Abstract

Ultrafast mid-infrared (IR) coherent radiation plays an important role in strong-field physics, wherein the use of longer wavelengths has reduced the optical intensities needed to drive light-matter interactions by orders of magnitude in comparison to near-IR radiation. Optimizing parametric interactions for generation and characterization of mid-IR pulses is an enabling step for those applications. We report on the production of >50 µJ femtosecond pulses centered at 5 µm in a two-stage optical parametric amplifier (OPA) based on ZnGeP2, a high-performance optical material in this spectral region. The OPA is pumped by an ultrafast 2-µm source. Amplified pulses have been characterized by parametric upconversion, enabling the use of standard silicon detectors. A numerical model of the system has been developed and tested to control dispersion, group-velocity mismatch, and off-axis parametric fluorescence. The source architecture is suitable for production of mJ-level mid-IR ultrafast pulses without the use of chirped-pulse amplification, where convenient pumping could be realized directly by mid-IR laser sources based on materials such as Cr:ZnSe or Cr:ZnS.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

G. Xu, S. Wandel, and I. Jovanovic, “Nondegenerate parametric generation of 2.2-mJ, few-cycle 2.05-µm pulses using a mixed phase matching scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 023102 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wandel, G. Xu, Y. Yin, and I. Jovanovic, “Parametric generation of energetic short mid-infrared pulses for dielectric laser acceleration,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47, 234016 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, and I. Sorokina, “Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 299–301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “2.4 mJ, 33 W Q-switched Tm-doped fiber laser with near diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Let. 38(2), 97–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. Rosenzweig, “Stable charged-particle acceleration and focusing in a laser accelerator using spatial harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, “Operation of femtosecond Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnSe lasers with different dispersion compensation methods,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 887–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Yin, D. French, and I. Jovanovic, “Ultrafast temporal pulse shaping via phase-sensitive three-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18471–18482 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. Petrov, V. Badikov, G. Shevyrdyaeva, V. Panyutin, and V. Chizhikov, “Phase-matching properties and optical parametric amplification in single crystals of AgGaGeS4,” Opt. Mat. 26(3), 217–222 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2000 (2)

G. Tempea, M. Geissler, M. Schnürer, and T. Brabec, “Self-phase-matched high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4329 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, “Difference-frequency generation of intense femtosecond pulses in the mid-IR (4–12 µm) using HgGa2S4 and AgGaS2,” Opt. Commun. 185, 177–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1994 (2)

F. Seifert, V. Petrov, and M. Woerner, “Solid-state laser system for the generation of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses tunable from 3.3 to 10 µm,” Opt. Lett. 19(23), 2009–2011 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

Agustsson, R.

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arab, E.

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Badikov, V.

V. Petrov, V. Badikov, G. Shevyrdyaeva, V. Panyutin, and V. Chizhikov, “Phase-matching properties and optical parametric amplification in single crystals of AgGaGeS4,” Opt. Mat. 26(3), 217–222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bhar, G. C.

Bhardwaj, S.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Birge, J. R.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

G. Tempea, M. Geissler, M. Schnürer, and T. Brabec, “Self-phase-matched high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4329 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cankaya, H.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, “Operation of femtosecond Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnSe lasers with different dispersion compensation methods,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 887–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.-J.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-C.

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chizhikov, V.

V. Petrov, V. Badikov, G. Shevyrdyaeva, V. Panyutin, and V. Chizhikov, “Phase-matching properties and optical parametric amplification in single crystals of AgGaGeS4,” Opt. Mat. 26(3), 217–222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cirmi, G.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, “Operation of femtosecond Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnSe lasers with different dispersion compensation methods,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 887–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

Das, S.

De Silvestri, S.

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

Fleck, J. A.

French, D.

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gangopadhyay, S.

Geissler, M.

G. Tempea, M. Geissler, M. Schnürer, and T. Brabec, “Self-phase-matched high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4329 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerrity, M.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, C.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hernandez-Garcia, C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, K.-H.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-W.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jansen, F.

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “2.4 mJ, 33 W Q-switched Tm-doped fiber laser with near diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Let. 38(2), 97–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jaron-Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jauregui, C.

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “2.4 mJ, 33 W Q-switched Tm-doped fiber laser with near diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Let. 38(2), 97–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jovanovic, I.

S. Wandel, G. Xu, Y. Yin, and I. Jovanovic, “Parametric generation of energetic short mid-infrared pulses for dielectric laser acceleration,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47, 234016 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, S. Wandel, and I. Jovanovic, “Nondegenerate parametric generation of 2.2-mJ, few-cycle 2.05-µm pulses using a mixed phase matching scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 023102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Yin, D. French, and I. Jovanovic, “Ultrafast temporal pulse shaping via phase-sensitive three-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18471–18482 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krause, J. L.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurt, A.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, “Operation of femtosecond Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnSe lasers with different dispersion compensation methods,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 887–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leng, Y.

Li, C.

Li, E.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

Limpert, J.

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “2.4 mJ, 33 W Q-switched Tm-doped fiber laser with near diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Let. 38(2), 97–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moses, J.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moulton, P.

