Abstract

The color uniformity (CU) of chip-on-board (COB) white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) has been improved by using remote phosphor films with two freeform surfaces (TFS-RPFs). The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD), Monte Carlo ray-tracing, and color-thickness feedback (CTFB) methods were used to design the TFS-RPFs: the blue light distribution of COB WLEDs is greatly affected by the angular thickness distribution of TFS-RPFs, and a high CU can be achieved iteratively. The directional inconsistency of incident and emergent blue light, scattering effect of TFS-RPFs, and illumination characteristics of the COB source were also investigated. COB WLEDs containing optimized TFS-RPFs achieved high CU with a decrease of 26.2% in maximum CCT deviation; thus, TFS-RPFs can improve the CU of COB WLEDs.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
White thin-film flip-chip LEDs with uniform color temperature using laser lift-off and conformal phosphor coating technologies

Huan-Ting Lin, Ching-Ho Tien, Chen-Peng Hsu, and Ray-Hua Horng
Opt. Express 22(26) 31646-31653 (2014)

Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film

Shudong Yu, Zongtao Li, Guanwei Liang, Yong Tang, Binhai Yu, and Kaihang Chen
Photon. Res. 4(4) 140-145 (2016)

Improvement in angular color uniformity of white light-emitting diodes using screen-printed multilayer phosphor-in-glass

Simin Wang, Xing Chen, Mingxiang Chen, Huai Zheng, Hongru Yang, and Sheng Liu
Appl. Opt. 53(36) 8492-8498 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Pust, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “A revolution in lighting,” Nat. Mater. 14(5), 454–458 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Zheng, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Enhancing angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by phosphor dip-transfer coating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1987–1993 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, Z.-Y. Liu, Y.-E. Tan, and B.-M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. C.-H. Chiang, H.-Y. Tsai, T.-S. Zhan, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Fang, and S.-Y. Chu, “Effects of phosphor distribution and step-index remote configuration on the performance of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2830–2833 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. C.-Y. Liu, K.-J. Chen, D.-W. Lin, C.-Y. Lee, C.-C. Lin, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, G.-C. Chi, C.-Y. Chang, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement of emission uniformity by using micro-cone patterned PDMS film,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4516–4522 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Polarized white light from LEDs using remote-phosphor layer sandwiched between reflective polarizer and light-recycling dichroic filter,” Opt. Express 21(S5Suppl 5), A765–A773 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. S. Lee, P. Arunkumar, S. Kim, I. J. Lee, H. Lee, and W. B. Im, “Smart design to resolve spectral overlapping of phosphor-in-glass for high-powered remote-type white light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 762–765 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. E. Kim, S. Unithrattil, I. S. Sohn, S. J. Kim, W. J. Chung, and W. B. Im, “Facile one-step fabrication of 2-layered and 4-quadrant type phosphor-in-glass plates for white LEDs: an insight into angle dependent luminescence,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(3), 804–814 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S.-P. Ying and H.-Y. Chien, “Effect of reassembled remote phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency and spectra of white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1117–1121 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. C.-H. Kuo, W.-H. Wu, W.-T. Hsiao, and K.-C. Huang, “The multi-shadow analysis of LED secondary optics,” Phys. Procedia 19, 233–238 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. X. Yu, B. Xie, B. Shang, Q. Chen, and X. Luo, “A cylindrical tuber encapsulant geometry for enhancing optical performance of chip-on-board packaging light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1600709 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Xiao, T.-M. Shih, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, and Z. Chen, “3-D Microlens phosphor with curvatures manufactured by imprinting for chip-on-board light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 63(3), 1128–1133 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. X. Luo, X. Fu, F. Chen, and H. Zheng, “Phosphor self-heating in phosphor converted light emitting diode packaging,” Int. J. Heat Mass Tranf. 58(1-2), 276–281 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H. Zheng, X. Guo, X. Lei, C. Li, J. Chu, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of Lens with Large View Angle through Droplet Evaporation for High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 28, 1589–1592 (2016).
  23. H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, and Y.-P. Huang, “A direct-view backlight with UV excited trichromatic phosphor conversion film,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(4), 128–134 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, T.-M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on optical and chromatic uniformities of light-emitting diodes with microscale-roughness-controlled surfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–8 (2015).
  27. S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photon. Res. 4(4), 140–145 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. Cheng, Y. He, F. Cui, B. Du, Z. Zheng, and Y. Xu, “Comparative and sensitive analysis for parabolic trough solar collectors with a detailed Monte Carlo ray-tracing optical model,” Appl. Energy 115, 559–572 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissue--I: Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1162–1168 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. Li, J. Chen, L. Lin, Z. Li, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and et al.., “A detailed study on phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).
  32. A. Jones, “Light scattering for particle characterization,” Prog. Ener. Combust. Sci. 25(1), 1–53 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  33. L. Reynolds and N. McCormick, “Approximate two-parameter phase function for light scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70(10), 1206–1212 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  34. J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J.-H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. J. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yu, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and W. Yuan, “ACU Optimization of pcLEDs by combining the pulsed spray and feedback method,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

