Abstract

Backscattering photoelectron hologram (BPH) originating from direct and backward-rescattering electrons encodes important structural information and ultrafast dynamics of the underlying processes. However, the BPH is usually overshadowed by other interference structures in the photoelectrons momentum spectra, preventing a direct extraction of information using BPH. Here we theoretically demonstrate disentanglement of the BPH from other types of interference with the orthogonal two-color field, where a weak orthogonal component is used to streak the BPH. By carefully adjusting the relative phase of the two-color field, the BPH is effectively separated from other interferences in the photoelectron momentum spectra and thus the BPH is unambiguously identified. This takes a significant step to time-resolved imaging of the attosecond dynamics with strong-field photoelectron holography.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (9)

M. Haertelt, X. Bian, M. Spanner, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics by laser-induced backscattering holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. He, Y. Li, Y. Zhou, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Temporal and spatial manipulation of the recolliding wave packet in strong-field photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 033406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Deng, Z. Zeng, Z. Jia, P. Komm, Y. Zheng, X. Ge, R. Li, and G. Marcus, “Ultrafast excitation of an inner-Shell electron by laser-induced electron recollision,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 073901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Multiple recollisions in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 013425 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević and W. Becker, “Improved strong-field approximation and quantum-orbit theory: application to ionization by a bicircular laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063418 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Mosert and D. Bauer, “Photoelectron spectra with Qprop and t-SURFF,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 452–463 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, O. I. Tolstikhin, and T. Morishita, “Near-forward rescattering photoelectron holography in strong-field ionization: extraction of the phase of the scattering amplitude,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 173001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, P. Lan, K. Liu, Y. Li, X. Liu, Q. Zhang, I. Barth, and P. Lu, “Helicity sensitive enhancement of strong-field ionization in circularly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 24, 4196–4209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Hasović, W. Becker, and D. B. Milošević, “Electron rescattering in a bicircular laser field,” Opt. Express 24, 6413–6424 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

A. Tong, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Resolving subcycle electron emission in strong-field sequential double ionization,” Opt. Express 23, 15774–15783 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, P. Lan, H. Xie, M. He, X. Zhu, Q. Zhang, and P. Lu, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields: counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution,” Opt. Express 23, 28801–28807 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Richter, M. Kunitski, M. Schöffler, T. Jahnke, L. P. H. Schmidt, M. Li, Y. Liu, and R. Dörner, “Streaking temporal double-slit interference by an orthogonal two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 143001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Li, X. Sun, X. Xie, Y. Shao, Y. Deng, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Revealing backward rescattering photoelectron interference of molecules in strong infrared laser fields,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-Y. Peng, W.-C. Jiang, J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, and Q. Gong, “Tracing and controlling electronic dynamics in atoms and molecules by attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rep. 575, 1–71 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. M. Kraus, O. I. Tolstikhin, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, J. Schneider, C. Z. Bisgaard, T. Morishita, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. J. Wörner, “Observation of laser-induced electronic structure in oriented polyatomic molecules,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, and P. Lu, “Spectrally resolved spatiotemporal features of quantum paths in high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 043403 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Li, P. Zhang, S. Luo, Y. Zhou, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Selective enhancement of resonant multiphoton ionization with strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 063404 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

J. Xu, C. Blaga, K. Zhang, Y. H. Lai, C. D. Lin, T. Miller, P. Agostini, and L. DiMauro, “Diffraction using laser-driven broadband electron wave packets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4206 (2014).

