Abstract

White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with quantum dots (QDs) and phosphor have attracted tremendous attentions due to their excellent color rendering ability. In the packaging process, QDs layer and phosphor-silicone layer tend to be separated to reduce the reabsorption losses, and to maintain the stability of QDs surface ligands. This study investigated the packaging sequence between QDs and phosphor on the optical and thermal performances of WLEDs. The output optical power and PL spectra were measured and analyzed, and the temperature fields were simulated and validated experimentally by infrared thermal imager. It was found that when driven by 60 mA, the QDs-on-phosphor type WLEDs achieved luminous efficiency (LE) of 110 lm/W, with color rendering index (CRI) of Ra = 92 and R9 = 80, while the phosphor-on-QDs type WLEDs demonstrated lower LE of 68 lm/W, with Ra = 57 and R9 = 24. Moreover, the QDs-on-phosphor type WLEDs generated less heat than that of another, consequently the highest temperature in the QDs-on-phosphor type was lower than another, and the temperature difference can reach 12.3°C. Therefore, in terms of packaging sequence, the QDs-on-phosphor type is an optimal packaging architecture for higher optical efficiency, better color rendering ability and lower device temperature.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (4)

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high-power LED packaging and applications,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 56, 1–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Xie, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138(2), 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Yuan, L. Li, B. Duan, B. Xie, Y. Zhu, and X. Luo, “Locally reinforced polymer-based composites for efficient heat dissipation of local heat source,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 102, 202–209 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Xie, R. Hu, X. Yu, B. Shang, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Effect of packaging method on performance of light-emitting diodes with quantum dots phosphor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1115–1118 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

J. H. Kim and M. W. Shin, “Thermal behavior of remote phosphor in light-emitting diode packages,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 832–834 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, S. Wang, J. Qin, C. Li, and W. Cao, “Highly efficient and stable luminescence from microbeans integrated with Cd-free quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(10), 922–927 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yin, Y. Bai, J. Zhou, J. Cao, X. Sun, and J. Zhang, “The thermal stability performances of the color rendering index of white light emitting diodes with the red quantum dots encapsulation,” Opt. Mater. 42, 187–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Chen, Y.-C. Lai, B.-C. Lin, C.-C. Lin, S.-H. Chiu, Z.-Y. Tu, M.-H. Shih, P. Yu, P.-T. Lee, X. Li, H.-F. Meng, G.-C. Chi, T.-M. Chen, and H.-C. Kuo, “Efficient hybrid white light-emitting diodes by organic-inorganic materials at different CCT from 3000K to 9000K,” Opt. Express 23(7), A204–A210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, H. Chen, Y. Liu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Color-tunable light emitting diodes based on quantum dot suspension,” Appl. Opt. 54(10), 2845–2850 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

Y. Yin, R. Wang, and L. Zhou, “CdTe quantum dots and YAG hybrid phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Luminescence 29(6), 626–629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mao, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. Chen, “Construction of highly luminescent CdTe/CdS@ZnS-SiO2 quantum dots as conversion materials toward excellent color-rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53(43), 16763–16770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, V. V. Atuchin, and Q. Liu, “Blue-shift of Eu2+ emission in (Ba,Sr)3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+ eulytite solid-solution phosphors resulting from release of neighbouring-cation-induced stress,” Dalton Trans. 43(44), 16800–16804 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

K. H. Lee and W. B. Im, “Efficiency enhancement of bredigite-structure Ca14Mg2[SiO2]8: Eu2+ phosphor via partial nitridation for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(2), 503–508 (2013).

