled invisible auxiliary electrode,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(41), 6414–6421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.-H.

Shin, J.-W.

J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J. Moon, C. W. Joo, S. K. Park, J. Lee, J.-H. Han, N. S. Cho, J. Hwang, J. W. Huh, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Random nano-structures as light extraction functionals for organic light-emitting diode applications,” Org. Electron. 15(1), 196–202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Slootsky, M.

Y. Qu, M. Slootsky, and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting devices using a sub-anode grid,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 758–763 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. S.

S. Jeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Jeong, Y. S. Song, C.-K. Moon, J.-J. Kim, and J. R. Youn, “Vacuum nanohole array embedded phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5(8685), 8685 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y.-W.

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Steiner, U.

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.-B.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-F. Li, Y. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, X.-C. Han, and H.-B. Sun, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated red emission from organic light-emitting devices based on metallic electrodes integrated with dual-periodic corrugation,” Sci. Rep.4(7108), (2015).

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Syao, K.-C.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tamulevicius, S.

I. Prosycevas, S. Tamulevicius, and A. Guobiene, “The surface properties of PSyPMMA blends nanostructured polymeric Layers,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 304–311 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.-X.

L. Zhou, Q.-D. Ou, J.-D. Chen, S. Shen, J.-X. Tang, Y.-Q. Li, and S.-T. Lee, “Light manipulation for organic optoelectronics using bio-inspired moth’s eye nanostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(4040), 4040 (2014).
[PubMed]

Tendler, S. J. B.

M. C. Davies, K. M. Shakesheff, A. G. Shard, A. Domb, C. J. Roberts, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “Surface analysis of biodegradable polymer blends of poly(sebacic anhydride) and poly(DL-lactic acid),” Macromolecules 29(6), 2205–2212 (1996).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vrij, A.

A. Vrij and J. Th. G. Overbeek, “Rupture of thin liquid films due to spontaneous fluctuations in thickness,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90(12), 3074–3078 (1968).
[Crossref]

Walheim, S.

S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J. Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, “Structure formation via polymer demixing in spin-cast films,” Macromolecules 30(17), 4995–5003 (1997).
[Crossref]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

W. Ding, Y. Wang, H. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, “Plasmonic nanocavity organic light‐emitting diode with significantly enhanced light extraction, contrast, viewing angle, brightness, and low‐glare,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(40), 6329–6339 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.-K.

Weng, L. T.

J. B. Lhoest, P. Bertrand, L. T. Weng, and J. L. Dewez, “Combined time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the surface segregation of poly(methy1 methacrylate) (PMMA) in bisphenol A polycarbonate PMMA blends,” Macromolecules 28(13), 4631–4637 (1995).
[Crossref]

Williams, P. M.

M. C. Davies, K. M. Shakesheff, A. G. Shard, A. Domb, C. J. Roberts, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “Surface analysis of biodegradable polymer blends of poly(sebacic anhydride) and poly(DL-lactic acid),” Macromolecules 29(6), 2205–2212 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. H. Kim, L. Muller-Meskamp, B. Lussem, C. C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.113(204502), (2013).

Wu, C.-C.

C.-Y. Chen, W.-K. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Y. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing optical out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices with nanostructured composite electrodes consisting of indium tin oxide nanomesh and conducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. 27(33), 4883–4888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.-L.

Y.-H. Cheng, J.-L. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, K.-C. Syao, and M.-C. M. Lee, “Enhanced light outcoupling in a thin film by texturing meshed surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yahiro, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yokogawa, H.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, M.

T. Tsutsui, M. Yahiro, H. Yokogawa, K. Kawano, and M. Yokoyama, “Doubling coupling-out efficiency in organic light-emitting devices using a thin silica aerogel layer,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1149–1152 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “A facile route to efficient, low-cost flexible organic light-emitting diodes: utilizing the high refractive index and built-in scattering properties of industrial-grade PEN substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1624–1631 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee, D. J. Kang, H. Kang, T. Kim, J. Park, J. Lee, S. Yoo, and B. J. Kim, “Simultaneously enhancing light extraction and device stability of organic light-emitting diodes using a corrugated polymer nanosphere templated PEDOT:PSS layer,” Adv. Mater. 4(8), 1301345 (2014).

Youn, J. R.

S. Jeon, J.-H. Lee, J.-H. Jeong, Y. S. Song, C.-K. Moon, J.-J. Kim, and J. R. Youn, “Vacuum nanohole array embedded phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 5(8685), 8685 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. K.