M. Meckel, A. Staudte, S. Patchkovskii, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, R. Dörner, and M. Spanner, “Signatures of the continuum electron phase in molecular strong-field photoelectron holography,” Nat. Phys. 10, 594–600 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, “Forward- and backward-scattering quantum orbits in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 063414 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, “Low-frequency approximation for above-threshold ionization by a laser pulse: low-energy forward rescattering,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 063423 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Orientation-dependent forward-backward photoelectron holography from asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033423 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (9)

O. I. Tolstikhin and T. Morishita, “Adiabatic theory of ionization by intense laser pulses: Finite-range potentials,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043417 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1011–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tao and A. Scrinzi, “Photo-electron momentum spectra from minimal volumes: the time-dependent surface flux method,” New J. Phys. 14, 013021 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, E. Persson, D. G. Arbó, L. Zhang, S. Gräfe, M. S. Schöffler, J. Burgdörfer, A. Baltusuka, and M. Kitzler, “Attosecond probe of valence-electron wave packets by subcycle sculpted laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. Keister, C. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. Vrakking, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Direct visualization of laser-driven electron multiple scattering and tunneling distance in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Attosecond time-resolved imaging of molecular structure by photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huismans, A. Gijsbertsen, A. S. Smolkowska, J. H. Jungmann, A. Rouzée, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, M. Yu. Ivanov, T.-M. Yan, D. Bauer, O. Smirnova, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Scaling laws for photoelectron holography in the midinfrared wavelength regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 013002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature (London) 483, 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. Jungmann, A. Smolkowska, P. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. van der Meer, H. Muller, W. Vermin, K. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. Popruzhenko, and M. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, Kai-Jun Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. G. Arbó, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Diffraction at a time grating in above-threshold ionization: The influence of the Coulomb potential,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043426 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature (London) 466, 604–607 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Čerkić, E. Hasović, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “High-order above-threshold ionization beyond the first-order Born approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033413 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322, 1207–1211 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, Z. Chen, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of structural information from laser-induced photoelectron and high-order harmonic spectra by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilǎ, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, R203–R262 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “QPROP: A Schrödinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 396–421 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Srinivasan, J. S. Feenstra, S. T. Park, S. Xu, and A. H. Zewail, “Dark structures in molecular radiationless transitions determined by ultrafast diffraction,” Science 307, 558–563 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, H. Schomerus, and W. Becker, “High-order above-threshold ionization: The uniform approximation and the effect of the binding potential,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043413 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature (London) 161, 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

J. Xu, C. Blaga, K. Zhang, Y. H. Lai, C. D. Lin, T. Miller, P. Agostini, and L. DiMauro, “Diffraction using laser-driven broadband electron wave packets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4206 (2014).

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature (London) 483, 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbó, D. G.

X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, E. Persson, D. G. Arbó, L. Zhang, S. Gräfe, M. S. Schöffler, J. Burgdörfer, A. Baltusuka, and M. Kitzler, “Attosecond probe of valence-electron wave packets by subcycle sculpted laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Arbó, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Diffraction at a time grating in above-threshold ionization: The influence of the Coulomb potential,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arpin, P.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. Keister, C. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. Vrakking, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Direct visualization of laser-driven electron multiple scattering and tunneling distance in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilǎ, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakker, J.

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. Jungmann, A. Smolkowska, P. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. van der Meer, H. Muller, W. Vermin, K. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. Popruzhenko, and M. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bakker, J. M.

Y. Huismans, A. Gijsbertsen, A. S. Smolkowska, J. H. Jungmann, A. Rouzée, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, M. Yu. Ivanov, T.-M. Yan, D. Bauer, O. Smirnova, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Scaling laws for photoelectron holography in the midinfrared wavelength regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 013002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltusuka, A.

X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, E. Persson, D. G. Arbó, L. Zhang, S. Gräfe, M. S. Schöffler, J. Burgdörfer, A. Baltusuka, and M. Kitzler, “Attosecond probe of valence-electron wave packets by subcycle sculpted laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

X. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Orientation-dependent forward-backward photoelectron holography from asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033423 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Attosecond time-resolved imaging of molecular structure by photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, Kai-Jun Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bandulet, H. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barth, I.

Bauer, D.