H. Qu, L. Cao, G. Su, and W. Liu, “Effect of inorganic shells on luminescence properties of ZnS:Ag nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 48(14), 4952–4961 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Lee, B. Kim, S. Jeon, C. J. Han, and S.-K. Hong, “Thermal curing property of silicone encapsulant containing quantum dot surrounded by various types of ligands,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 34(12), 3787–3789 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. J. Hao, J. Zhou, and C. Y. Zhang, “A tri-n-octylphosphine-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to synthesize multilayered core-shell CdSe-ZnS quantum dots with extremely high quantum yield,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(56), 6346–6348 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Krumer, S. J. Pera, R. J. A. van Dijk-Moes, Y. Zhao, A. F. P. de Brouwer, E. Groeneveld, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, and C. de Mello Donegá, “Tackling self-absorption in luminescent solar concentrators with type-II colloidal quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110(0), 57–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim, W.-S. Song, and H. Yang, “Color-converting bilayered composite plate of quantum-dot-polymer for high-color rendering white light-emitting diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2885–2888 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

T. Erdem, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, “Power conversion and luminous efficiency performance of nanophosphor quantum dots on color-conversion LEDs for quality general lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827811 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and H. Zheng, “Hotspot location shift in the high-power phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode packages,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09MK05 (2012).

P. Zhong, G. He, and M. Zhang, “Optimal spectra of white light-emitting diodes using quantum dot nanophosphors,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9122–9134 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hu and X. Luo, “A model for calculating the bidirectional scattering properties of phosphor layer in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(21), 3376–3380 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. N. Trung, Q.-P. Luu, B. T. Son, L. H. Sinh, and J.-Y. Bae, “Preparation and characterization of silicone resin nanocomposite containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Polym. Compos. 33(10), 1785–1791 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

N. Reitinger, A. Hohenau, S. Kostler, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Radiationless energy transfer in CdSe-ZnS quantum dot aggregates embedded in PMMA,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(3), 710–714 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Şahin, B. Ilan, and D. F. Kelley, “Monte-Carlo simulations of light propagation in luminescent solar concentrators based on semiconductor nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033108 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Y. Woo, K. N. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED,” Nanotechnology 21(49), 495704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Erdem, S. Nizamoglu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A photometric investigation of ultra-efficient LEDs with high color rendering index and high luminous efficacy employing nanocrystal quantum dot luminophores,” Opt. Express 18(1), 340–347 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

F. Jiang, J. L. de Ris, and M. M. Khan, “Absorption of thermal energy in PMMA by in-depth radiation,” Fire Saf. J. 44(1), 106–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 179–181 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, Y. Shimomura, and N. Kijima, “Preparation of CaAlSiN3: Eu2+ phosphors by the self-progagating high-temperature synthesis and their luminescent properties,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4592–4599 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. S. Jang and D. Y. Jeon, “White light emission from blue and near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes precoated with a Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphor,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3444–3446 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, and H. Yamamoto, “Host lattice materials in the system Ca3N2-AIN-Si3N4 for white light emitting diode,” Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(11), 2712–2717 (2006).

2003 (1)

H. Zhang, Z. Cui, Y. Wang, K. Zhang, X. Ji, C. Lu, B. Yang, and M. Gao, “From water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 777–780 (2003).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

L. Orloff, J. De Ris, and G. H. Markstein, “Upward turbulent fire spread and burning of fuel surface,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 15(1), 183–192 (1975).
[Crossref]

Atuchin, V. V.

Z. Wang, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, V. V. Atuchin, and Q. Liu, “Blue-shift of Eu2+ emission in (Ba,Sr)3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+ eulytite solid-solution phosphors resulting from release of neighbouring-cation-induced stress,” Dalton Trans. 43(44), 16800–16804 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, J.-Y.

N. N. Trung, Q.-P. Luu, B. T. Son, L. H. Sinh, and J.-Y. Bae, “Preparation and characterization of silicone resin nanocomposite containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Polym. Compos. 33(10), 1785–1791 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

L. Yin, Y. Bai, J. Zhou, J. Cao, X. Sun, and J. Zhang, “The thermal stability performances of the color rendering index of white light emitting diodes with the red quantum dots encapsulation,” Opt. Mater. 42, 187–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, J.