2016 (6)

E. Kim, S. Unithrattil, I. S. Sohn, S. J. Kim, W. J. Chung, and W. B. Im, “Facile one-step fabrication of 2-layered and 4-quadrant type phosphor-in-glass plates for white LEDs: an insight into angle dependent luminescence,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(3), 804–814 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-P. Ying and H.-Y. Chien, “Effect of reassembled remote phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency and spectra of white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1117–1121 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, B. Xie, B. Shang, Q. Chen, and X. Luo, “A cylindrical tuber encapsulant geometry for enhancing optical performance of chip-on-board packaging light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1600709 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, T.-M. Shih, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, and Z. Chen, “3-D Microlens phosphor with curvatures manufactured by imprinting for chip-on-board light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 63(3), 1128–1133 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, X. Guo, X. Lei, C. Li, J. Chu, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of Lens with Large View Angle through Droplet Evaporation for High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 28, 1589–1592 (2016).

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photon. Res. 4(4), 140–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, T.-M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on optical and chromatic uniformities of light-emitting diodes with microscale-roughness-controlled surfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–8 (2015).

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, J. Chen, L. Lin, Z. Li, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and et al.., “A detailed study on phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Pust, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “A revolution in lighting,” Nat. Mater. 14(5), 454–458 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chiang, H.-Y. Tsai, T.-S. Zhan, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Fang, and S.-Y. Chu, “Effects of phosphor distribution and step-index remote configuration on the performance of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2830–2833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

2013 (4)

H. Zheng, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Enhancing angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by phosphor dip-transfer coating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1987–1993 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, Z.-Y. Liu, Y.-E. Tan, and B.-M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Polarized white light from LEDs using remote-phosphor layer sandwiched between reflective polarizer and light-recycling dichroic filter,” Opt. Express 21(S5Suppl 5), A765–A773 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Luo, X. Fu, F. Chen, and H. Zheng, “Phosphor self-heating in phosphor converted light emitting diode packaging,” Int. J. Heat Mass Tranf. 58(1-2), 276–281 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

C.-H. Kuo, W.-H. Wu, W.-T. Hsiao, and K.-C. Huang, “The multi-shadow analysis of LED secondary optics,” Phys. Procedia 19, 233–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, and Y.-P. Huang, “A direct-view backlight with UV excited trichromatic phosphor conversion film,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(4), 128–134 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Jones, “Light scattering for particle characterization,” Prog. Ener. Combust. Sci. 25(1), 1–53 (1999).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissue--I: Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1162–1168 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

Arunkumar, P.

Chang, C.-Y.

Chen, C. H.

Chen, F.

X. Luo, X. Fu, F. Chen, and H. Zheng, “Phosphor self-heating in phosphor converted light emitting diode packaging,” Int. J. Heat Mass Tranf. 58(1-2), 276–281 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. M.

Chen, J.

J. Li, J. Chen, L. Lin, Z. Li, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and et al.., “A detailed study on phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

Chen, K.

Chen, K. J.

Chen, K.-J.

Chen, Q.

X. Yu, B. Xie, B. Shang, Q. Chen, and X. Luo, “A cylindrical tuber encapsulant geometry for enhancing optical performance of chip-on-board packaging light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1600709 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. M.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yu, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and W. Yuan, “ACU Optimization of pcLEDs by combining the pulsed spray and feedback method,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Chen, Z.

H. Xiao, T.-M. Shih, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, and Z. Chen, “3-D Microlens phosphor with curvatures manufactured by imprinting for chip-on-board light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 63(3), 1128–1133 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, T.-M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on optical and chromatic uniformities of light-emitting diodes with microscale-roughness-controlled surfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–8 (2015).

Cheng, Y. J.

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, Y. He, F. Cui, B. Du, Z. Zheng, and Y. Xu, “Comparative and sensitive analysis for parabolic trough solar collectors with a detailed Monte Carlo ray-tracing optical model,” Appl. Energy 115, 559–572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chi, G.-C.