V. Mosert and D. Bauer, “Photoelectron spectra with Qprop and t-SURFF,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 452–463 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Huismans, A. Gijsbertsen, A. S. Smolkowska, J. H. Jungmann, A. Rouzée, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, M. Yu. Ivanov, T.-M. Yan, D. Bauer, O. Smirnova, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Scaling laws for photoelectron holography in the midinfrared wavelength regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 013002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. Jungmann, A. Smolkowska, P. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. van der Meer, H. Muller, W. Vermin, K. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. Popruzhenko, and M. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, R203–R262 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “QPROP: A Schrödinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 396–421 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baykusheva, D.

P. M. Kraus, O. I. Tolstikhin, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, J. Schneider, C. Z. Bisgaard, T. Morishita, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. J. Wörner, “Observation of laser-induced electronic structure in oriented polyatomic molecules,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

D. B. Milošević and W. Becker, “Improved strong-field approximation and quantum-orbit theory: application to ionization by a bicircular laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 063418 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Hasović, W. Becker, and D. B. Milošević, “Electron rescattering in a bicircular laser field,” Opt. Express 24, 6413–6424 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1011–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Čerkić, E. Hasović, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “High-order above-threshold ionization beyond the first-order Born approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033413 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, and W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, R203–R262 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, H. Schomerus, and W. Becker, “High-order above-threshold ionization: The uniform approximation and the effect of the binding potential,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043413 (2002).
[Crossref]

Berden, G.

Y. Huismans, A. Gijsbertsen, A. S. Smolkowska, J. H. Jungmann, A. Rouzée, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, M. Yu. Ivanov, T.-M. Yan, D. Bauer, O. Smirnova, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Scaling laws for photoelectron holography in the midinfrared wavelength regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 013002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. Jungmann, A. Smolkowska, P. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. van der Meer, H. Muller, W. Vermin, K. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. Popruzhenko, and M. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bertrand, J. B.

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature (London) 466, 604–607 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bian, X.

M. Haertelt, X. Bian, M. Spanner, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics by laser-induced backscattering holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Orientation-dependent forward-backward photoelectron holography from asymmetric molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 033423 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Attosecond time-resolved imaging of molecular structure by photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bian, Y. Huismans, O. Smirnova, Kai-Jun Yuan, M. J. J. Vrakking, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043420 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bisgaard, C. Z.

P. M. Kraus, O. I. Tolstikhin, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, J. Schneider, C. Z. Bisgaard, T. Morishita, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, and H. J. Wörner, “Observation of laser-induced electronic structure in oriented polyatomic molecules,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaga, C.

J. Xu, C. Blaga, K. Zhang, Y. H. Lai, C. D. Lin, T. Miller, P. Agostini, and L. DiMauro, “Diffraction using laser-driven broadband electron wave packets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4206 (2014).

Blaga, C. I.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature (London) 483, 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burgdörfer, J.

X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, E. Persson, D. G. Arbó, L. Zhang, S. Gräfe, M. S. Schöffler, J. Burgdörfer, A. Baltusuka, and M. Kitzler, “Attosecond probe of valence-electron wave packets by subcycle sculpted laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Arbó, K. L. Ishikawa, K. Schiessl, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Diffraction at a time grating in above-threshold ionization: The influence of the Coulomb potential,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cauchy, C.

Y. Huismans, A. Gijsbertsen, A. S. Smolkowska, J. H. Jungmann, A. Rouzée, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, M. Yu. Ivanov, T.-M. Yan, D. Bauer, O. Smirnova, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Scaling laws for photoelectron holography in the midinfrared wavelength regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 013002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. Jungmann, A. Smolkowska, P. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. van der Meer, H. Muller, W. Vermin, K. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. Popruzhenko, and M. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cerkic, A.