L. Yin, Y. Bai, J. Zhou, J. Cao, X. Sun, and J. Zhang, “The thermal stability performances of the color rendering index of white light emitting diodes with the red quantum dots encapsulation,” Opt. Mater. 42, 187–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

H. Qu, L. Cao, G. Su, and W. Liu, “Effect of inorganic shells on luminescence properties of ZnS:Ag nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 48(14), 4952–4961 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, S. Wang, J. Qin, C. Li, and W. Cao, “Highly efficient and stable luminescence from microbeans integrated with Cd-free quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(10), 922–927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, K.-J.

Chen, S.

L. Mao, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. Chen, “Construction of highly luminescent CdTe/CdS@ZnS-SiO2 quantum dots as conversion materials toward excellent color-rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53(43), 16763–16770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-M.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, S. Wang, J. Qin, C. Li, and W. Cao, “Highly efficient and stable luminescence from microbeans integrated with Cd-free quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(10), 922–927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chi, G.-C.

Chiu, S.-H.

Cho, K.-S.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, B. L.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

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C. S. Lee, B. Kim, S. Jeon, C. J. Han, and S.-K. Hong, “Thermal curing property of silicone encapsulant containing quantum dot surrounded by various types of ligands,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 34(12), 3787–3789 (2013).
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H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
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H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
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C. S. Lee, B. Kim, S. Jeon, C. J. Han, and S.-K. Hong, “Thermal curing property of silicone encapsulant containing quantum dot surrounded by various types of ligands,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 34(12), 3787–3789 (2013).
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J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
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J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
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J. Y. Woo, K. N. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED,” Nanotechnology 21(49), 495704 (2010).
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H. Zhang, Z. Cui, Y. Wang, K. Zhang, X. Ji, C. Lu, B. Yang, and M. Gao, “From water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 777–780 (2003).
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F. Jiang, J. L. de Ris, and M. M. Khan, “Absorption of thermal energy in PMMA by in-depth radiation,” Fire Saf. J. 44(1), 106–112 (2009).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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D. Şahin, B. Ilan, and D. F. Kelley, “Monte-Carlo simulations of light propagation in luminescent solar concentrators based on semiconductor nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033108 (2011).
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F. Jiang, J. L. de Ris, and M. M. Khan, “Absorption of thermal energy in PMMA by in-depth radiation,” Fire Saf. J. 44(1), 106–112 (2009).
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X. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, Y. Shimomura, and N. Kijima, “Preparation of CaAlSiN3: Eu2+ phosphors by the self-progagating high-temperature synthesis and their luminescent properties,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4592–4599 (2007).
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C. S. Lee, B. Kim, S. Jeon, C. J. Han, and S.-K. Hong, “Thermal curing property of silicone encapsulant containing quantum dot surrounded by various types of ligands,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 34(12), 3787–3789 (2013).
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Kim, J.-H.

Kim, K.

J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
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J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
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Kim, K. N.

J. Y. Woo, K. N. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED,” Nanotechnology 21(49), 495704 (2010).
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H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
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N. Reitinger, A. Hohenau, S. Kostler, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Radiationless energy transfer in CdSe-ZnS quantum dot aggregates embedded in PMMA,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(3), 710–714 (2011).
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J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
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N. Reitinger, A. Hohenau, S. Kostler, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Radiationless energy transfer in CdSe-ZnS quantum dot aggregates embedded in PMMA,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(3), 710–714 (2011).
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Z. Krumer, S. J. Pera, R. J. A. van Dijk-Moes, Y. Zhao, A. F. P. de Brouwer, E. Groeneveld, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, and C. de Mello Donegá, “Tackling self-absorption in luminescent solar concentrators with type-II colloidal quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110(0), 57–65 (2013).
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Kwon, S.-J.

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Lee, C. S.

C. S. Lee, B. Kim, S. Jeon, C. J. Han, and S.-K. Hong, “Thermal curing property of silicone encapsulant containing quantum dot surrounded by various types of ligands,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 34(12), 3787–3789 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. C.

H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
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Lee, E. K.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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K. H. Lee and W. B. Im, “Efficiency enhancement of bredigite-structure Ca14Mg2[SiO2]8: Eu2+ phosphor via partial nitridation for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(2), 503–508 (2013).