P. Moulton and E. Slobodchikov, “1-GW-peak-power, Cr:ZnSe laser,” in Proceedings of CLEO:2011–Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD), paper PDPA10 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mucke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Murokh, A.

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nabekawa, Y.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Naranjo, B.

B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. Rosenzweig, “Stable charged-particle acceleration and focusing in a laser accelerator using spatial harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicklich, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[Crossref]

Noack, F.

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, “Difference-frequency generation of intense femtosecond pulses in the mid-IR (4–12 µm) using HgGa2S4 and AgGaS2,” Opt. Commun. 185, 177–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, and P. Schunemann, “Femtosecond parametric generation in ZnGeP2,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 414–416 (1999).
[Crossref]

O’Shea, B.

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ovodenko, A.

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Panyutin, V.

V. Petrov, V. Badikov, G. Shevyrdyaeva, V. Panyutin, and V. Chizhikov, “Phase-matching properties and optical parametric amplification in single crystals of AgGaGeS4,” Opt. Mat. 26(3), 217–222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[Crossref]

Petrov, V.

V. Petrov, V. Badikov, G. Shevyrdyaeva, V. Panyutin, and V. Chizhikov, “Phase-matching properties and optical parametric amplification in single crystals of AgGaGeS4,” Opt. Mat. 26(3), 217–222 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, “Difference-frequency generation of intense femtosecond pulses in the mid-IR (4–12 µm) using HgGa2S4 and AgGaS2,” Opt. Commun. 185, 177–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, and P. Schunemann, “Femtosecond parametric generation in ZnGeP2,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 414–416 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Seifert, V. Petrov, and M. Woerner, “Solid-state laser system for the generation of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses tunable from 3.3 to 10 µm,” Opt. Lett. 19(23), 2009–2011 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Picqué, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pogorelsky, I.

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pugžlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putterman, S.

B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. Rosenzweig, “Stable charged-particle acceleration and focusing in a laser accelerator using spatial harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenzweig, J.

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. Rosenzweig, “Stable charged-particle acceleration and focusing in a laser accelerator using spatial harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, “Difference-frequency generation of intense femtosecond pulses in the mid-IR (4–12 µm) using HgGa2S4 and AgGaS2,” Opt. Commun. 185, 177–183 (2000).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, F. Rotermund, F. Noack, and P. Schunemann, “Femtosecond parametric generation in ZnGeP2,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 414–416 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schnürer, M.

G. Tempea, M. Geissler, M. Schnürer, and T. Brabec, “Self-phase-matched high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4329 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schunemann, P.

Seaberg, M.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seifert, F.

Sennaroglu, A.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, “Operation of femtosecond Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnSe lasers with different dispersion compensation methods,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 887–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principle of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 2003).

Shevyrdyaeva, G.

V. Petrov, V. Badikov, G. Shevyrdyaeva, V. Panyutin, and V. Chizhikov, “Phase-matching properties and optical parametric amplification in single crystals of AgGaGeS4,” Opt. Mat. 26(3), 217–222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slobodchikov, E.

P. Moulton and E. Slobodchikov, “1-GW-peak-power, Cr:ZnSe laser,” in Proceedings of CLEO:2011–Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD), paper PDPA10 (2011).
[Crossref]

Solovyov, V.

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, L.

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I.

Stutzki, F.

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “2.4 mJ, 33 W Q-switched Tm-doped fiber laser with near diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Let. 38(2), 97–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, E. J.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tempea, G.

G. Tempea, M. Geissler, M. Schnürer, and T. Brabec, “Self-phase-matched high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4329 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tilton, R.

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tolstik, N.

Tünnermann, A.

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “2.4 mJ, 33 W Q-switched Tm-doped fiber laser with near diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Let. 38(2), 97–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Valloni, A.

B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. Rosenzweig, “Stable charged-particle acceleration and focusing in a laser accelerator using spatial harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Vodopyanov, “Broadly and fast tunable optical parametric oscillator,” U.S. patent20110261438 (October27, 2011).

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wandel, S.

G. Xu, S. Wandel, and I. Jovanovic, “Nondegenerate parametric generation of 2.2-mJ, few-cycle 2.05-µm pulses using a mixed phase matching scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 023102 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wandel, G. Xu, Y. Yin, and I. Jovanovic, “Parametric generation of energetic short mid-infrared pulses for dielectric laser acceleration,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47, 234016 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Woerner, M.

Xu, C.

Xu, G.

S. Wandel, G. Xu, Y. Yin, and I. Jovanovic, “Parametric generation of energetic short mid-infrared pulses for dielectric laser acceleration,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47, 234016 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, S. Wandel, and I. Jovanovic, “Nondegenerate parametric generation of 2.2-mJ, few-cycle 2.05-µm pulses using a mixed phase matching scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 023102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Yin, Y.

S. Wandel, G. Xu, Y. Yin, and I. Jovanovic, “Parametric generation of energetic short mid-infrared pulses for dielectric laser acceleration,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47, 234016 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y. C.

