Abstract

A real-time color-intensity modulation multi-input-multi-output (CIM-MIMO) optical camera communication (OCC) system is designed and implemented. It utilizes multiple intensity levels for each color and 3 colors of each RGB LED module of a LED array, to generate M-ary CIM symbols. Signal constellation and training sequences are designed to tackle the system imperfectness. Applying 256-CIM to 192 data-carrying LEDs of a commercial 16 × 16 LED array at a refresh rate of 82.5 Hz and a mobile phone camera at a frame rate of 330 fps, the system achieves a data rate of 126.72 kbps over 1.4 m, without external optical assistance.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Wang, S. Ma, C. Hu, J. Huai, C. Peng, and G. Shen, “Enhancing reliability to boost the throughput over screen-camera links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 41–52.
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Li, C. An, X. Xiao, A. T. Campbell, and X. Zhou, “Real-time screen-camera communication behind any scene,” in Proceedings of the 13th Annuan International Conference on Mobile System (ACM 2015), pp. 197–211.
  4. Y. S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K. J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: Indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 447–458.
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, “A pixelated mimo wireless optical communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 859–874 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD-camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2010), pp. 137–148.
    [Crossref]
  7. C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in led visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2476757 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Hu, P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, H. Fu, and P. Mohapatra, “Colorbars: Increasing data rate of led-to-camera communication using color shift keying,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Networking and Experiments and Technologies (ACM, 2015), pp. 1–13.
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).
  10. P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. Huang, C. Gong, P. Tian, and Z. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of high-order modulation for optical camera communication,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1027–1031.
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Tian, W. Huang, and Z. Xu, “Design and experimental demonstration of a real-time 95kbps optical camera communication system,” in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–6.
    [Crossref]
  14. E. Monteiro and S. Hranilovic, “Design and implementation of color shift keying for visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 2053–2060 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Singh, T. O’Farrell, and J. P. David, “An enhanced color shift keying modulation scheme for high-speed wireless visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(14), 2582–2592 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in led visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2476757 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

2014 (3)

2006 (1)

S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, “A pixelated mimo wireless optical communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 859–874 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD-camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2010), pp. 137–148.
[Crossref]

Andoh, M.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arai, S.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in led visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2476757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. H.

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in led visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2476757 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chow, C. W.

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “RGB visible light communication using mobile-phone camera and multi-input multi-output,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9383–9388 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in led visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2476757 (2015).
[Crossref]

David, J. P.

Dutta, P.

Y. S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K. J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: Indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

P. Hu, P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, H. Fu, and P. Mohapatra, “Colorbars: Increasing data rate of led-to-camera communication using color shift keying,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Networking and Experiments and Technologies (ACM, 2015), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Fu, H.

P. Hu, P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, H. Fu, and P. Mohapatra, “Colorbars: Increasing data rate of led-to-camera communication using color shift keying,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Networking and Experiments and Technologies (ACM, 2015), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

Gong, C.

W. Huang, C. Gong, P. Tian, and Z. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of high-order modulation for optical camera communication,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1027–1031.
[Crossref]

Han, D.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

Harada, T.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hranilovic, S.

E. Monteiro and S. Hranilovic, “Design and implementation of color shift keying for visible light communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 2053–2060 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, “A pixelated mimo wireless optical communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 859–874 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, K. J.

Y. S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K. J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: Indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

A. Wang, S. Ma, C. Hu, J. Huai, C. Peng, and G. Shen, “Enhancing reliability to boost the throughput over screen-camera links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 41–52.
[Crossref]

Hu, P.

P. Hu, P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, H. Fu, and P. Mohapatra, “Colorbars: Increasing data rate of led-to-camera communication using color shift keying,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Networking and Experiments and Technologies (ACM, 2015), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Huai, J.

A. Wang, S. Ma, C. Hu, J. Huai, C. Peng, and G. Shen, “Enhancing reliability to boost the throughput over screen-camera links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 41–52.
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

W. Huang, C. Gong, P. Tian, and Z. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of high-order modulation for optical camera communication,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1027–1031.
[Crossref]

P. Tian, W. Huang, and Z. Xu, “Design and experimental demonstration of a real-time 95kbps optical camera communication system,” in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Kagawa, K.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Katabi, D.

S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD-camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2010), pp. 137–148.
[Crossref]

Kawahito, S.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kschischang, F. R.

S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, “A pixelated mimo wireless optical communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 859–874 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y. S.

Y. S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K. J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: Indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Le Minh, H.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

Liang, K.

Liu, Y.

Luo, P.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

Ma, S.

A. Wang, S. Ma, C. Hu, J. Huai, C. Peng, and G. Shen, “Enhancing reliability to boost the throughput over screen-camera links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 41–52.
[Crossref]

Mohapatra, P.

P. Hu, P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, H. Fu, and P. Mohapatra, “Colorbars: Increasing data rate of led-to-camera communication using color shift keying,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Networking and Experiments and Technologies (ACM, 2015), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Monteiro, E.

O’Farrell, T.

Okada, H.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pannuto, P.

Y. S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K. J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: Indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

Pathak, P. H.

P. Hu, P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, H. Fu, and P. Mohapatra, “Colorbars: Increasing data rate of led-to-camera communication using color shift keying,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Networking and Experiments and Technologies (ACM, 2015), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

Peng, C.

A. Wang, S. Ma, C. Hu, J. Huai, C. Peng, and G. Shen, “Enhancing reliability to boost the throughput over screen-camera links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 41–52.
[Crossref]

Perli, S. D.

