Abstract

We experimentally generate localized and stationary dynamic Brillouin gratings in a 5 m long polarization maintaining fiber by phase-modulation of the pumps with a pseudo-random bit sequence. The dynamic Brillouin gratings are characterized in terms of length, bandwidth, group delay and group delay ripple, optical signal-to-noise ratio and peak to sidelobe ratio by measuring the distribution of the complex reflected signal along the fiber through swept-wavelength interferometry. By numerical processing, the performance of an optimal modulation format enabling null off-peak reflections are estimated and compared to the pseudo-random bit sequence case.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Sancho, N. Primerov, S. Chin, Y. Antman, A. Zadok, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6157–6162 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. Wei, L. Yi, Y. Jaouën, and W. Hu, “Bandwidth-tunable narrowband rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23249–23260 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Chiarello, D. Sengupta, L. Palmieri, and M. Santagiustina, “Characterization of reconfigurable ultra-narrowband optical filters realized by localized dynamic Brillouin gratings,” ECOC 2015, 41st European Communication Conference on Optical Communication, Valencia, Spain, P.1.10 (2015).
  5. S. Chin and L. Thévenaz, “Tunable photonic delay lines in optical fibers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 724–738 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thévenaz, “All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Ursini and M. Santagiustina, “Applications of the dynamic Brillouin gratings to ultrawideband communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1347–1349 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Y. Song, S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thévenaz, “Time-domain distributed fiber sensor with 1cm spatial resolution based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2062–2067 (2010).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Santagiustina and L. Ursini, “Dynamic Brillouin gratings permanently sustained by chaotic lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 893–895 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Low-noise delays from dynamic Brillouin gratings based on perfect Golomb coding of pump waves,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5259–5261 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Experimental demonstration of localized Brillouin gratings with low off-peak reflectivity established by perfect Golomb codes,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4701–4704 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Optical time-domain measurement of Brillouin dynamic grating spectrum in a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1381–1383 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. W. Zou, Z. He, K. Y. Song, and K. Hotate, “Correlation-based distributed measurement of a dynamic grating spectrum generated in stimulated Brillouin scattering in a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1126–1128 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. W. Zou and J. Chen, “Spectral analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating based on heterodyne detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122503 (2013),
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Fan, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Distributed strain sensor based on dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1647–1649 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  22. K. Y. Song and H. J. Yoon, “Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2958–2960 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. D.-P. Zhou, Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Four-wave mixing analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating in a polarization-maintaining fiber: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20785–20798 (2011).
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  24. D. Sengupta, M. Santagiustina, F. Chiarello, and L. Palmieri, “Generation of dynamic Brillouin grating in polarization maintaining fiber,” Proc. SPIE 9202, 92021Q (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Wei, L. Yi, Y. Jaouën, and W. Hu, “Bandwidth-tunable narrowband rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23249–23260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sengupta, M. Santagiustina, F. Chiarello, and L. Palmieri, “Generation of dynamic Brillouin grating in polarization maintaining fiber,” Proc. SPIE 9202, 92021Q (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thévenaz, “All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ursini and M. Santagiustina, “Applications of the dynamic Brillouin gratings to ultrawideband communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1347–1349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Experimental demonstration of localized Brillouin gratings with low off-peak reflectivity established by perfect Golomb codes,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4701–4704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zou and J. Chen, “Spectral analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating based on heterodyne detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122503 (2013),
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ahn, T.-J.

Antman, Y.

Bao, X.

Chen, J.

W. Zou and J. Chen, “Spectral analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating based on heterodyne detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122503 (2013),
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chiarello, F.

D. Sengupta, M. Santagiustina, F. Chiarello, and L. Palmieri, “Generation of dynamic Brillouin grating in polarization maintaining fiber,” Proc. SPIE 9202, 92021Q (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chiarello, D. Sengupta, L. Palmieri, and M. Santagiustina, “Characterization of reconfigurable ultra-narrowband optical filters realized by localized dynamic Brillouin gratings,” ECOC 2015, 41st European Communication Conference on Optical Communication, Valencia, Spain, P.1.10 (2015).

Chin, S.

Dong, Y.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

He, Z.

Hotate, K.

Hu, W.

Jaouën, Y.

Kim, D. Y.

Langer, T.

Lee, J. Y.

Levanon, N.

Palmieri, L.

D. Sengupta, M. Santagiustina, F. Chiarello, and L. Palmieri, “Generation of dynamic Brillouin grating in polarization maintaining fiber,” Proc. SPIE 9202, 92021Q (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chiarello, D. Sengupta, L. Palmieri, and M. Santagiustina, “Characterization of reconfigurable ultra-narrowband optical filters realized by localized dynamic Brillouin gratings,” ECOC 2015, 41st European Communication Conference on Optical Communication, Valencia, Spain, P.1.10 (2015).

Primerov, N.

Sales, S.

Sancho, J.

Santagiustina, M.

