Abstract

We report on the investigation of symmetrical properties of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) domain walls utilizing the nonlinear Cherenkov radiation. Compared with LiNbO3 bulk crystals, new nonzero elements of the χ(2) tensor at domain walls are found by the Cherenkov second harmonic generation (CSHG) and Cherenkov sum frequency generation (CSFG) measurement. Experimentally, we demonstrate the symmetry reduction of domain walls, where the mirror inversion symmetry of LiNbO3 lattice is broken while the threefold rotational symmetry still remains.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

2015 (2)

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, A. Haußmann, T. Woike, E. Soergel, and L. Eng, “Real-time three-dimensional profiling of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 152905 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, P. Karpinski, V. Shvedov, K. Koynov, B. Wang, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Sheng, “Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, M. Schroder, A. Haussmann, L. M. Eng, T. Woike, and E. Soergel, “Optical three-dimensional profiling of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics by Cherenkov second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035314 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. Ren, X. Deng, Y. Zheng, N. An, and X. Chen, “Enhanced nonlinear Cherenkov radiation on the crystal boundary,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1993–1995 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. An, Y. Zheng, H. Ren, X. Deng, and X. Chen, “Conical second harmonic generation in one-dimension nonlinear photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

H. Ren, X. Deng, Y. Zheng, N. An, and X. Chen, “Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation in an anomalous dispersive medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sheng, V. Roppo, K. Kalinowski, and W. Krolikowski, “Role of a localized modulation of χ(2) in Čerenkov second-harmonic generation in nonlinear bulk medium,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3864–3866 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Catalan, J. Seidel, R. Ramesh, and J. F. Scott, “Domain wall nanoelectronics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(1), 119–156 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 848–850 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, R. Fischer, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation of second-harmonic conical waves via nonlinear bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Z. D. Gao, Z. Qi, S. N. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Nonlinear Cerenkov radiation in nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in the domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 375 (2004).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

An, N.

X. Zhao, Y. Zheng, H. Ren, N. An, X. Deng, and X. Chen, “Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation at the interface of two different nonlinear media,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12825–12830 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, X. Deng, Y. Zheng, N. An, and X. Chen, “Enhanced nonlinear Cherenkov radiation on the crystal boundary,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1993–1995 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. An, Y. Zheng, H. Ren, X. Deng, and X. Chen, “Conical second harmonic generation in one-dimension nonlinear photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201112 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, X. Deng, Y. Zheng, N. An, and X. Chen, “Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation in an anomalous dispersive medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arie, A.

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

Balke, N.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

Best, A.

Butt, H. J.

Cao, W.

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Catalan, G.

G. Catalan, J. Seidel, R. Ramesh, and J. F. Scott, “Domain wall nanoelectronics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(1), 119–156 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Zhao, Y. Zheng, H. Ren, N. An, X. Deng, and X. Chen, “Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation at the interface of two different nonlinear media,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12825–12830 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, J. Li, X. Zhao, Y. Zheng, and X. Chen, “Nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation with structured fundamental wave,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15666–15671 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, P. Karpinski, V. Shvedov, K. Koynov, B. Wang, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Sheng, “Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. An, Y. Zheng, H. Ren, X. Deng, and X. Chen, “Conical second harmonic generation in one-dimension nonlinear photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201112 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, X. Deng, Y. Zheng, N. An, and X. Chen, “Enhanced nonlinear Cherenkov radiation on the crystal boundary,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1993–1995 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, X. Deng, Y. Zheng, N. An, and X. Chen, “Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation in an anomalous dispersive medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Deng and X. Chen, “Domain wall characterization in ferroelectrics by using localized nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15597–15602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y.-H.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cojocaru, C.

X. Chen, P. Karpinski, V. Shvedov, K. Koynov, B. Wang, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Sheng, “Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Deng, X.

Eliseev, E. A.

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eng, L.

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, A. Haußmann, T. Woike, E. Soergel, and L. Eng, “Real-time three-dimensional profiling of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 152905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eng, L. M.

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, M. Schroder, A. Haussmann, L. M. Eng, T. Woike, and E. Soergel, “Optical three-dimensional profiling of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics by Cherenkov second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fischer, R.

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, R. Fischer, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation of second-harmonic conical waves via nonlinear bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fragemann, A.

A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in the domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 375 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gajek, M.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Z. D.

Y. Zhang, Z. D. Gao, Z. Qi, S. N. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Nonlinear Cerenkov radiation in nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gemming, S.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopalan, V.

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Haislmaier, R. C.

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Haußmann, A.

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, A. Haußmann, T. Woike, E. Soergel, and L. Eng, “Real-time three-dimensional profiling of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 152905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haussmann, A.