Chiang, C.-H.

Chien, H.-Y.

S.-P. Ying and H.-Y. Chien, “Effect of reassembled remote phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency and spectra of white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1117–1121 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chien, S. H.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chien, S.-H.

Cho, D.-H.

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chu, J.

H. Zheng, X. Guo, X. Lei, C. Li, J. Chu, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of Lens with Large View Angle through Droplet Evaporation for High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 28, 1589–1592 (2016).

Chu, S.-Y.

Chung, W. J.

Cui, F.

Z. Cheng, Y. He, F. Cui, B. Du, Z. Zheng, and Y. Xu, “Comparative and sensitive analysis for parabolic trough solar collectors with a detailed Monte Carlo ray-tracing optical model,” Appl. Energy 115, 559–572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, X.

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yu, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and W. Yuan, “ACU Optimization of pcLEDs by combining the pulsed spray and feedback method,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Do, Y. R.

Du, B.

Z. Cheng, Y. He, F. Cui, B. Du, Z. Zheng, and Y. Xu, “Comparative and sensitive analysis for parabolic trough solar collectors with a detailed Monte Carlo ray-tracing optical model,” Appl. Energy 115, 559–572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y.-C.

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissue--I: Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1162–1168 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, X.

X. Luo, X. Fu, F. Chen, and H. Zheng, “Phosphor self-heating in phosphor converted light emitting diode packaging,” Int. J. Heat Mass Tranf. 58(1-2), 276–281 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

H. Zheng, X. Guo, X. Lei, C. Li, J. Chu, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of Lens with Large View Angle through Droplet Evaporation for High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 28, 1589–1592 (2016).

Guo, Z.-Q.

H. Xiao, T.-M. Shih, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, and Z. Chen, “3-D Microlens phosphor with curvatures manufactured by imprinting for chip-on-board light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 63(3), 1128–1133 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, T.-M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on optical and chromatic uniformities of light-emitting diodes with microscale-roughness-controlled surfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–8 (2015).

Han, H.

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, H. V.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Z. Cheng, Y. He, F. Cui, B. Du, Z. Zheng, and Y. Xu, “Comparative and sensitive analysis for parabolic trough solar collectors with a detailed Monte Carlo ray-tracing optical model,” Appl. Energy 115, 559–572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, W.-T.

C.-H. Kuo, W.-H. Wu, W.-T. Hsiao, and K.-C. Huang, “The multi-shadow analysis of LED secondary optics,” Phys. Procedia 19, 233–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S.

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.-T.

H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, and Y.-P. Huang, “A direct-view backlight with UV excited trichromatic phosphor conversion film,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(4), 128–134 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.-C.

C.-H. Kuo, W.-H. Wu, W.-T. Hsiao, and K.-C. Huang, “The multi-shadow analysis of LED secondary optics,” Phys. Procedia 19, 233–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-P.

H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, and Y.-P. Huang, “A direct-view backlight with UV excited trichromatic phosphor conversion film,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(4), 128–134 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hung, C. W.

Im, W. B.

Jang, J.-H.

Jones, A.

A. Jones, “Light scattering for particle characterization,” Prog. Ener. Combust. Sci. 25(1), 1–53 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.

Kim, J. K.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-W.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. J.

Krenn, J. R.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.-H.

C.-H. Kuo, W.-H. Wu, W.-T. Hsiao, and K.-C. Huang, “The multi-shadow analysis of LED secondary optics,” Phys. Procedia 19, 233–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Kuo, H.-C.

Lee, C.-Y.

Lee, H.

Lee, I. J.

Lee, J. I.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, P. T.

Lei, X.

H. Zheng, X. Guo, X. Lei, C. Li, J. Chu, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of Lens with Large View Angle through Droplet Evaporation for High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 28, 1589–1592 (2016).

Li, C.

H. Zheng, X. Guo, X. Lei, C. Li, J. Chu, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of Lens with Large View Angle through Droplet Evaporation for High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 28, 1589–1592 (2016).

Li, J.

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, J. Chen, L. Lin, Z. Li, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and et al.., “A detailed study on phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

J. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yu, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and W. Yuan, “ACU Optimization of pcLEDs by combining the pulsed spray and feedback method,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Li, J. R.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photon. Res. 4(4), 140–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, J. Chen, L. Lin, Z. Li, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and et al.., “A detailed study on phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yu, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and W. Yuan, “ACU Optimization of pcLEDs by combining the pulsed spray and feedback method,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Li, Z.-T.

Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, Z.-Y. Liu, Y.-E. Tan, and B.-M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, G.

Lin, C.

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

Lin, C.-C.

Lin, D.-W.

Lin, H. Y.

Lin, H.-Y.

Lin, L.

J. Li, J. Chen, L. Lin, Z. Li, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and et al.., “A detailed study on phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

Lin, S.

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

H. Xiao, T.-M. Shih, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, and Z. Chen, “3-D Microlens phosphor with curvatures manufactured by imprinting for chip-on-board light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 63(3), 1128–1133 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, T.-M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on optical and chromatic uniformities of light-emitting diodes with microscale-roughness-controlled surfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–8 (2015).

Liu, C.-Y.

Liu, S.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.-Y.

Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, Z.-Y. Liu, Y.-E. Tan, and B.-M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.-J.

H. Xiao, T.-M. Shih, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, and Z. Chen, “3-D Microlens phosphor with curvatures manufactured by imprinting for chip-on-board light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 63(3), 1128–1133 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, T.-M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on optical and chromatic uniformities of light-emitting diodes with microscale-roughness-controlled surfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–8 (2015).

Luo, H.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

X. Yu, B. Xie, B. Shang, Q. Chen, and X. Luo, “A cylindrical tuber encapsulant geometry for enhancing optical performance of chip-on-board packaging light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1600709 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, X. Fu, F. Chen, and H. Zheng, “Phosphor self-heating in phosphor converted light emitting diode packaging,” Int. J. Heat Mass Tranf. 58(1-2), 276–281 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Enhancing angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by phosphor dip-transfer coating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1987–1993 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

McCormick, N.

Moon, J.-H.

Oh, J. H.

Oh, M.-C.

Pachler, P.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Patterson, M. S.

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissue--I: Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1162–1168 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pust, P.

P. Pust, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “A revolution in lighting,” Nat. Mater. 14(5), 454–458 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, Z.

Reynolds, L.

Schmidt, P. J.

P. Pust, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “A revolution in lighting,” Nat. Mater. 14(5), 454–458 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnick, W.

P. Pust, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “A revolution in lighting,” Nat. Mater. 14(5), 454–458 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schweighart, M.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shang, B.

X. Yu, B. Xie, B. Shang, Q. Chen, and X. Luo, “A cylindrical tuber encapsulant geometry for enhancing optical performance of chip-on-board packaging light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1600709 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sher, C. W.

Shih, M. H.

H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, M.-H.

Shih, T.-M.

H. Xiao, T.-M. Shih, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, and Z. Chen, “3-D Microlens phosphor with curvatures manufactured by imprinting for chip-on-board light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 63(3), 1128–1133 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, T.-M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on optical and chromatic uniformities of light-emitting diodes with microscale-roughness-controlled surfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–8 (2015).

Shin, J.-W.

Sohn, I. S.

Sommer, C.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y.-E.

Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, Z.-Y. Liu, Y.-E. Tan, and B.-M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photon. Res. 4(4), 140–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, J. Chen, L. Lin, Z. Li, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and et al.., “A detailed study on phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, Z.-Y. Liu, Y.-E. Tan, and B.-M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yu, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and W. Yuan, “ACU Optimization of pcLEDs by combining the pulsed spray and feedback method,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Tasch, S.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.-C.

H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, and Y.-P. Huang, “A direct-view backlight with UV excited trichromatic phosphor conversion film,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(4), 128–134 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H.-Y.

Tu, Z.

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Unithrattil, S.

Wang, C. H.

Wang, K.

Wang, K. Y.

Wang, S. W.

Wenzl, F.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissue--I: Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1162–1168 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, D.

Wu, W.-H.

C.-H. Kuo, W.-H. Wu, W.-T. Hsiao, and K.-C. Huang, “The multi-shadow analysis of LED secondary optics,” Phys. Procedia 19, 233–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wyman, D. R.

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissue--I: Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1162–1168 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, H.

H. Xiao, T.-M. Shih, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, and Z. Chen, “3-D Microlens phosphor with curvatures manufactured by imprinting for chip-on-board light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 63(3), 1128–1133 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, T.-M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on optical and chromatic uniformities of light-emitting diodes with microscale-roughness-controlled surfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–8 (2015).

Xie, B.