D. Sengupta, M. Santagiustina, F. Chiarello, and L. Palmieri, “Generation of dynamic Brillouin grating in polarization maintaining fiber,” Proc. SPIE 9202, 92021Q (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thévenaz, “All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ursini and M. Santagiustina, “Applications of the dynamic Brillouin gratings to ultrawideband communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1347–1349 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Santagiustina and L. Ursini, “Dynamic Brillouin gratings permanently sustained by chaotic lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 893–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chiarello, D. Sengupta, L. Palmieri, and M. Santagiustina, “Characterization of reconfigurable ultra-narrowband optical filters realized by localized dynamic Brillouin gratings,” ECOC 2015, 41st European Communication Conference on Optical Communication, Valencia, Spain, P.1.10 (2015).

Sengupta, D.

D. Sengupta, M. Santagiustina, F. Chiarello, and L. Palmieri, “Generation of dynamic Brillouin grating in polarization maintaining fiber,” Proc. SPIE 9202, 92021Q (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chiarello, D. Sengupta, L. Palmieri, and M. Santagiustina, “Characterization of reconfigurable ultra-narrowband optical filters realized by localized dynamic Brillouin gratings,” ECOC 2015, 41st European Communication Conference on Optical Communication, Valencia, Spain, P.1.10 (2015).

Song, K. Y.

Thevénaz, L.

Thévenaz, L.

Tur, M.

Ursini, L.

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thévenaz, “All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ursini and M. Santagiustina, “Applications of the dynamic Brillouin gratings to ultrawideband communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1347–1349 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Santagiustina and L. Ursini, “Dynamic Brillouin gratings permanently sustained by chaotic lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 893–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, W.

Yaron, L.

Yi, L.

Yoon, H. J.

Zadok, A.

Zhou, D.-P.

Zou, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

W. Zou and J. Chen, “Spectral analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating based on heterodyne detection,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(12), 122503 (2013),
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Ursini and M. Santagiustina, “Applications of the dynamic Brillouin gratings to ultrawideband communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1347–1349 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

S. Chin and L. Thévenaz, “Tunable photonic delay lines in optical fibers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 724–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (9)

K. Y. Song and H. J. Yoon, “Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2958–2960 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Truly distributed birefringence measurement of polarization-maintaining fibers based on transient Brillouin grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 193–195 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Optical time-domain measurement of Brillouin dynamic grating spectrum in a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1381–1383 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zou, Z. He, K. Y. Song, and K. Hotate, “Correlation-based distributed measurement of a dynamic grating spectrum generated in stimulated Brillouin scattering in a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1126–1128 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fan, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Distributed strain sensor based on dynamic grating in polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1647–1649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Santagiustina and L. Ursini, “Dynamic Brillouin gratings permanently sustained by chaotic lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 893–895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Antman, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Low-noise delays from dynamic Brillouin gratings based on perfect Golomb coding of pump waves,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5259–5261 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Antman, L. Yaron, T. Langer, M. Tur, N. Levanon, and A. Zadok, “Experimental demonstration of localized Brillouin gratings with low off-peak reflectivity established by perfect Golomb codes,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4701–4704 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photonic Sensors (1)

Z. He and K. Hotate, “Dynamic gratings in optical fibers: synthesis and sensing applications,” Photonic Sensors 2(1), 60–64 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Sengupta, M. Santagiustina, F. Chiarello, and L. Palmieri, “Generation of dynamic Brillouin grating in polarization maintaining fiber,” Proc. SPIE 9202, 92021Q (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Santagiustina, S. Chin, N. Primerov, L. Ursini, and L. Thévenaz, “All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1594 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. Chiarello, D. Sengupta, L. Palmieri, and M. Santagiustina, “Characterization of reconfigurable ultra-narrowband optical filters realized by localized dynamic Brillouin gratings,” ECOC 2015, 41st European Communication Conference on Optical Communication, Valencia, Spain, P.1.10 (2015).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. ECL: external cavity laser; PM: phase modulator; FPC: fiber polarization controller; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; SC-SSB: suppressed-carrier single sideband modulator; PBS: polarization beam splitter; PMF: polarization maintaining fiber; FRL: fiber-ring laser; PD: photodiode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The spectral distribution of the DBG for a PRBS frequency of fB = 300MHz.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The impulse response and the spatial distribution of the DBG for a PRBS frequency of fB = 300 MHz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured length L and bandwidth B of the DBGs for different PRBS modulation frequencies fB. (b) Peak reflectivity RMAX as a function of the DBGs length L for the pumps and probe power levels given in Table 1.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PSR (a) and GDR (b) for different PRBS frequencies fB.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spectrograms of the grating response for a PRBS frequency fB = 100MHz (left) and fB = 200MHz (right).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Estimated OSNR for different PRBS frequencies fB.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pumps and probe powers used in the experiments.

Equations (6)

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I ( t ) | H ( ν ) | cos [ 2 π ( f 0 + γ τ ) t + ϕ H ( ν ) ] ,
τ g ( ν ) = 1 2 π d ϕ H ( ν ) d ν ,
L = ν g f / f B ,
B = f B B sinc 2 0.64 f B ,
R MAX = P 1 P 2 ( e κ L ( P 1 + P s ) 1 P 1 + P s ) 2 ,
OSNR = D | h ( z ) | 2 d z Z D | h ( z ) | 2 d z ,

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