Lee, P.-T.

Lee, S. J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
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N. Reitinger, A. Hohenau, S. Kostler, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Radiationless energy transfer in CdSe-ZnS quantum dot aggregates embedded in PMMA,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(3), 710–714 (2011).
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Li, C.

W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, S. Wang, J. Qin, C. Li, and W. Cao, “Highly efficient and stable luminescence from microbeans integrated with Cd-free quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(10), 922–927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

C. Yuan, L. Li, B. Duan, B. Xie, Y. Zhu, and X. Luo, “Locally reinforced polymer-based composites for efficient heat dissipation of local heat source,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 102, 202–209 (2016).
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Lin, B.-C.

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X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high-power LED packaging and applications,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 56, 1–32 (2016).
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Luo, X.

C. Yuan, L. Li, B. Duan, B. Xie, Y. Zhu, and X. Luo, “Locally reinforced polymer-based composites for efficient heat dissipation of local heat source,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 102, 202–209 (2016).
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B. Xie, R. Hu, X. Yu, B. Shang, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Effect of packaging method on performance of light-emitting diodes with quantum dots phosphor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1115–1118 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high-power LED packaging and applications,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 56, 1–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Xie, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138(2), 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and H. Zheng, “Hotspot location shift in the high-power phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode packages,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09MK05 (2012).

R. Hu and X. Luo, “A model for calculating the bidirectional scattering properties of phosphor layer in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(21), 3376–3380 (2012).
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Machida, K.

X. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, Y. Shimomura, and N. Kijima, “Preparation of CaAlSiN3: Eu2+ phosphors by the self-progagating high-temperature synthesis and their luminescent properties,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4592–4599 (2007).
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L. Orloff, J. De Ris, and G. H. Markstein, “Upward turbulent fire spread and burning of fuel surface,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 15(1), 183–192 (1975).
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Meng, H.-F.

Mitomo, M.

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
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Z. Wang, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, V. V. Atuchin, and Q. Liu, “Blue-shift of Eu2+ emission in (Ba,Sr)3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+ eulytite solid-solution phosphors resulting from release of neighbouring-cation-induced stress,” Dalton Trans. 43(44), 16800–16804 (2014).
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J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
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Mueller-Mach, R.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
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S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 179–181 (2009).
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J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
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J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
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X. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, Y. Shimomura, and N. Kijima, “Preparation of CaAlSiN3: Eu2+ phosphors by the self-progagating high-temperature synthesis and their luminescent properties,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4592–4599 (2007).
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S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 179–181 (2009).
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W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, S. Wang, J. Qin, C. Li, and W. Cao, “Highly efficient and stable luminescence from microbeans integrated with Cd-free quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(10), 922–927 (2015).
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H. Qu, L. Cao, G. Su, and W. Liu, “Effect of inorganic shells on luminescence properties of ZnS:Ag nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 48(14), 4952–4961 (2013).
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J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
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D. Şahin, B. Ilan, and D. F. Kelley, “Monte-Carlo simulations of light propagation in luminescent solar concentrators based on semiconductor nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033108 (2011).
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R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
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Schropp, R. E. I.

Z. Krumer, S. J. Pera, R. J. A. van Dijk-Moes, Y. Zhao, A. F. P. de Brouwer, E. Groeneveld, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, and C. de Mello Donegá, “Tackling self-absorption in luminescent solar concentrators with type-II colloidal quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110(0), 57–65 (2013).
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B. Xie, R. Hu, X. Yu, B. Shang, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Effect of packaging method on performance of light-emitting diodes with quantum dots phosphor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1115–1118 (2016).
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Shimomura, Y.

X. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, Y. Shimomura, and N. Kijima, “Preparation of CaAlSiN3: Eu2+ phosphors by the self-progagating high-temperature synthesis and their luminescent properties,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4592–4599 (2007).
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J. H. Kim and M. W. Shin, “Thermal behavior of remote phosphor in light-emitting diode packages,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 832–834 (2015).
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Simmons, J. A.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
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N. N. Trung, Q.-P. Luu, B. T. Son, L. H. Sinh, and J.-Y. Bae, “Preparation and characterization of silicone resin nanocomposite containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Polym. Compos. 33(10), 1785–1791 (2012).
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N. N. Trung, Q.-P. Luu, B. T. Son, L. H. Sinh, and J.-Y. Bae, “Preparation and characterization of silicone resin nanocomposite containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Polym. Compos. 33(10), 1785–1791 (2012).
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Song, W.-S.

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 179–181 (2009).
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H. Qu, L. Cao, G. Su, and W. Liu, “Effect of inorganic shells on luminescence properties of ZnS:Ag nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 48(14), 4952–4961 (2013).
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Sun, X.

L. Yin, Y. Bai, J. Zhou, J. Cao, X. Sun, and J. Zhang, “The thermal stability performances of the color rendering index of white light emitting diodes with the red quantum dots encapsulation,” Opt. Mater. 42, 187–192 (2015).
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Sun, X. W.

Trung, N. N.

N. N. Trung, Q.-P. Luu, B. T. Son, L. H. Sinh, and J.-Y. Bae, “Preparation and characterization of silicone resin nanocomposite containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Polym. Compos. 33(10), 1785–1791 (2012).
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J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
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Uheda, K.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, and H. Yamamoto, “Host lattice materials in the system Ca3N2-AIN-Si3N4 for white light emitting diode,” Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(11), 2712–2717 (2006).

van Dijk-Moes, R. J. A.

Z. Krumer, S. J. Pera, R. J. A. van Dijk-Moes, Y. Zhao, A. F. P. de Brouwer, E. Groeneveld, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, and C. de Mello Donegá, “Tackling self-absorption in luminescent solar concentrators with type-II colloidal quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110(0), 57–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

Z. Krumer, S. J. Pera, R. J. A. van Dijk-Moes, Y. Zhao, A. F. P. de Brouwer, E. Groeneveld, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, and C. de Mello Donegá, “Tackling self-absorption in luminescent solar concentrators with type-II colloidal quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110(0), 57–65 (2013).
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Wang, C.

L. Mao, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. Chen, “Construction of highly luminescent CdTe/CdS@ZnS-SiO2 quantum dots as conversion materials toward excellent color-rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53(43), 16763–16770 (2014).
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Wang, K.

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high-power LED packaging and applications,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 56, 1–32 (2016).
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W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, S. Wang, J. Qin, C. Li, and W. Cao, “Highly efficient and stable luminescence from microbeans integrated with Cd-free quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(10), 922–927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

Y. Yin, R. Wang, and L. Zhou, “CdTe quantum dots and YAG hybrid phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Luminescence 29(6), 626–629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, S. Wang, J. Qin, C. Li, and W. Cao, “Highly efficient and stable luminescence from microbeans integrated with Cd-free quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(10), 922–927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

H. Zhang, Z. Cui, Y. Wang, K. Zhang, X. Ji, C. Lu, B. Yang, and M. Gao, “From water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 777–780 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, V. V. Atuchin, and Q. Liu, “Blue-shift of Eu2+ emission in (Ba,Sr)3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+ eulytite solid-solution phosphors resulting from release of neighbouring-cation-induced stress,” Dalton Trans. 43(44), 16800–16804 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, J. Y.

J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Woo, K. N. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED,” Nanotechnology 21(49), 495704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, D.

W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, S. Wang, J. Qin, C. Li, and W. Cao, “Highly efficient and stable luminescence from microbeans integrated with Cd-free quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(10), 922–927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Xia, Z.

Z. Wang, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, V. V. Atuchin, and Q. Liu, “Blue-shift of Eu2+ emission in (Ba,Sr)3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+ eulytite solid-solution phosphors resulting from release of neighbouring-cation-induced stress,” Dalton Trans. 43(44), 16800–16804 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, B.

