Abstract

We propose an interdigitated pixel electrode structure with alternating tilts for fast fringe-field switching of liquid crystals (LCs). In contrast to an LC cell, where the pixel electrodes are parallel to the LC alignment direction, this device does not require a non-zero pretilt angle, owing to an obliquely applied electric field; thus, it can retain a much wider viewing angle by aligning the LCs without a pretilt. In addition to a short response time and wide viewing angle, the proposed device allows a much larger deviation of the LC alignment direction, which is essential for mass production. Moreover, LCs with negative dielectric anisotropy can be used to minimize the transmittance decrease.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  6. J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Park, S.-I. Jo, S.-S. Yoon, M.-J. Lee, M. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on the capability of VR with AH-IPS mode,” Proc. 26th ILCC (2016).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 1–10 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  28. S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Near-zero pretilt alignment of liquid crystals using polyimide films doped with UV-curable polymer,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1044–1051 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (6)

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Cell gap effects on electro-optic performance of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal cell,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1138–1141 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “A liquid crystal cell with double-side protrusion electrodes for fast response and low-voltage operation,” Liq. Cryst. 43, 411–416 (2016).

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Near-zero pretilt alignment of liquid crystals using polyimide films doped with UV-curable polymer,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1044–1051 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kim and J.-H. Lee, “Fast falling time of fringe-field-switching negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal achieved by inserting vertical walls,” Appl. Opt. 54(5), 1046–1050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast in-plane switching of negative liquid crystals using crossed patterned electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 081701 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast switching of nematic liquid crystals over a wide temperature range using a vertical bias electric field,” Appl. Opt. 53(26), 5856–5859 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, future of fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262–2273 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Low temperature effects on the response time of liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071112 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Z. Ge, R. Lu, M. Jiao, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response liquid-crystal displays using crossed fringe fields,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1069–1074 (2008).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. Andrienko, F. Barbet, D. Bormann, Y. Kurioz, S.-B. Kwon, Y. Reznikov, and M. Warenghem, “Electrically controlled director slippage over a photosensitive aligning surface; in-plane sliding mode,” Liq. Cryst. 27(3), 365–370 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. J. Escuti, C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and S. Zumer, “Enhanced dynamic response of the in-plane switching liquid crystal display mode through polymer stabilization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3264–3266 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 623–625 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. H.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, future of fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andrienko, D.

D. Andrienko, F. Barbet, D. Bormann, Y. Kurioz, S.-B. Kwon, Y. Reznikov, and M. Warenghem, “Electrically controlled director slippage over a photosensitive aligning surface; in-plane sliding mode,” Liq. Cryst. 27(3), 365–370 (2000).
[Crossref]

Aoyama, I.

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

Baek, J.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-I.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barbet, F.

D. Andrienko, F. Barbet, D. Bormann, Y. Kurioz, S.-B. Kwon, Y. Reznikov, and M. Warenghem, “Electrically controlled director slippage over a photosensitive aligning surface; in-plane sliding mode,” Liq. Cryst. 27(3), 365–370 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bormann, D.

D. Andrienko, F. Barbet, D. Bormann, Y. Kurioz, S.-B. Kwon, Y. Reznikov, and M. Warenghem, “Electrically controlled director slippage over a photosensitive aligning surface; in-plane sliding mode,” Liq. Cryst. 27(3), 365–370 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bowley, C. C.

M. J. Escuti, C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and S. Zumer, “Enhanced dynamic response of the in-plane switching liquid crystal display mode through polymer stabilization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3264–3266 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, T.-H.

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Cell gap effects on electro-optic performance of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal cell,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1138–1141 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “A liquid crystal cell with double-side protrusion electrodes for fast response and low-voltage operation,” Liq. Cryst. 43, 411–416 (2016).

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast switching of nematic liquid crystals over a wide temperature range using a vertical bias electric field,” Appl. Opt. 53(26), 5856–5859 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast in-plane switching of negative liquid crystals using crossed patterned electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 081701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Cell gap effects on electro-optic performance of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal cell,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1138–1141 (2016).
[Crossref]

Crawford, G. P.

M. J. Escuti, C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and S. Zumer, “Enhanced dynamic response of the in-plane switching liquid crystal display mode through polymer stabilization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3264–3266 (1999).
[Crossref]

Escuti, M. J.

M. J. Escuti, C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and S. Zumer, “Enhanced dynamic response of the in-plane switching liquid crystal display mode through polymer stabilization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3264–3266 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gauza, S.

L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Low temperature effects on the response time of liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Z. Ge, R. Lu, M. Jiao, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response liquid-crystal displays using crossed fringe fields,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1069–1074 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hanaoka, K.

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

Hasebe, H.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ishihara, T.

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

Iyama, Y.

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

Jiao, M.

Y. Li, Z. Ge, R. Lu, M. Jiao, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response liquid-crystal displays using crossed fringe fields,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1069–1074 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jo, S.-I.