A. Čerkić, E. Hasović, D. B. Milošević, and W. Becker, “High-order above-threshold ionization beyond the first-order Born approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033413 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, Z. Chen, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of structural information from laser-induced photoelectron and high-order harmonic spectra by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chirila, C. C.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirilǎ, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comtois, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Haertelt, X. Bian, M. Spanner, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Probing molecular dynamics by laser-induced backscattering holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 133001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, A. Staudte, S. Patchkovskii, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, R. Dörner, and M. Spanner, “Signatures of the continuum electron phase in molecular strong-field photoelectron holography,” Nat. Phys. 10, 594–600 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature (London) 466, 604–607 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature (London) 417, 917–922 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Y. Deng, Z. Zeng, Z. Jia, P. Komm, Y. Zheng, X. Ge, R. Li, and G. Marcus, “Ultrafast excitation of an inner-Shell electron by laser-induced electron recollision,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 073901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Li, X. Sun, X. Xie, Y. Shao, Y. Deng, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Revealing backward rescattering photoelectron interference of molecules in strong infrared laser fields,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiChiara, A. D.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature (London) 483, 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

DiMauro, L.

J. Xu, C. Blaga, K. Zhang, Y. H. Lai, C. D. Lin, T. Miller, P. Agostini, and L. DiMauro, “Diffraction using laser-driven broadband electron wave packets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4206 (2014).

DiMauro, L. F.

C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature (London) 483, 194–197 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, C.

D. D. Hickstein, P. Ranitovic, S. Witte, X. Tong, Y. Huismans, P. Arpin, X. Zhou, K. Keister, C. Hogle, B. Zhang, C. Ding, P. Johnsson, N. Toshima, M. Vrakking, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Direct visualization of laser-driven electron multiple scattering and tunneling distance in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

M. Richter, M. Kunitski, M. Schöffler, T. Jahnke, L. P. H. Schmidt, M. Li, Y. Liu, and R. Dörner, “Streaking temporal double-slit interference by an orthogonal two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 143001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, A. Staudte, S. Patchkovskii, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, R. Dörner, and M. Spanner, “Signatures of the continuum electron phase in molecular strong-field photoelectron holography,” Nat. Phys. 10, 594–600 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

W. Becker, X. Liu, P. J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1011–1043 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feenstra, J. S.

R. Srinivasan, J. S. Feenstra, S. T. Park, S. Xu, and A. H. Zewail, “Dark structures in molecular radiationless transitions determined by ultrafast diffraction,” Science 307, 558–563 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferray, M.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, H. Schomerus, and W. Becker, “High-order above-threshold ionization: The uniform approximation and the effect of the binding potential,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 043413 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature (London) 161, 777–778 (1948).
[Crossref]

Ge, X.

Y. Deng, Z. Zeng, Z. Jia, P. Komm, Y. Zheng, X. Ge, R. Li, and G. Marcus, “Ultrafast excitation of an inner-Shell electron by laser-induced electron recollision,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 073901 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, J.-W.

L.-Y. Peng, W.-C. Jiang, J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, and Q. Gong, “Tracing and controlling electronic dynamics in atoms and molecules by attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rep. 575, 1–71 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gijsbertsen, A.

Y. Huismans, A. Gijsbertsen, A. S. Smolkowska, J. H. Jungmann, A. Rouzée, P. S. W. M. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. M. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. F. G. van der Meer, M. Yu. Ivanov, T.-M. Yan, D. Bauer, O. Smirnova, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Scaling laws for photoelectron holography in the midinfrared wavelength regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 013002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huismans, A. Rouzée, A. Gijsbertsen, J. Jungmann, A. Smolkowska, P. Logman, F. Lépine, C. Cauchy, S. Zamith, T. Marchenko, J. Bakker, G. Berden, B. Redlich, A. van der Meer, H. Muller, W. Vermin, K. Schafer, M. Spanner, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, D. Bauer, S. Popruzhenko, and M. Vrakking, “Time-resolved holography with photoelectrons,” Science 331, 61–64 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

L.-Y. Peng, W.-C. Jiang, J.-W. Geng, W.-H. Xiong, and Q. Gong, “Tracing and controlling electronic dynamics in atoms and molecules by attosecond pulses,” Phys. Rep. 575, 1–71 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Li, X. Sun, X. Xie, Y. Shao, Y. Deng, C. Wu, Q. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Revealing backward rescattering photoelectron interference of molecules in strong infrared laser fields,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gräfe, S.