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, M. Schroder, A. Haussmann, L. M. Eng, T. Woike, and E. Soergel, “Optical three-dimensional profiling of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics by Cherenkov second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hawkridge, M. E.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalinin, S. V.

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalinowski, K.

Kämpfe, T.

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, A. Haußmann, T. Woike, E. Soergel, and L. Eng, “Real-time three-dimensional profiling of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 152905 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, M. Schroder, A. Haussmann, L. M. Eng, T. Woike, and E. Soergel, “Optical three-dimensional profiling of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics by Cherenkov second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Karpinski, P.

X. Chen, P. Karpinski, V. Shvedov, K. Koynov, B. Wang, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Sheng, “Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 848–850 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, R. Fischer, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation of second-harmonic conical waves via nonlinear bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleinman, D. A.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

Koynov, K.

X. Chen, P. Karpinski, V. Shvedov, K. Koynov, B. Wang, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Sheng, “Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Sheng, A. Best, H. J. Butt, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, and K. Koynov, “Three-dimensional ferroelectric domain visualization by Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16539–16545 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krolikowski, W.

Laurell, F.

A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in the domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 375 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lei, S.

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Liu, H.

Lummen, T. T. A.

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maksymovych, P.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, L. W.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ming, N. B.

Y. Zhang, Z. D. Gao, Z. Qi, S. N. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Nonlinear Cerenkov radiation in nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morozovska, A. N.

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Neshev, D. N.

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 848–850 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, R. Fischer, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation of second-harmonic conical waves via nonlinear bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orenstein, J.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasiskevicius, V.

A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in the domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 375 (2004).
[Crossref]

Qi, Z.

Y. Zhang, Z. D. Gao, Z. Qi, S. N. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Nonlinear Cerenkov radiation in nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramesh, R.

G. Catalan, J. Seidel, R. Ramesh, and J. F. Scott, “Domain wall nanoelectronics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(1), 119–156 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichenbach, P.

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, A. Haußmann, T. Woike, E. Soergel, and L. Eng, “Real-time three-dimensional profiling of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 152905 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, M. Schroder, A. Haussmann, L. M. Eng, T. Woike, and E. Soergel, “Optical three-dimensional profiling of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics by Cherenkov second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

X. Zhao, Y. Zheng, H. Ren, N. An, X. Deng, and X. Chen, “Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation at the interface of two different nonlinear media,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12825–12830 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, X. Deng, Y. Zheng, N. An, and X. Chen, “Enhanced nonlinear Cherenkov radiation on the crystal boundary,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1993–1995 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. An, Y. Zheng, H. Ren, X. Deng, and X. Chen, “Conical second harmonic generation in one-dimension nonlinear photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201112 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, X. Deng, Y. Zheng, N. An, and X. Chen, “Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation in an anomalous dispersive medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roppo, V.

Rother, A.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saltiel, S. M.

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 848–850 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, R. Fischer, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation of second-harmonic conical waves via nonlinear bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroder, M.

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, M. Schroder, A. Haussmann, L. M. Eng, T. Woike, and E. Soergel, “Optical three-dimensional profiling of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics by Cherenkov second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scott, J. F.

G. Catalan, J. Seidel, R. Ramesh, and J. F. Scott, “Domain wall nanoelectronics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(1), 119–156 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidel, J.

G. Catalan, J. Seidel, R. Ramesh, and J. F. Scott, “Domain wall nanoelectronics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(1), 119–156 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapira, A.

Sheng, Y.

Shvedov, V.

X. Chen, P. Karpinski, V. Shvedov, K. Koynov, B. Wang, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Sheng, “Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soergel, E.

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, A. Haußmann, T. Woike, E. Soergel, and L. Eng, “Real-time three-dimensional profiling of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 152905 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, M. Schroder, A. Haussmann, L. M. Eng, T. Woike, and E. Soergel, “Optical three-dimensional profiling of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics by Cherenkov second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spaldin, N. A.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trull, J.

X. Chen, P. Karpinski, V. Shvedov, K. Koynov, B. Wang, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Sheng, “Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Valdmanis, J. A.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

X. Chen, P. Karpinski, V. Shvedov, K. Koynov, B. Wang, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Sheng, “Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woike, T.

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, A. Haußmann, T. Woike, E. Soergel, and L. Eng, “Real-time three-dimensional profiling of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 152905 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, M. Schroder, A. Haussmann, L. M. Eng, T. Woike, and E. Soergel, “Optical three-dimensional profiling of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics by Cherenkov second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035314 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Z. D. Gao, Z. Qi, S. N. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Nonlinear Cerenkov radiation in nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

Zheng, Y.

Zhu, S. N.