S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD-camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2010), pp. 137–148.
[Crossref]

Png, L. C.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

Shen, G.

A. Wang, S. Ma, C. Hu, J. Huai, C. Peng, and G. Shen, “Enhancing reliability to boost the throughput over screen-camera links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 41–52.
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

Takai, I.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, X.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

Tian, P.

W. Huang, C. Gong, P. Tian, and Z. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of high-order modulation for optical camera communication,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1027–1031.
[Crossref]

P. Tian, W. Huang, and Z. Xu, “Design and experimental demonstration of a real-time 95kbps optical camera communication system,” in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

Tsai, H.-M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

A. Wang, S. Ma, C. Hu, J. Huai, C. Peng, and G. Shen, “Enhancing reliability to boost the throughput over screen-camera links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 41–52.
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

W. Huang, C. Gong, P. Tian, and Z. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of high-order modulation for optical camera communication,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1027–1031.
[Crossref]

P. Tian, W. Huang, and Z. Xu, “Design and experimental demonstration of a real-time 95kbps optical camera communication system,” in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Yamazato, T.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yasutomi, K.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yendo, T.

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

T. Yamazato, I. Takai, H. Okada, T. Fujii, T. Yendo, S. Arai, M. Andoh, T. Harada, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, and S. Kawahito, “Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Hranilovic and F. R. Kschischang, “A pixelated mimo wireless optical communication system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 859–874 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H.-M. Tsai, X. Tang, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a 1024-qam optical camera communication system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28(2), 139–142 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. Le Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of rgb led-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2486680 (2015).

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Enhancement of signal performance in led visible light communications using mobile phone camera,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 2476757 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (7)

W. Huang, C. Gong, P. Tian, and Z. Xu, “Experimental demonstration of high-order modulation for optical camera communication,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (IEEE, 2015), pp. 1027–1031.
[Crossref]

P. Tian, W. Huang, and Z. Xu, “Design and experimental demonstration of a real-time 95kbps optical camera communication system,” in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (IEEE, 2016), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

P. Hu, P. H. Pathak, X. Feng, H. Fu, and P. Mohapatra, “Colorbars: Increasing data rate of led-to-camera communication using color shift keying,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Networking and Experiments and Technologies (ACM, 2015), pp. 1–13.
[Crossref]

S. D. Perli, N. Ahmed, and D. Katabi, “Pixnet: interference-free wireless links using LCD-camera pairs,” in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2010), pp. 137–148.
[Crossref]

A. Wang, S. Ma, C. Hu, J. Huai, C. Peng, and G. Shen, “Enhancing reliability to boost the throughput over screen-camera links,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 41–52.
[Crossref]

T. Li, C. An, X. Xiao, A. T. Campbell, and X. Zhou, “Real-time screen-camera communication behind any scene,” in Proceedings of the 13th Annuan International Conference on Mobile System (ACM 2015), pp. 197–211.

Y. S. Kuo, P. Pannuto, K. J. Hsiao, and P. Dutta, “Luxapose: Indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM, 2014), pp. 447–458.
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The CIM-MIMO OCC transceiver diagram.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The joint nonlinearity and crosstalk effect between R-G-B sub-channels. (a) 30 × 30 ROI, (b) 3 × 3 ROI.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The (a) spatial frame format in LED array, and (b) packet format for each LED.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The observed imperfectness in receiver. (a) Flicker noise, (b) Rolling shutter.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The 3-D 64-CIM constellation at the receiver. (a) Non-optimized, (b) Optimized.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The M-CIM-MIMO OCC experimental platform.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Illustration of LED array rotation and parallel movement in experiments.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 BERs (a) with different distance and M, and (b) with different rotation angle and offset angle under distance 60cm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The image sensor key specifications and experimental parameters

Equations (16)

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S = { s 1 , s 2 , , s M } ,
s m = [ i r m i g m i b m ] ,
H = [ H 1 , 1 H 1 , 2 H 1 , K H 2 , 1 H 2 , 2 H 2 , K H N , 1 H N , 2 H N , K ] .
H n , k = [ h r , r n , k h r , g n , k h r , b n , k h g , r n , k h g , g n , k h g , b n , k h b , r n , k h b , g n , k h b , b n , k ] ,
h p , q n , k = ξ n , k S q k ( λ ) F p n ( λ ) d λ , p , q { r , g , b } ,
Y = H X + Z .
X ^ = arg max X p Y | X ( Y | X , H ) = arg min X Y H X F ,
S = arg max { s i } min i k H ( s i ) s i H ( s k ) s k ,
s . t .           L min L ( s i ) L max
0 ¯ s i ¯ [ I r I g I b ] ,
d i , j m = ( R i m R j m ) 2 + ( G i m G j m ) 2 + ( B i m B j m ) 2 i , j = 1 , , Q ( i j ) , m = 1 , , M .
C i m = j i , j = 1 Q u ( d t h m d i , j m ) ,
T m = { s i 0 m , i 0 = max i = { 1 , , Q } { C i m } i f max i = { 1 , , Q } { C i m } 0 , F l a g m = 1 s i 0 m , i 0 = middle { 1 , , Q } i f max i = { 1 , , Q } { C i m } = 0 , F l a g m = 0 .
R ( m , k , g ) = R ( m , k , g 1 ) × F l a g ( m , k , g 1 ) + R ( m , k , g ) F l a g ( m , k , g 1 ) + 1 , 1 g G .
j q k = arg min j { 1 , 2 , M } r q k R j k 2 , q = 1 , 2 , , Q .
j q k = j q 1 k o r j q k = j q + 1 k o r j q 1 k = j q k = j q + 1 k .

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