Abstract

High-speed, laser-based tomographic imaging of the three-dimensional time evolution of soot volume fraction in turbulent jet diffusion flames is demonstrated to be feasible at rates of 10 kHz or higher. The fundamental output of a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser with 1 J/pulse is utilized for volumetric impulsive heating of soot particles with a laser fluence of 0.1 J/cm2, enabling signal-to-noise ratios of ~100:1 in images of the resulting incandescence. The three-dimensional morphology of the soot distribution is captured with a spatial resolution of <1.5 mm using as few as four viewing angles, with convergence of the soot volume fraction to within ~95% occurring with seven or more viewing angles. Uniqueness of the solution is demonstrated using two sets of eight images captured at the same time instant, with agreement to >90% in peak values between the two sets. These data establish parameters for successful high-speed, three-dimensional imaging of the soot volume fraction within highly transient combustion environments.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (2)

2013 (4)

M. L. Greene and V. Sick, “Volume-resolved flame chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 113(1), 87–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, X. Li, and L. Ma, “Practical aspects of implementing three-dimensional tomography inversion for volumetric flame imaging,” Appl. Opt. 52(33), 8106–8116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Worth and J. R. Dawson, “Tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence in two interacting turbulent flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(2), 024013 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Köhler, I. Boxx, K. P. Geigle, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous planar measurements of soot structure and velocity fields in a turbulent lifted jet flame at 3 kHz,” Appl. Phys. B 103(2), 271–279 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Shimura, T. Ueda, G. M. Choi, M. Tanahashi, and T. Miyauchi, “Simultaneous dual-plane CH PLIF, single-plane OH PLIF and dual-plane stereoscopic PIV measurements in methane-air turbulent premixed flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 775–782 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. S. Thurow and K. P. Lynch, “Development of a high-speed three-dimensional flow visualization technique,” AIAA J. 47(12), 2857–2865 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, H. El-Rabii, J.-P. Vantelon, P. Joulain, and J. L. Torero, “Laser-induced incandescence calibration in a three-dimensional laminar diffusion flame,” Exp. Fluids 43(6), 939–948 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

C. Schulz, B. F. Kock, M. Hofmann, and G. J. Smallwood, “Laser-induced incandescence: recent trends and current questions,” Appl. Phys. B 83(3), 333–354 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu and C. F. Lee, “Forward-illumination light-extinction technique for soot measurement,” Appl. Opt. 45(9), 2046–2057 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

J. Hult, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, C. F. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 33(2), 265–269 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, “Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes,” Carbon 37(2), 231–239 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Mishra, K. Muralidhar, and P. Munshi, “A robust MART algorithm for tomographic applications,” Numer. Heat Tr. B-Fund. 35(4), 485–506 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 67(1), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, “Optical diagnostics for soot and temperature measurement in diesel engines,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 24(3), 221–255 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

C. R. Shaddix, J. E. Harrington, and K. C. Smyth, “Quantitative measurements of enhanced soot production in a flickering methane/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99(3-4), 723–732 (1994).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

Alden, M.

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Hult, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, C. F. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 33(2), 265–269 (2002).
[Crossref]

Andersson, O.

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aronsson, U.

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

Axelsson, B.

J. Hult, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, C. F. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 33(2), 265–269 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baillargeat, J.

Bellouin, N.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ben-Abdallah, P.

Bengtsson, P.-E.

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Hult, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, C. F. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 33(2), 265–269 (2002).
[Crossref]

Berntsen, T.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bladh, H.

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bond, T. C.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boxx, I.

M. Köhler, I. Boxx, K. P. Geigle, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous planar measurements of soot structure and velocity fields in a turbulent lifted jet flame at 3 kHz,” Appl. Phys. B 103(2), 271–279 (2011).
[Crossref]

Burtscher, H.

H. Burtscher, “Physical characterization of particulate emissions from diesel engines: a review,” J. Aerosol Sci. 36(7), 896–932 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

Chartier, C.

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, G. M.

M. Shimura, T. Ueda, G. M. Choi, M. Tanahashi, and T. Miyauchi, “Simultaneous dual-plane CH PLIF, single-plane OH PLIF and dual-plane stereoscopic PIV measurements in methane-air turbulent premixed flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 775–782 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, M. Y.

R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, “Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes,” Carbon 37(2), 231–239 (1999).
[Crossref]

Collin, R.

J. Hult, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, C. F. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 33(2), 265–269 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dawson, J. R.

N. A. Worth and J. R. Dawson, “Tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence in two interacting turbulent flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(2), 024013 (2013).
[Crossref]

DeAngelo, B. J.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Doherty, S. J.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

El-Rabii, H.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, H. El-Rabii, J.-P. Vantelon, P. Joulain, and J. L. Torero, “Laser-induced incandescence calibration in a three-dimensional laminar diffusion flame,” Exp. Fluids 43(6), 939–948 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fahey, D. W.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flanner, M. G.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Floyd, J.