X. Xie, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, E. Persson, D. G. Arbó, L. Zhang, S. Gräfe, M. S. Schöffler, J. Burgdörfer, A. Baltusuka, and M. Kitzler, “Attosecond probe of valence-electron wave packets by subcycle sculpted laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193004 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Xie, X.

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C. I. Blaga, J. Xu, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, K. Zhang, P. Agostini, T. A. Miller, L. F. DiMauro, and C. D. Lin, “Imaging ultrafast molecular dynamics with laser-induced electron diffraction,” Nature (London) 483, 194–197 (2012).
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L. He, P. Lan, Q. Zhang, C. Zhai, F. Wang, W. Shi, and P. Lu, “Spectrally resolved spatiotemporal features of quantum paths in high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 043403 (2015).
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Y. Zhou, O. I. Tolstikhin, and T. Morishita, “Near-forward rescattering photoelectron holography in strong-field ionization: extraction of the phase of the scattering amplitude,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 173001 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of different photoelectron interferences in linearly-polarized laser fields, calculated by SFA. (a) and (b) The intracycle interferences between direct electrons. (c) The forward-scattering photoelectron hologram. (d) The backscattering hologram. The upper row shows the ionization times of the involved interfering electron wave packets A and B. The middle row presents the sketch of the corresponding electron trajectories. The calculated interference fringes are displayed in the bottom row. The laser intensity is 3.0 × 1014W/cm2 with a wavelength of 800 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Different photoelectron interferences in orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields with relative phase of 0.25π calculated by SFA. (a) The vector potential (green curve) of the 1600-nm streaking field relative to the 800-nm fundamental electron field (blue curve). Here they are drawn in parallel for better visualization of the streaking dynamics. The light blue shading areas indicate the ionization times of the two direct electron wave packets. Green arrows show the momentum streaking of electrons by 1600-nm field. (b) and (c) The momentum distributions of direct electrons ionized at the two shading areas in (a), respectively. (d) The intracycle interference structure of direct electrons. (e) The electric field of 800-nm (blue curve) and 1600-nm (green curve) laser fields, respectively, drawn in parallel as well. The pink shading area shows the ionization times of signal electrons and the light blue area shows the ionization times of reference electrons. (f) The momentum distribution of signal electrons. (g) The forward- (positive momentum region) and backward- (negative momentum region) rescattering holograms. Intensities of the 800-nm and 1600-nm fields are 1 × 1014W/cm2 and 2.5 × 1013W/cm2, respectively. Other parameters are given in the main text.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Same as Fig. 2 but for relative phase of ϕ = 0.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The electric fields (red curves) of the OTC pulses for relative phases of (a) ϕ = 0.25π and (b) ϕ = 0. The OTC fields are composed of an 800-nm fundamental field polarized along x direction with intensity of 1.0 × 1014W/cm2 and a weaker 1600-nm field polarized along y direction with intensity of 2.5 × 1013W/cm2. The two components are displayed by blue and green curves, respectively. The total duration is 8 optical cycles of the 800-nm pulse. (c) and (d) The 2D PMDs calculated by solving TDSE for ϕ = 0.25π and ϕ = 0, respectively. The squared regions marked by A–E indicate different types of interference structures.

Equations (3)

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E ( t ) = f ( t ) [ E x cos ( ω t ) e x + E y cos ( ω t / 2 + ϕ ) e y ] .
M p d = i s 2 π i S i ( t i s ) p + A ( t i s ) | r E ( t i s ) | Ψ 0 exp [ i S i ( t i s ) ]
M p r = s ( 2 π i ) 5 det ( 2 S r / q j q k ) j , k = 1 , 2 , 5 × p + A ( t r s ) | V ( r ) | k s + A ( t r s ) × k s + A ( t i s ) | r E ( t i s ) | Ψ 0 exp [ i S r ( k s ; t i s , t r s ) ] ,

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