J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Park, S.-I. Jo, S.-S. Yoon, M.-J. Lee, M. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on the capability of VR with AH-IPS mode,” Proc. 26th ILCC (2016).

Jun, M.

J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Park, S.-I. Jo, S.-S. Yoon, M.-J. Lee, M. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on the capability of VR with AH-IPS mode,” Proc. 26th ILCC (2016).

Kang, I.-B.

J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Park, S.-I. Jo, S.-S. Yoon, M.-J. Lee, M. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on the capability of VR with AH-IPS mode,” Proc. 26th ILCC (2016).

Kim, A.-K.

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. K.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.-K.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. E.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, future of fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, future of fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-R.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-W.

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “A liquid crystal cell with double-side protrusion electrodes for fast response and low-voltage operation,” Liq. Cryst. 43, 411–416 (2016).

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Cell gap effects on electro-optic performance of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal cell,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1138–1141 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast switching of nematic liquid crystals over a wide temperature range using a vertical bias electric field,” Appl. Opt. 53(26), 5856–5859 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast in-plane switching of negative liquid crystals using crossed patterned electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 081701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. S.

Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 623–625 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kurioz, Y.

D. Andrienko, F. Barbet, D. Bormann, Y. Kurioz, S.-B. Kwon, Y. Reznikov, and M. Warenghem, “Electrically controlled director slippage over a photosensitive aligning surface; in-plane sliding mode,” Liq. Cryst. 27(3), 365–370 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.-B.

D. Andrienko, F. Barbet, D. Bormann, Y. Kurioz, S.-B. Kwon, Y. Reznikov, and M. Warenghem, “Electrically controlled director slippage over a photosensitive aligning surface; in-plane sliding mode,” Liq. Cryst. 27(3), 365–370 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kyrychenko, V.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.-J.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

H. Kim and J.-H. Lee, “Fast falling time of fringe-field-switching negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal achieved by inserting vertical walls,” Appl. Opt. 54(5), 1046–1050 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Park, S.-I. Jo, S.-S. Yoon, M.-J. Lee, M. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on the capability of VR with AH-IPS mode,” Proc. 26th ILCC (2016).

Lee, M.-J.

J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Park, S.-I. Jo, S.-S. Yoon, M.-J. Lee, M. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on the capability of VR with AH-IPS mode,” Proc. 26th ILCC (2016).

Lee, S. H.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, future of fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-L.

Lee, Y.-J.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-C.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Z. Ge, R. Lu, M. Jiao, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response liquid-crystal displays using crossed fringe fields,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1069–1074 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. J.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, future of fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, R.

Y. Li, Z. Ge, R. Lu, M. Jiao, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response liquid-crystal displays using crossed fringe fields,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1069–1074 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262–2273 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miyata, H.

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

Oh, S.-W.

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Near-zero pretilt alignment of liquid crystals using polyimide films doped with UV-curable polymer,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1044–1051 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 623–625 (1996).
[Crossref]

Park, B. W.

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, J. W.

Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-H.

Park, K. H.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, K.-B.

J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Park, S.-I. Jo, S.-S. Yoon, M.-J. Lee, M. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on the capability of VR with AH-IPS mode,” Proc. 26th ILCC (2016).

Park, M.-K.

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.-J.

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “A liquid crystal cell with double-side protrusion electrodes for fast response and low-voltage operation,” Liq. Cryst. 43, 411–416 (2016).

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Cell gap effects on electro-optic performance of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal cell,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1138–1141 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, F.

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262–2273 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rao, L.

L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Low temperature effects on the response time of liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, future of fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reznikov, Y.

D. Andrienko, F. Barbet, D. Bormann, Y. Kurioz, S.-B. Kwon, Y. Reznikov, and M. Warenghem, “Electrically controlled director slippage over a photosensitive aligning surface; in-plane sliding mode,” Liq. Cryst. 27(3), 365–370 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

Shin, S. T.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Souk, J. H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takase, K.

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

Takatsu, H.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tao, D.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsai, W.-C.

Warenghem, M.

D. Andrienko, F. Barbet, D. Bormann, Y. Kurioz, S.-B. Kwon, Y. Reznikov, and M. Warenghem, “Electrically controlled director slippage over a photosensitive aligning surface; in-plane sliding mode,” Liq. Cryst. 27(3), 365–370 (2000).
[Crossref]

Woo, H. S.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Woo, J.-H.

Wu, S.-T.

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262–2273 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Low temperature effects on the response time of liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, Z. Ge, R. Lu, M. Jiao, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response liquid-crystal displays using crossed fringe fields,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1069–1074 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

Yaroschchuk, O.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yashiki, M.

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

Yoon, S.-S.

J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Park, S.-I. Jo, S.-S. Yoon, M.-J. Lee, M. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on the capability of VR with AH-IPS mode,” Proc. 26th ILCC (2016).

Yoon, T.-H.

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “A liquid crystal cell with double-side protrusion electrodes for fast response and low-voltage operation,” Liq. Cryst. 43, 411–416 (2016).