J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
[Crossref]

Forster, P. M.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuentes, A.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, H. El-Rabii, J.-P. Vantelon, P. Joulain, and J. L. Torero, “Laser-induced incandescence calibration in a three-dimensional laminar diffusion flame,” Exp. Fluids 43(6), 939–948 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J.-P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a nonbuoyant sooting flame,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3311–3313 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geigle, K. P.

M. Köhler, I. Boxx, K. P. Geigle, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous planar measurements of soot structure and velocity fields in a turbulent lifted jet flame at 3 kHz,” Appl. Phys. B 103(2), 271–279 (2011).
[Crossref]

Geipel, P.

J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ghan, S.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gord, J. R.

Greene, M. L.

M. L. Greene and V. Sick, “Volume-resolved flame chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 113(1), 87–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guttikunda, S. K.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Halls, B. R.

Hanson, R. K.

Harrington, J. E.

C. R. Shaddix, J. E. Harrington, and K. C. Smyth, “Quantitative measurements of enhanced soot production in a flickering methane/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99(3-4), 723–732 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, M.

C. Schulz, B. F. Kock, M. Hofmann, and G. J. Smallwood, “Laser-induced incandescence: recent trends and current questions,” Appl. Phys. B 83(3), 333–354 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hopke, P. K.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hult, J.

J. Hult, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, C. F. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 33(2), 265–269 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, M. Z.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johansson, B.

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

Joulain, P.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, H. El-Rabii, J.-P. Vantelon, P. Joulain, and J. L. Torero, “Laser-induced incandescence calibration in a three-dimensional laminar diffusion flame,” Exp. Fluids 43(6), 939–948 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J.-P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a nonbuoyant sooting flame,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3311–3313 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaiser, J. W.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaminski, C. F.

J. Hult, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, C. F. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 33(2), 265–269 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kärcher, B.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Kempf, A. M.

J. Floyd, P. Geipel, and A. M. Kempf, “Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence (CTC): Instantaneous 3D measurements and Phantom studies of a turbulent opposed jet flame,” Combust. Flame 158(2), 376–391 (2011).
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Kinne, S.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Klimont, Z.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koch, D.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kock, B. F.

C. Schulz, B. F. Kock, M. Hofmann, and G. J. Smallwood, “Laser-induced incandescence: recent trends and current questions,” Appl. Phys. B 83(3), 333–354 (2006).
[Crossref]

Köhler, M.

M. Köhler, I. Boxx, K. P. Geigle, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous planar measurements of soot structure and velocity fields in a turbulent lifted jet flame at 3 kHz,” Appl. Phys. B 103(2), 271–279 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kondo, Y.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Kychakoff, G.

Ladommatos, N.

H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, “Optical diagnostics for soot and temperature measurement in diesel engines,” Prog. Energ. Combust. 24(3), 221–255 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. F.

Legros, G.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, H. El-Rabii, J.-P. Vantelon, P. Joulain, and J. L. Torero, “Laser-induced incandescence calibration in a three-dimensional laminar diffusion flame,” Exp. Fluids 43(6), 939–948 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J.-P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a nonbuoyant sooting flame,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3311–3313 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, Q.

Li, X.

Lohmann, U.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Long, M. B.

Lynch, K. P.

B. S. Thurow and K. P. Lynch, “Development of a high-speed three-dimensional flow visualization technique,” AIAA J. 47(12), 2857–2865 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.

Meier, W.

M. Köhler, I. Boxx, K. P. Geigle, and W. Meier, “Simultaneous planar measurements of soot structure and velocity fields in a turbulent lifted jet flame at 3 kHz,” Appl. Phys. B 103(2), 271–279 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T. R.

Michael, J. B.

Michaelis, D.

Mishra, D.

D. Mishra, K. Muralidhar, and P. Munshi, “A robust MART algorithm for tomographic applications,” Numer. Heat Tr. B-Fund. 35(4), 485–506 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miyauchi, T.

M. Shimura, T. Ueda, G. M. Choi, M. Tanahashi, and T. Miyauchi, “Simultaneous dual-plane CH PLIF, single-plane OH PLIF and dual-plane stereoscopic PIV measurements in methane-air turbulent premixed flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 775–782 (2011).
[Crossref]

Munshi, P.

D. Mishra, K. Muralidhar, and P. Munshi, “A robust MART algorithm for tomographic applications,” Numer. Heat Tr. B-Fund. 35(4), 485–506 (1999).
[Crossref]

Muralidhar, K.

D. Mishra, K. Muralidhar, and P. Munshi, “A robust MART algorithm for tomographic applications,” Numer. Heat Tr. B-Fund. 35(4), 485–506 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nygren, J.

J. Hult, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, C. F. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 33(2), 265–269 (2002).
[Crossref]

Omrane, A.

J. Hult, A. Omrane, J. Nygren, C. F. Kaminski, B. Axelsson, R. Collin, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Alden, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent non-premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 33(2), 265–269 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paul, P. H.