X. Yu, B. Xie, B. Shang, Q. Chen, and X. Luo, “A cylindrical tuber encapsulant geometry for enhancing optical performance of chip-on-board packaging light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1600709 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Z. Cheng, Y. He, F. Cui, B. Du, Z. Zheng, and Y. Xu, “Comparative and sensitive analysis for parabolic trough solar collectors with a detailed Monte Carlo ray-tracing optical model,” Appl. Energy 115, 559–572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. J.

Yeh, C. C.

Ying, S.-P.

S.-P. Ying and H.-Y. Chien, “Effect of reassembled remote phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency and spectra of white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1117–1121 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.

Yu, S.

S. Yu, Z. Li, G. Liang, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and K. Chen, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes by remote micro-patterned phosphor film,” Photon. Res. 4(4), 140–145 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yu, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and W. Yuan, “ACU Optimization of pcLEDs by combining the pulsed spray and feedback method,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Yu, X.

X. Yu, B. Xie, B. Shang, Q. Chen, and X. Luo, “A cylindrical tuber encapsulant geometry for enhancing optical performance of chip-on-board packaging light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1600709 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, W.

J. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yu, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and W. Yuan, “ACU Optimization of pcLEDs by combining the pulsed spray and feedback method,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Zhan, T.-S.

Zheng, H.

H. Zheng, X. Guo, X. Lei, C. Li, J. Chu, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of Lens with Large View Angle through Droplet Evaporation for High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 28, 1589–1592 (2016).

X. Luo, X. Fu, F. Chen, and H. Zheng, “Phosphor self-heating in phosphor converted light emitting diode packaging,” Int. J. Heat Mass Tranf. 58(1-2), 276–281 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Enhancing angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by phosphor dip-transfer coating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1987–1993 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, Y. He, F. Cui, B. Du, Z. Zheng, and Y. Xu, “Comparative and sensitive analysis for parabolic trough solar collectors with a detailed Monte Carlo ray-tracing optical model,” Appl. Energy 115, 559–572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.-M.

Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, Z.-Y. Liu, Y.-E. Tan, and B.-M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Energy (1)

Z. Cheng, Y. He, F. Cui, B. Du, Z. Zheng, and Y. Xu, “Comparative and sensitive analysis for parabolic trough solar collectors with a detailed Monte Carlo ray-tracing optical model,” Appl. Energy 115, 559–572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 243505 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Li, J. Chen, L. Lin, Z. Li, Y. Tang, B. Yu, and et al.., “A detailed study on phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with multi-phosphor configuration using the finite-difference time-domain and ray-tracing methods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 51, 1–10 (2015).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

S. Hsu, Y. Chen, Z. Tu, H. Han, S. Lin, T. Chen, H. Kuo, and C. Lin, “Highly stable and efficient hybrid quantum dot light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, B. Xie, B. Shang, Q. Chen, and X. Luo, “A cylindrical tuber encapsulant geometry for enhancing optical performance of chip-on-board packaging light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1600709 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, X. Guo, X. Lei, C. Li, J. Chu, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of Lens with Large View Angle through Droplet Evaporation for High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 28, 1589–1592 (2016).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

H. Xiao, Y.-J. Lu, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, T.-M. Shih, and Z. Chen, “Improvements on optical and chromatic uniformities of light-emitting diodes with microscale-roughness-controlled surfaces,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 1–8 (2015).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, and D. R. Wyman, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissue--I: Model predictions and comparison with diffusion theory,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36(12), 1162–1168 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

S.-P. Ying and H.-Y. Chien, “Effect of reassembled remote phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency and spectra of white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(3), 1117–1121 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

H. Xiao, T.-M. Shih, Z.-Q. Guo, Y. Lin, Y.-J. Lu, and Z. Chen, “3-D Microlens phosphor with curvatures manufactured by imprinting for chip-on-board light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 63(3), 1128–1133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Heat Mass Tranf. (1)

X. Luo, X. Fu, F. Chen, and H. Zheng, “Phosphor self-heating in phosphor converted light emitting diode packaging,” Int. J. Heat Mass Tranf. 58(1-2), 276–281 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (3)

Z.-T. Li, Y. Tang, Z.-Y. Liu, Y.-E. Tan, and B.-M. Zhu, “Detailed study on pulse-sprayed conformal phosphor configurations for LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 433–440 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Huang, Y.-P. Huang, and C.-C. Tsai, “Planar lighting system using array of blue LEDs to excite yellow remote phosphor film,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(1), 44–51 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Huang, C.-C. Tsai, and Y.-P. Huang, “A direct-view backlight with UV excited trichromatic phosphor conversion film,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(4), 128–134 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nanoscale (1)

