Abstract

This paper reports an electro-opto-thermal addressing bistable and re-addressable display device based on gelator-doped liquid crystals (LCs) in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) film-coated LC cell. The bistability and re-addressability of the devices were achieved through the formation of a rubbery LC/gel mixture at room temperature. The desired patterns were addressed, erased, and re-addressed by controlling the temperature, applied voltage, and UV light illumination. Moreover, grayscales were obtained by adjusting UV light intensity. The initiation, relaxation, rise, and fall times of photoconductive poly(N-vinylcarbazole) via UV light illumination of various intensities were also examined.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  7. J. X. Guo, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. C. Silva, J. Sotomayor, and J. Figueirinhas, “Effect of an additive on the permanent memory effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 90(9), 1565–1569 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. A. P. Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
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  13. J. W. Chen, C. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chao, “Supramolecular liquid-crystal gels formed by polyfluorene-based π-conjugated polymer for switchable anisotropic scattering device,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(9), 6757–6764 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. Y. G. Fuh, Z. H. Wu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Direct optical switching of bistable cholesteric textures in chiral azobenzene-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21840–21846 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and optically rewritable reflective Fresnel zone plate in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14078–14085 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. L. A. DeWerd and P. R. Moran, “Solid-state electrophotography with Al2O3,” Med. Phys. 5(1), 23–26 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 585–623 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Y. G. Fuh, K. N. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Smart electro-optical iris diaphragm based on liquid crystal film coating with photoconductive polymer of poly(N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Opt. 55(22), 6034–6039 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. D. Chen, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Polarization rotators fabricated by thermally-switched liquid crystal alignments based on rubbed poly(N-vinyl carbazole) films,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7553–7558 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. M. Kaczmarek and A. Dyadyusha, “Structured, Photosensitive PVK and PVCN polymer layers for control of liquid crystal alignment,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 12(4), 547–555 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  26. N. Mizoshita, Y. Suzuki, K. Hanabusa, and T. Kato, “Bistable nematic liquid crystals with self-assembled fibers,” Adv. Mater. 17(6), 692–696 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Y. G. Fuh, J. T. Chiang, Y. S. Chien, C. J. Chang, and H. C. Lin, “Multistable phase-retardation plate based on gelator-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. C. Lin, M. R. Yang, S. F. Tsai, and S. C. Yan, “Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011907 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. G. Fuh, K. N. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Smart electro-optical iris diaphragm based on liquid crystal film coating with photoconductive polymer of poly(N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Opt. 55(22), 6034–6039 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. C. Silva, J. Sotomayor, and J. Figueirinhas, “Effect of an additive on the permanent memory effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 90(9), 1565–1569 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. W. Chen, C. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chao, “Supramolecular liquid-crystal gels formed by polyfluorene-based π-conjugated polymer for switchable anisotropic scattering device,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(9), 6757–6764 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Lin, M. R. Yang, S. F. Tsai, and S. C. Yan, “Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011907 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. T. Wang, Y. C. Wu, and T. H. Lin, “Photo-switchable bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal optical switch,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4361–4366 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. G. Fuh, Z. H. Wu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Direct optical switching of bistable cholesteric textures in chiral azobenzene-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21840–21846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Y. G. Fuh, J. T. Chiang, Y. S. Chien, C. J. Chang, and H. C. Lin, “Multistable phase-retardation plate based on gelator-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chen, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Polarization rotators fabricated by thermally-switched liquid crystal alignments based on rubbed poly(N-vinyl carbazole) films,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7553–7558 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

H. Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and optically rewritable reflective Fresnel zone plate in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14078–14085 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. A. P. Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Mizoshita, Y. Suzuki, K. Hanabusa, and T. Kato, “Bistable nematic liquid crystals with self-assembled fibers,” Adv. Mater. 17(6), 692–696 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Kaczmarek and A. Dyadyusha, “Structured, Photosensitive PVK and PVCN polymer layers for control of liquid crystal alignment,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 12(4), 547–555 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Huang, K. Y. Fu, K. Y. Lo, and M. S. Tsai, “Bistable transflective cholesteric light shutters,” Opt. Express 11(6), 560–565 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. X. Guo, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 585–623 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

L. A. DeWerd and P. R. Moran, “Solid-state electrophotography with Al2O3,” Med. Phys. 5(1), 23–26 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barberi, R.

R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
[Crossref]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[Crossref]

Burgess, C.

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castles, F.

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. J.

A. Y. G. Fuh, J. T. Chiang, Y. S. Chien, C. J. Chang, and H. C. Lin, “Multistable phase-retardation plate based on gelator-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chao, C. Y.

J. W. Chen, C. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chao, “Supramolecular liquid-crystal gels formed by polyfluorene-based π-conjugated polymer for switchable anisotropic scattering device,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(9), 6757–6764 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Y.

H. Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. W.