Quinn, P. K.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Richter, M.

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roy, S.

Sarofim, M. C.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, R. L.

Schultz, M. G.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schulz, C.

C. Schulz, B. F. Kock, M. Hofmann, and G. J. Smallwood, “Laser-induced incandescence: recent trends and current questions,” Appl. Phys. B 83(3), 333–354 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schulz, M.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, J. P.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shaddix, C. R.

J. B. Michael, P. Venkateswaran, C. R. Shaddix, and T. R. Meyer, “Effects of repetitive pulsing on multi-kHz planar laser-induced incandescence imaging in laminar and turbulent flames,” Appl. Opt. 54(11), 3331–3344 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Shaddix, J. E. Harrington, and K. C. Smyth, “Quantitative measurements of enhanced soot production in a flickering methane/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99(3-4), 723–732 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shimura, M.

M. Shimura, T. Ueda, G. M. Choi, M. Tanahashi, and T. Miyauchi, “Simultaneous dual-plane CH PLIF, single-plane OH PLIF and dual-plane stereoscopic PIV measurements in methane-air turbulent premixed flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 775–782 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shindell, D.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sick, V.

M. L. Greene and V. Sick, “Volume-resolved flame chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 113(1), 87–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sjöholm, J.

J. Sjöholm, R. Wellander, H. Bladh, M. Richter, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, U. Aronsson, C. Chartier, O. Andersson, and B. Johansson, “Challenges for in-cylinder high-speed two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1), 1607–1622 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smallwood, G. J.

C. Schulz, B. F. Kock, M. Hofmann, and G. J. Smallwood, “Laser-induced incandescence: recent trends and current questions,” Appl. Phys. B 83(3), 333–354 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smyth, K. C.

C. R. Shaddix, J. E. Harrington, and K. C. Smyth, “Quantitative measurements of enhanced soot production in a flickering methane/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99(3-4), 723–732 (1994).
[Crossref]

Stephens, A. B.

R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 67(1), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Storelvmo, T.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanahashi, M.

M. Shimura, T. Ueda, G. M. Choi, M. Tanahashi, and T. Miyauchi, “Simultaneous dual-plane CH PLIF, single-plane OH PLIF and dual-plane stereoscopic PIV measurements in methane-air turbulent premixed flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 775–782 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thul, D. J.

Thurow, B. S.

B. S. Thurow and K. P. Lynch, “Development of a high-speed three-dimensional flow visualization technique,” AIAA J. 47(12), 2857–2865 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ticich, T. M.

R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 67(1), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Torero, J. L.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, H. El-Rabii, J.-P. Vantelon, P. Joulain, and J. L. Torero, “Laser-induced incandescence calibration in a three-dimensional laminar diffusion flame,” Exp. Fluids 43(6), 939–948 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J.-P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a nonbuoyant sooting flame,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3311–3313 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueda, T.

M. Shimura, T. Ueda, G. M. Choi, M. Tanahashi, and T. Miyauchi, “Simultaneous dual-plane CH PLIF, single-plane OH PLIF and dual-plane stereoscopic PIV measurements in methane-air turbulent premixed flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 775–782 (2011).
[Crossref]

van Cruyningen, I.

Vander Wal, R. L.

R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, “Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes,” Carbon 37(2), 231–239 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 67(1), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vantelon, J.-P.

A. Fuentes, G. Legros, H. El-Rabii, J.-P. Vantelon, P. Joulain, and J. L. Torero, “Laser-induced incandescence calibration in a three-dimensional laminar diffusion flame,” Exp. Fluids 43(6), 939–948 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Legros, A. Fuentes, P. Ben-Abdallah, J. Baillargeat, P. Joulain, J.-P. Vantelon, and J. L. Torero, “Three-dimensional recomposition of the absorption field inside a nonbuoyant sooting flame,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3311–3313 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (2308 KB)      Visualization 1

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the stereoscope/camera arrangement and volumetric laser illumination for laser-induced incandescence in a jet diffusion flame; and (b) top view of the overall layout of the laser and imaging system for tomographic reconstruction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Two-dimensional images of laser-induced incandescence collected at a single time instant from 14 different views in an ethylene jet diffusion flame at x/D = 50 and ReD = 9,000. Up to eight images from each image set are used to reconstruct one three-dimensional volume as part of a 10-kHz time sequence.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Isocontours of the three-dimensional reconstruction for the same time instant shown in Fig. 2. The images are of the same soot field with increasing (arbitrary scale) intensity thresholds from left to right.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Isocontours of the three-dimensional reconstruction obtained at 10 kHz (see Visualization 1 for full data set), with every fifth image shown here.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Planar slices from volume reconstructions performed using two sets of eight images (A and B, upper panel), and line plots through two locations marked with dashed lines in the images (lower panel).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Planar slices from volume reconstructions performed using eight and four views (upper panel), and line plots through two locations marked with dashed lines in the images using 4–8 views (lower panel).

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