C. Yuan, L. Li, B. Duan, B. Xie, Y. Zhu, and X. Luo, “Locally reinforced polymer-based composites for efficient heat dissipation of local heat source,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 102, 202–209 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Xie, R. Hu, X. Yu, B. Shang, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Effect of packaging method on performance of light-emitting diodes with quantum dots phosphor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1115–1118 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Xie, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138(2), 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xie, R.-J.

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

Yamamoto, H.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, and H. Yamamoto, “Host lattice materials in the system Ca3N2-AIN-Si3N4 for white light emitting diode,” Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(11), 2712–2717 (2006).

Yang, B.

H. Zhang, Z. Cui, Y. Wang, K. Zhang, X. Ji, C. Lu, B. Yang, and M. Gao, “From water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 777–780 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Yin, L.

L. Yin, Y. Bai, J. Zhou, J. Cao, X. Sun, and J. Zhang, “The thermal stability performances of the color rendering index of white light emitting diodes with the red quantum dots encapsulation,” Opt. Mater. 42, 187–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, R. Wang, and L. Zhou, “CdTe quantum dots and YAG hybrid phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Luminescence 29(6), 626–629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

Yu, X.

B. Xie, R. Hu, X. Yu, B. Shang, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Effect of packaging method on performance of light-emitting diodes with quantum dots phosphor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1115–1118 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, C.

C. Yuan, L. Li, B. Duan, B. Xie, Y. Zhu, and X. Luo, “Locally reinforced polymer-based composites for efficient heat dissipation of local heat source,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 102, 202–209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. Y.

J. J. Hao, J. Zhou, and C. Y. Zhang, “A tri-n-octylphosphine-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to synthesize multilayered core-shell CdSe-ZnS quantum dots with extremely high quantum yield,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(56), 6346–6348 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, Z. Cui, Y. Wang, K. Zhang, X. Ji, C. Lu, B. Yang, and M. Gao, “From water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 777–780 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

L. Yin, Y. Bai, J. Zhou, J. Cao, X. Sun, and J. Zhang, “The thermal stability performances of the color rendering index of white light emitting diodes with the red quantum dots encapsulation,” Opt. Mater. 42, 187–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

H. Zhang, Z. Cui, Y. Wang, K. Zhang, X. Ji, C. Lu, B. Yang, and M. Gao, “From water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 777–780 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Q.

L. Mao, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. Chen, “Construction of highly luminescent CdTe/CdS@ZnS-SiO2 quantum dots as conversion materials toward excellent color-rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53(43), 16763–16770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

L. Mao, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. Chen, “Construction of highly luminescent CdTe/CdS@ZnS-SiO2 quantum dots as conversion materials toward excellent color-rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53(43), 16763–16770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Z. Krumer, S. J. Pera, R. J. A. van Dijk-Moes, Y. Zhao, A. F. P. de Brouwer, E. Groeneveld, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, and C. de Mello Donegá, “Tackling self-absorption in luminescent solar concentrators with type-II colloidal quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110(0), 57–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

R. Hu, X. Luo, and H. Zheng, “Hotspot location shift in the high-power phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode packages,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09MK05 (2012).

Zhong, P.

Zhou, J.

L. Yin, Y. Bai, J. Zhou, J. Cao, X. Sun, and J. Zhang, “The thermal stability performances of the color rendering index of white light emitting diodes with the red quantum dots encapsulation,” Opt. Mater. 42, 187–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. J. Hao, J. Zhou, and C. Y. Zhang, “A tri-n-octylphosphine-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to synthesize multilayered core-shell CdSe-ZnS quantum dots with extremely high quantum yield,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(56), 6346–6348 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

Y. Yin, R. Wang, and L. Zhou, “CdTe quantum dots and YAG hybrid phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Luminescence 29(6), 626–629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

C. Yuan, L. Li, B. Duan, B. Xie, Y. Zhu, and X. Luo, “Locally reinforced polymer-based composites for efficient heat dissipation of local heat source,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 102, 202–209 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Zhang, Z. Cui, Y. Wang, K. Zhang, X. Ji, C. Lu, B. Yang, and M. Gao, “From water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15(10), 777–780 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, and H. Yamamoto, “Host lattice materials in the system Ca3N2-AIN-Si3N4 for white light emitting diode,” Appl. Mater. Sci. 203(11), 2712–2717 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, and M. Mitomo, “2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. (1)