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, C. C. Huang, T. M. Chen, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “White light emitting diodes with enhanced CCT uniformity and luminous flux using ZrO2 nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(10), 5378–5383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

P. Pust, P. J. Schmidt, and W. Schnick, “A revolution in lighting,” Nat. Mater. 14(5), 454–458 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

C.-Y. Liu, K.-J. Chen, D.-W. Lin, C.-Y. Lee, C.-C. Lin, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, G.-C. Chi, C.-Y. Chang, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement of emission uniformity by using micro-cone patterned PDMS film,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4516–4522 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Lin, K. J. Chen, S. W. Wang, C. C. Lin, K. Y. Wang, J. R. Li, P. T. Lee, M. H. Shih, X. Li, H. M. Chen, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of light quality by DBR structure in white LED,” Opt. Express 23(3), A27–A33 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ding, J. Li, Q. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Li, and B. Yu, “Improving LED CCT uniformity using micropatterned films optimized by combining ray tracing and FDTD methods,” Opt. Express 23(3), A180–A191 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Polarized white light from LEDs using remote-phosphor layer sandwiched between reflective polarizer and light-recycling dichroic filter,” Opt. Express 21(S5Suppl 5), A765–A773 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Kim, J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, J.-W. Shin, D.-H. Cho, J.-H. Moon, and J. I. Lee, “FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 498–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. Wu, Z. Qin, F. Chen, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “New reversing design method for LED uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A830–A840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Procedia (1)

C.-H. Kuo, W.-H. Wu, W.-T. Hsiao, and K.-C. Huang, “The multi-shadow analysis of LED secondary optics,” Phys. Procedia 19, 233–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Prog. Ener. Combust. Sci. (1)

A. Jones, “Light scattering for particle characterization,” Prog. Ener. Combust. Sci. 25(1), 1–53 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. Li, Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yu, Y. Tang, X. Ding, and W. Yuan, “ACU Optimization of pcLEDs by combining the pulsed spray and feedback method,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the color-thickness feedback method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 2D COB WLED models used for calculations: (a) shows the blue rays reaching at the same point of the detector; (b) shows the blue rays reaching at the same point of the RPF.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Particle size distribution and (b) FDTD model of YAG:Ce phosphor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized yellow (Y) and blue (B) light output power distribution of COB WLEDs with RPFs obtained at different iteration process times N .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Angular thickness t and (b) color deviation coefficient C D S distributions of COB WLEDs with RPFs obtained at different iteration process times N .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Color uniformity C U and light output efficient L E of COB WLEDs with RPFs obtained at different iteration process times N .
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) RPFs fabricated by compression molding; (b) the measured angular correlated color temperature (CCT) distribution of COB WLEDs with the optimized and the reference RPF.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ a b s ( λ ) = c m ¯ C ¯ a b s ( λ ) ,
μ s c a ( λ ) = c m ¯ C ¯ s c a ( λ ) , and
  p ( λ , θ , ϕ ) = p D ( λ , θ , ϕ ) C s c a ,   D ( λ ) n ( D ) d D   C s c a ,   D ( λ ) n ( D ) d D ,
C ¯ abs ( λ ) = C abs ,  D ( λ ) n ( D ) d D   n ( D ) d D ,
C ¯ sca ( λ ) = C sca , D ( λ ) n ( D ) d D   n ( D ) d D , and
m ¯ = m i ( D ) n ( D ) d D   n ( D ) d D ,
C sca , D ( λ ) = P sca ( λ ) I inc ( λ ) ,
C abs , D ( λ ) = P abs ( λ ) I inc ( λ ) , and
p D ( λ , θ , ϕ ) = P sca far ( λ , θ , ϕ ) P sca ( λ ) ,
C D C n ( θ ) = T C / Y B R n 1 ( θ ) ,
δ ( x , z , u , w ) = ( 1 R ( β l xz uw ) ) I ( α l xz uw ) ,
R ( β l xz uw ) = 1 2 [ sin 2 ( β l xz uw γ l xz uw ) sin 2 ( β l xz uw + γ l xz uw ) + tan 2 ( β l xz uw γ l xz uw ) tan 2 ( β l xz uw + γ l xz uw ) ] ,
t n ( u , w ) = t n 1 ( u , w ) [ 1 + 1 L ( δ n ( x , z , u , w ) δ n ( x , z , u xz ik , w xz ik ) d x ( C D C n ( θ ik ) 1 ) ) d x ] ,

Metrics