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, J.-H. Woo, S.-W. Oh, and T.-H. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of an in-plane-switching liquid crystal cell with zero rubbing angle: dependence on the electrode structure,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15987–15996 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Cell gap effects on electro-optic performance of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal cell,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1138–1141 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Woo, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of two-dimensional confinement on switching of vertically aligned liquid crystals by an in-plane electric field,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20993–21000 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Near-zero pretilt alignment of liquid crystals using polyimide films doped with UV-curable polymer,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1044–1051 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast switching of nematic liquid crystals over a wide temperature range using a vertical bias electric field,” Appl. Opt. 53(26), 5856–5859 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast in-plane switching of negative liquid crystals using crossed patterned electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 081701 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

Yu, C.-J.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zumer, S.

M. J. Escuti, C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and S. Zumer, “Enhanced dynamic response of the in-plane switching liquid crystal display mode through polymer stabilization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3264–3266 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Low temperature effects on the response time of liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071112 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 623–625 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, S. S. Kim, J. W. Park, and S. H. Lee, “Thin cell fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display with a chiral dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181109 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. J. Escuti, C. C. Bowley, G. P. Crawford, and S. Zumer, “Enhanced dynamic response of the in-plane switching liquid crystal display mode through polymer stabilization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(21), 3264–3266 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

T.-H. Choi, Y. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Cell gap effects on electro-optic performance of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal cell,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(10), 1138–1141 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Superfast low-temperature switching of nematic liquid crystals using quasi-impulsive driving and overdrive,” J. Disp. Technol. 12(1), 17–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Inf. Disp. (2)

S.-W. Oh, A.-K. Kim, B. W. Park, and T.-H. Yoon, “Optical compensation methods for the elimination of off-axis light leakage in an in-plane-switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 16(1), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, future of fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, D.-J. Lee, M.-K. Park, K. H. Park, J.-H. Lee, B. K. Kim, and H.-R. Kim, “Enhancement of viewing angle properties of a single-domain fringe-field switching mode using zero pretilt alignment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(40), 405502 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. Li, Z. Ge, R. Lu, M. Jiao, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response liquid-crystal displays using crossed fringe fields,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1069–1074 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T.-H. Choi, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast in-plane switching of negative liquid crystals using crossed patterned electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 081701 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (3)

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast grey-to-grey switching of a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal device,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 492–496 (2015).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Choi, Y.-J. Park, J.-W. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “A liquid crystal cell with double-side protrusion electrodes for fast response and low-voltage operation,” Liq. Cryst. 43, 411–416 (2016).

D. Andrienko, F. Barbet, D. Bormann, Y. Kurioz, S.-B. Kwon, Y. Reznikov, and M. Warenghem, “Electrically controlled director slippage over a photosensitive aligning surface; in-plane sliding mode,” Liq. Cryst. 27(3), 365–370 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Sci. Rep. (1)

T.-H. Choi, S.-W. Oh, Y.-J. Park, Y. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast fringe-field switching of a liquid crystal cell by two-dimensional confinement with virtual walls,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27936 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

Y. Iwata, M. Murata, K. Tanaka, A. Jinda, T. Ohtake, T. Shinomiya, and H. Yoshida, “Novel super-fast-response, ultra-wide temperature range VA-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 44, 431–434 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Matsushima, K. Okazaki, Y. Yang, and K. Takizawa, “New fast response time in-plane switching liquid crystal mode,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46, 648–651 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Iyama, T. Sasaki, I. Aoyama, K. Hanaoka, T. Ishihara, M. Yashiki, K. Takase, H. Miyata, and H. Yoshida, “Transparent liquid crystal display with three states: transparent, white and black,” Proc. 22nd IDW, 1291–1294 (2015).

J.-H. Lee, K.-B. Park, S.-I. Jo, S.-S. Yoon, M.-J. Lee, M. Jun, and I.-B. Kang, “The study on the capability of VR with AH-IPS mode,” Proc. 26th ILCC (2016).

L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electrooptic Effects in Liquid Crystal Materials (Springer, 1994).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-sectional view with equipotential lines. Top view of LC cells with pixel electrodes (b) not parallel to the LC alignment direction (α ≠ 0°), (c) parallel to the LC alignment direction (α = 0°), and (d) alternating tilt angles of ± β.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated voltage-transmittance curves of FFS cells using p-LCs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated switching behavior of FFS cells using p-LCs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated maximum acceptable deviation of the LC alignment direction vs. the pretilt angle in an FFS cell with α = 0° and the proposed FFS cell using pixel electrodes with an alternating tilt angle of β = ± 1°.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Iso-contrast contour plots of biaxial film-compensated FFS cells using pixel electrodes with alternating tilts when the pretilt angle of the LC layer is (a) 2°, (b) 1°, and (c) 0°.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated voltage-transmittance curves of conventional FFS cells and the proposed cells using p-LCs and n-LCs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated switching behavior of conventional FFS cells and the proposed cells using p-LCs and n-LCs.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Physical properties of the LC materials used in numerical calculations.

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