C. S. Lee, B. Kim, S. Jeon, C. J. Han, and S.-K. Hong, “Thermal curing property of silicone encapsulant containing quantum dot surrounded by various types of ligands,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 34(12), 3787–3789 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

J. J. Hao, J. Zhou, and C. Y. Zhang, “A tri-n-octylphosphine-assisted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to synthesize multilayered core-shell CdSe-ZnS quantum dots with extremely high quantum yield,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(56), 6346–6348 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

X. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, Y. Shimomura, and N. Kijima, “Preparation of CaAlSiN3: Eu2+ phosphors by the self-progagating high-temperature synthesis and their luminescent properties,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4592–4599 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dalton Trans. (1)

Z. Wang, Z. Xia, M. S. Molokeev, V. V. Atuchin, and Q. Liu, “Blue-shift of Eu2+ emission in (Ba,Sr)3Lu(PO4)3:Eu2+ eulytite solid-solution phosphors resulting from release of neighbouring-cation-induced stress,” Dalton Trans. 43(44), 16800–16804 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fire Saf. J. (1)

F. Jiang, J. L. de Ris, and M. M. Khan, “Absorption of thermal energy in PMMA by in-depth radiation,” Fire Saf. J. 44(1), 106–112 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

J. H. Kim and M. W. Shin, “Thermal behavior of remote phosphor in light-emitting diode packages,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 832–834 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Xie, R. Hu, X. Yu, B. Shang, Y. Ma, and X. Luo, “Effect of packaging method on performance of light-emitting diodes with quantum dots phosphor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1115–1118 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (1)

L. Mao, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. Chen, “Construction of highly luminescent CdTe/CdS@ZnS-SiO2 quantum dots as conversion materials toward excellent color-rendering white-light-emitting diodes,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53(43), 16763–16770 (2014).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Therm. Sci. (1)

C. Yuan, L. Li, B. Duan, B. Xie, Y. Zhu, and X. Luo, “Locally reinforced polymer-based composites for efficient heat dissipation of local heat source,” Int. J. Therm. Sci. 102, 202–209 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

K. H. Lee and W. B. Im, “Efficiency enhancement of bredigite-structure Ca14Mg2[SiO2]8: Eu2+ phosphor via partial nitridation for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(2), 503–508 (2013).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Şahin, B. Ilan, and D. F. Kelley, “Monte-Carlo simulations of light propagation in luminescent solar concentrators based on semiconductor nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033108 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Packag. (1)

B. Xie, R. Hu, and X. Luo, “Quantum dots-converted light-emitting diodes packaging for lighting and display: status and perspectives,” J. Electron. Packag. 138(2), 020803 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

H. Qu, L. Cao, G. Su, and W. Liu, “Effect of inorganic shells on luminescence properties of ZnS:Ag nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Sci. 48(14), 4952–4961 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Woo, K. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Enhanced photoluminance of layered quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites as converting materials for light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Hu, X. Luo, and H. Zheng, “Hotspot location shift in the high-power phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode packages,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(9S2), 09MK05 (2012).

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, “Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 307–333 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luminescence (1)

Y. Yin, R. Wang, and L. Zhou, “CdTe quantum dots and YAG hybrid phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Luminescence 29(6), 626–629 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Y. Woo, K. N. Kim, S. Jeong, and C.-S. Han, “Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED,” Nanotechnology 21(49), 495704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 179–181 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Yin, Y. Bai, J. Zhou, J. Cao, X. Sun, and J. Zhang, “The thermal stability performances of the color rendering index of white light emitting diodes with the red quantum dots encapsulation,” Opt. Mater. 42, 187–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

Part. Part. Syst. Charact. (1)