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-L.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-F. Li, Y. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, X.-C. Han, and H.-B. Sun, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated red emission from organic light-emitting devices based on metallic electrodes integrated with dual-periodic corrugation,” Sci. Rep.4(7108), (2015).

ZhibinYu,

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4(4307), 4307 (2014).
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L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4(4307), 4307 (2014).
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E. Kim, H. Cho, K. Kim, T.-W. Koh, J. Chung, J. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “A facile route to efficient, low-cost flexible organic light-emitting diodes: utilizing the high refractive index and built-in scattering properties of industrial-grade PEN substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(9), 1624–1631 (2015).
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[PubMed]

L. Li, J. Liang, S.-Y. Chou, X. Zhu, X. Niu, ZhibinYu, and Q. Pei, “A solution processed flexible nanocomposite electrode with efficient light extraction for organic light emitting diodes,” Sci. Rep. 4(4307), 4307 (2014).
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Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-F. Li, Y. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, X.-C. Han, and H.-B. Sun, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated red emission from organic light-emitting devices based on metallic electrodes integrated with dual-periodic corrugation,” Sci. Rep.4(7108), (2015).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of fabrication process of nano-pillar array. (a) Spin coating of blend solution on glass substrate, (b) vertical phase separation occurs during spin-coating, (c-e) spinodal dewetting occurs following vertical phase separation, and (f) formation of nano-pillar array after treatment of selective solvent.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) AFM images of nanopatterns on glass substrates formed by phase separation followed by selective removal of PS in the blend films composed of PMMA:PS (8:2) which were spin coated at 1000 rpm (left), 3000 rpm (center), and 5000 rpm (right) (dimension: 10 μm x 10 μm) (Insets: 2D-FFT images of pore patterns), respectively. THF was used as the solvent. (b) Surface profiles of phase separation layer along the dashed lines in Fig. 2(a). (c) Wavelength dependency on the thickness of film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 AFM images of nanopatterns on glass substrates formed by phase separation followed by selective removal of PS in the blend films with different compositions of PMMA:PS, (a) 30:70, (b) 40:60, (c) 50:50, (d) 60:40 and (e) 80:20. Dimensions: 10 μm × 10 μm. THF was used as the solvent and the speen speed was 1000 rpm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 AFM images of nanopatterns on glass substrates formed by phase separation followed by selective removal of PS in the blend films (PMMA:PS = 2:8 in weight) spin coated at 1000 rpm using the solutions dissolved in different solvents; (a) MEK, (b) chloroform, (c) methylene chloride, and (d) DCE. Dimensions: 10 μm × 10 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Patterns of nanopillars on glass substrates formed by phase separation followed by selective removal of PS in the blend films (PMMA:PS = 2:8 in weight) with different coating thicknesses using chloroform as the solvent. AFM images of the patterns (dimensions: 5 μm × 5 μm) when spin-coated at 2000 rpm (left, C20), 3000 rpm (center, C30), and 4000 rpm (right, C40). (b) Surface profiles of C20, C30, and C40 films along the dashed lines in (a).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Photograph of letters with and without the glass with the nanopillar arrays, C30 (Haze: 2.6%). C30 shows only a small increment in haze. Dimensions of glass substrates: 25 mm × 25 mm. (b) AFM images of the C30 patterns when planarized by polymeric titanium alkoxide (dimensions: 5 μm × 5 μm).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Device performance of OLEDs without nanopillar arrays as a reference (black) and with nanopillar arrays of a C20 layer (red), a C30 layer (green), and a C40 layer (blue) as the light extraction layer. (a) Current density-voltage-luminance characteristics with the inset showing the device structure. (b) Current and power efficiencies as a function of current density (mA/cm2) for the OLEDs. (c) Angular dependence of the EL intensities for OLEDs. All data were normalized with the intensity of the reference device in the normal direction. Orange line represents a guide to the Lambertian pattern. (d) EL spectra of OLEDs acquired from an integrating sphere at 1 mA/cm2.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Angle dependent emission spectra of the OLED with the C30 layer as the light extraction layer at 1mA/cm2 (Inset: angle dependent emission spectra of the reference OLED without the light extraction layer). (b) Emission images at the normal direction of the reference device (left) and the OLEDs with C30 (center) and MLA (right), respectively.

Equations (1)

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λ S (h)= 8 π 2 σ Φ ' ' (h)

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