Zhang, B.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. N. Cizmeciyan, H. Cankaya, A. Kurt, and A. Sennaroglu, “Operation of femtosecond Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:ZnSe lasers with different dispersion compensation methods,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 887–892 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “10 mJ class femtosecond optical parametric amplifier for generating soft x-ray harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041111 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Wandel, G. Xu, Y. Yin, and I. Jovanovic, “Parametric generation of energetic short mid-infrared pulses for dielectric laser acceleration,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 47, 234016 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
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Nature (1)

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Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and F. Noack, “Difference-frequency generation of intense femtosecond pulses in the mid-IR (4–12 µm) using HgGa2S4 and AgGaS2,” Opt. Commun. 185, 177–183 (2000).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Let. (1)

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “2.4 mJ, 33 W Q-switched Tm-doped fiber laser with near diffraction-limited beam quality,” Opt. Let. 38(2), 97–99 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

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V. Petrov, V. Badikov, G. Shevyrdyaeva, V. Panyutin, and V. Chizhikov, “Phase-matching properties and optical parametric amplification in single crystals of AgGaGeS4,” Opt. Mat. 26(3), 217–222 (2004).
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Opt. Mat. Express (1)

R. Agustsson, E. Arab, A. Murokh, B. O’Shea, A. Ovodenko, I. Pogorelsky, J. Rosenzweig, V. Solovyov, and R. Tilton, “Measuring single-shot, picosecond optical damage threshold in Ge, Si, and sapphire with a 5.1-µm laser,” Opt. Mat. Express 52835–2842 (2015).
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B. Naranjo, A. Valloni, S. Putterman, and J. Rosenzweig, “Stable charged-particle acceleration and focusing in a laser accelerator using spatial harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 164803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-Ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, S. Wandel, and I. Jovanovic, “Nondegenerate parametric generation of 2.2-mJ, few-cycle 2.05-µm pulses using a mixed phase matching scheme,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 023102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond laser,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (649 KB)      Short pulse splitting length pulse evolution
» Visualization 2: MOV (485 KB)      Long pulse splitting length pulse evolution

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Calculated figure of merit (parametric gain) for several commonly used crystals for mid-IR pulse generation. The pump intensity used for calculations is 1.1 GW/cm2. The crystal length used is equal to the pulse splitting length for each phase-matching condition (λp = 2.05 µm), using a pump pulse duration of 60 fs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Calculated GVM, (b) nonlinear optical coefficient, and (c) phase-matching angle in a type-I ZGP crystal for a 5-µm idler wavelength with a pump wavelength of λp=1.75 µm (black), λp=1.90 µm (red), λp=2.05 µm (blue), and λp=2.50 µm (green).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temporal pulse evolution for pump (black) and idler (red) waves as they traverse the nonlinear medium for a pulse splitting length equal to (a) 1/2 Lc (see Visualization 1) and (b) Lc (see Visualization 2).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of mid-IR OPA and scanning cross-correlator. BS: beamsplitter, λ/2: half-waveplate, L: lens, F1: LP 3000-nm filter, F2: LP 2500-nm filter, F3: LP 4500-nm filter, F4: BP 95040-nm filter, DM: dichroic mirror, D: delay, OPG: 1.5-mm ZGP crystal, OPA I: 1.0-mm ZGP crystal, OPA II: 1.5-mm ZGP crystal, DFG: 1.0-mm MgO:LiNbO3 crystal, CCD: silicon charge-coupled device (Mightex).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized measured and calculated pulse spectra emerging from each amplification stage. Purple: OPG after passing through 1.5-mm ZGP crystal measured with a LP 3000-nm filter; orange: preamplified seed after passing through 1.0-mm ZGP crystal; red: amplified idler after passing through 1.5-mm ZGP crystal. Calculated spectra are shown with solid black lines.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Amplified idler pulse duration before (black circles) and after (blue squares) adding 5-mm-thick sapphire window measured by scanning cross-correlation in a MgO:LiNbO3 crystal and best-fit Gaussian distribution (red). (b) Energy stability of 5-µm idler pulses; inset: far-field beam profile of amplified 5-µm pulse measured by an InSb array camera.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured (gray), calculated (blue), and calculated AC (red dashed) time profiles of amplified 5-µm pulses; (b) measured pulse spectrum (blue) and retrieved spectral phase (red dashed) of amplified idler pulses.

Equations (7)

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FOM = I s ( L c ) I s 0 = 1 4 exp ( 2 Γ L c ) ,
Γ 2 = 8 π 2 d eff 2 I p n i n s n p λ i λ s ε 0 c 0 ,
d A 1 ( z ) d z = i 2 d eff ω 1 2 k 1 c 2 A 2 * ( z ) A 3 ( z ) exp ( i Δ k z )
d A 2 ( z ) d z = i 2 d eff ω 2 2 k 2 c 2 A 1 * ( z ) A 3 ( z ) exp ( i Δ k z )
d A 3 ( z ) d z = i 2 d eff ω 3 2 k 3 c 2 A 1 ( z ) A 2 ( z ) exp ( i Δ k z ) ,
A i ( ω ) A i ( ω ) exp ( i n i ( ω ) ω / c ) ,
A i ( t ) A i ( t ) exp ( i n 2 N L ω i I i ( t ) d z / c ) ,

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