W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, S. Wang, J. Qin, C. Li, and W. Cao, “Highly efficient and stable luminescence from microbeans integrated with Cd-free quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 32(10), 922–927 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

N. Reitinger, A. Hohenau, S. Kostler, J. R. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Radiationless energy transfer in CdSe-ZnS quantum dot aggregates embedded in PMMA,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(3), 710–714 (2011).
[Crossref]

Polym. Compos. (1)

N. N. Trung, Q.-P. Luu, B. T. Son, L. H. Sinh, and J.-Y. Bae, “Preparation and characterization of silicone resin nanocomposite containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Polym. Compos. 33(10), 1785–1791 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

L. Orloff, J. De Ris, and G. H. Markstein, “Upward turbulent fire spread and burning of fuel surface,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 15(1), 183–192 (1975).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Erdem, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, “Power conversion and luminous efficiency performance of nanophosphor quantum dots on color-conversion LEDs for quality general lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8278, 827811 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prog. Energ. Combust. (1)

X. Luo, R. Hu, S. Liu, and K. Wang, “Heat and fluid flow in high-power LED packaging and applications,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 56, 1–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

Z. Krumer, S. J. Pera, R. J. A. van Dijk-Moes, Y. Zhao, A. F. P. de Brouwer, E. Groeneveld, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, R. E. I. Schropp, and C. de Mello Donegá, “Tackling self-absorption in luminescent solar concentrators with type-II colloidal quantum dots,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110(0), 57–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

W. Chen, K. Wang, J. Hao, D. Wu, J. Qin, D. Dong, J. Deng, Y. Li, Y. Chen, and W. Cao, “High efficiency and color rendering quantum dots white light emitting diodes optimized by luminescent microspheres incorporating,” Nanophotonics (posted 9 May 2016, in press).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic showing two remote type WLEDs with different packaging sequences. (a) QDs-on-phosphor type. (b) Phosphor-on-QDs type.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic showing the measurement process of heat generation in each layer. (a) Measuring the heat flux of LED chip. (b) Measuring the heat flux of phosphor layer. (c) Measuring the heat flux of QDs layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Physical model of the as-prepared WLEDs. (a) WLEDs with QDs-on-phosphor structure (type I). (b) WLEDs with phosphor-on-QDs structure (type II). (c) FEM simulation model of the WLEDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) HRTEM images of the as-prepared CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs. (b) Absorption and PL spectra of the CdSe core and CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs, the inset in Fig. 4(b) shows the CdSe/ZnS QDs solution under UV light exposure. (c) Photographs of the as-prepared phosphor film under daylight and UV light. (d) Photographs of the as-prepared QDs film under daylight and UV light.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Heat flux of each layer in type I (a) and type II (b) WLEDs at varying driving current from 20 mA to 200 mA. Inset in (a) and (b) shows the corresponding photograph of WLEDs illuminated at 60 mA.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PL spectra of type I (a) and type II (b) WLEDs under various forward currents ranging from 20 mA to 200 mA. The inset in each figure depicts the corresponding schematic of light output and conversion mechanism.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated steady-state temperature fields of the two WLEDs under driving current of 20 mA and 60 mA. (a) Type I at 20 mA. (b) Type II at 20 mA. (c) Type I at 60 mA. (d) Type II at 60 mA.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Temperature fields of the two WLEDs measured by infrared thermal imager. (a) Type I at 20 mA. (b) Type II at 20 mA. (c) Type I at 60 mA. (d) Type II at 60 mA.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 PL spectra of the fabricated S2-S4 WLEDs under driving current of 60 mA.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Measured temperature fields the fabricated S2-S4 WLEDs under driving current of 60 mA. (a) Type I-S2. (b) Type I-S3. (c) Type I-S4. (d) Type II-S2. (e) Type II-S3. (f) Type II-S4.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Thickness and thermal conductivity of the packaging materials used in the thermal simulation

Equations (3)

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P heatchip = P El P Opref
P heatphosphor = P Opref P Op1 ψ phos
P heatQDs = P Op1 P Op2 ψ QDs

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