Y. Zhang, Z. D. Gao, Z. Qi, S. N. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Nonlinear Cerenkov radiation in nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, A. Haußmann, T. Woike, E. Soergel, and L. Eng, “Real-time three-dimensional profiling of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(15), 152905 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Fragemann, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Second-order nonlinearities in the domain walls of periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 375 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, P. Karpinski, V. Shvedov, K. Koynov, B. Wang, J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Sheng, “Ferroelectric domain engineering by focused infrared femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141102 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. An, Y. Zheng, H. Ren, X. Deng, and X. Chen, “Conical second harmonic generation in one-dimension nonlinear photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. Seidel, L. W. Martin, Q. He, Q. Zhan, Y.-H. Chu, A. Rother, M. E. Hawkridge, P. Maksymovych, P. Yu, M. Gajek, N. Balke, S. V. Kalinin, S. Gemming, F. Wang, G. Catalan, J. F. Scott, N. A. Spaldin, J. Orenstein, and R. Ramesh, “Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics,” Nat. Mater. 8(3), 229–234 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. Kämpfe, P. Reichenbach, M. Schroder, A. Haussmann, L. M. Eng, T. Woike, and E. Soergel, “Optical three-dimensional profiling of charged domain walls in ferroelectrics by Cherenkov second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035314 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lei, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, R. C. Haislmaier, T. T. A. Lummen, W. Cao, S. V. Kalinin, and V. Gopalan, “Origin of piezoelectric response under a biased scanning probe microscopy tip across a 180° ferroelectric domain wall,” Phys. Rev. B 86(13), 134115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

Y. Zhang, Z. D. Gao, Z. Qi, S. N. Zhu, and N. B. Ming, “Nonlinear Cerenkov radiation in nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Saltiel, D. N. Neshev, R. Fischer, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Generation of second-harmonic conical waves via nonlinear bragg diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, J. A. Valdmanis, and D. A. Kleinman, “Cherenkov radiation from femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(16), 1555–1558 (1984).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, X. Deng, Y. Zheng, N. An, and X. Chen, “Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation in an anomalous dispersive medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(22), 223901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

G. Catalan, J. Seidel, R. Ramesh, and J. F. Scott, “Domain wall nanoelectronics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(1), 119–156 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3rd ed. (Elsevier Science, 2008).

X. Deng, H. Ren, Y. Zheng, K. Liu, and X. Chen, “Significantly enhanced second order nonlinearity in domain walls of ferroelectrics,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1005.2925 .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic experimental setup. (b) The CSHG with the s-polarized normal incidence ω 1 . (c) The CSHG with the p-polarized normal incidence ω 1 . (d) The CSFG with the p-polarized normal incidence ω 1 and the s-polarized oblique incidence ω 2 . (e) Exchange the polarization of the incident beams in (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The CSFG schematic setup. (b) The CSFG pattern on the screen when both ω 1 and ω 2 were p-polarized.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic experimental setup. (b) The CSHG with the s-polarized normal incidence ω 1 . (c) The CSHG with the p-polarized normal incidence ω 1 . (d) The CSFG with the p-polarized normal incidence ω 1 and the s-polarized oblique incidence ω 2 . (e) Exchange the polarization of the incident beams in (d).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Cherenkov angles of the CSHG and CSFG in LiNbO3 domain walls.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ P x ( ω 3 ) P y ( ω 3 ) P z ( ω 3 ) ] = 4 ε 0 [ 0 0 0 0 d 31 d 22 d 22 d 22 0 d 31 0 0 d 31 d 31 d 33 0 0 0 ] [ E x ( ω 1 ) E x ( ω 2 ) E y ( ω 1 ) E y ( ω 2 ) E z ( ω 1 ) E z ( ω 2 ) E y ( ω 1 ) E z ( ω 2 ) + E y ( ω 2 ) E z ( ω 1 ) E x ( ω 1 ) E z ( ω 2 ) + E x ( ω 2 ) E z ( ω 1 ) E x ( ω 1 ) E y ( ω 2 ) + E x ( ω 2 ) E y ( ω 1 ) ] .
d i j = [ d 11 ¯ ¯ d 12 ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 0 d 31 d 22 d 22 d 22 0 ¯ d 31 d 24 ¯ ¯ 0 d 31 d 31 d 33 0 ¯ 0 ¯ d 36 ¯ ¯ ] .
χ ( 2 ) = [ 0 0 0 ¯ 0 0 X Z X X X Z Y Y Y ¯ Y Y Y ¯ Y Y Y ¯ Y Y Y 0 ¯ X X Z X Z X 0 0 0 0 Z X X Z X X Z Z Z 0 ¯ 0 ¯ 0 ¯ 0 ¯ 0 0 ] .

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