J. W. Chen, C. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chao, “Supramolecular liquid-crystal gels formed by polyfluorene-based π-conjugated polymer for switchable anisotropic scattering device,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(9), 6757–6764 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K. N.

Chen, W. K.

Chen, Y. D.

Cheng, K. T.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Y. G. Fuh, Z. H. Wu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Direct optical switching of bistable cholesteric textures in chiral azobenzene-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21840–21846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chen, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Polarization rotators fabricated by thermally-switched liquid crystal alignments based on rubbed poly(N-vinyl carbazole) films,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7553–7558 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and optically rewritable reflective Fresnel zone plate in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14078–14085 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, W. F.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, J. T.

A. Y. G. Fuh, J. T. Chiang, Y. S. Chien, C. J. Chang, and H. C. Lin, “Multistable phase-retardation plate based on gelator-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chien, Y. S.

A. Y. G. Fuh, J. T. Chiang, Y. S. Chien, C. J. Chang, and H. C. Lin, “Multistable phase-retardation plate based on gelator-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clark, N. A.

H. Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref]

DeWerd, L. A.

L. A. DeWerd and P. R. Moran, “Solid-state electrophotography with Al2O3,” Med. Phys. 5(1), 23–26 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durand, G.

R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dyadyusha, A.

M. Kaczmarek and A. Dyadyusha, “Structured, Photosensitive PVK and PVCN polymer layers for control of liquid crystal alignment,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 12(4), 547–555 (2003).
[Crossref]

Elston, S. J.

L. A. P. Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[Crossref]

Figueirinhas, J.

M. C. Silva, J. Sotomayor, and J. Figueirinhas, “Effect of an additive on the permanent memory effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 90(9), 1565–1569 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, K. Y.

Fuh, A. Y. G.

A. Y. G. Fuh, K. N. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Smart electro-optical iris diaphragm based on liquid crystal film coating with photoconductive polymer of poly(N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Opt. 55(22), 6034–6039 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Y. G. Fuh, Z. H. Wu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Direct optical switching of bistable cholesteric textures in chiral azobenzene-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21840–21846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. G. Fuh, J. T. Chiang, Y. S. Chien, C. J. Chang, and H. C. Lin, “Multistable phase-retardation plate based on gelator-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Chen, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Polarization rotators fabricated by thermally-switched liquid crystal alignments based on rubbed poly(N-vinyl carbazole) films,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7553–7558 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, C. L. Ting, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically switchable and optically rewritable reflective Fresnel zone plate in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14078–14085 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardiner, D. J.

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 585–623 (1997).
[Crossref]

Guo, J. X.

J. X. Guo, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hanabusa, K.

N. Mizoshita, Y. Suzuki, K. Hanabusa, and T. Kato, “Bistable nematic liquid crystals with self-assembled fibers,” Adv. Mater. 17(6), 692–696 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heffner, W. R.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. C.

J. W. Chen, C. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chao, “Supramolecular liquid-crystal gels formed by polyfluorene-based π-conjugated polymer for switchable anisotropic scattering device,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(9), 6757–6764 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. Y.

Jin, H. J.

Jones, L. A. P.

L. A. P. Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kaczmarek, M.

M. Kaczmarek and A. Dyadyusha, “Structured, Photosensitive PVK and PVCN polymer layers for control of liquid crystal alignment,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 12(4), 547–555 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kato, T.

N. Mizoshita, Y. Suzuki, K. Hanabusa, and T. Kato, “Bistable nematic liquid crystals with self-assembled fibers,” Adv. Mater. 17(6), 692–696 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

Kim, K. H.

Ko, D. H.

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Korblova, E.

H. Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

J. X. Guo, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, P. Y.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W.

H. Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. C.

H. C. Lin, M. R. Yang, S. F. Tsai, and S. C. Yan, “Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011907 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Y. G. Fuh, J. T. Chiang, Y. S. Chien, C. J. Chang, and H. C. Lin, “Multistable phase-retardation plate based on gelator-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. H.

Liu, C. K.

Liu, Y. C.

Lo, K. Y.

Ma, J.

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meng, Z. G.

J. X. Guo, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mizoshita, N.

N. Mizoshita, Y. Suzuki, K. Hanabusa, and T. Kato, “Bistable nematic liquid crystals with self-assembled fibers,” Adv. Mater. 17(6), 692–696 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 585–623 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moheghi, A.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moran, P. R.

L. A. DeWerd and P. R. Moran, “Solid-state electrophotography with Al2O3,” Med. Phys. 5(1), 23–26 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morris, S. M.

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nemati, H.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nosheen, S.

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

Qasim, M.

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qasim, M. M.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, T. Z.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shao, R.

H. Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sheng, P.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Silva, M. C.

M. C. Silva, J. Sotomayor, and J. Figueirinhas, “Effect of an additive on the permanent memory effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 90(9), 1565–1569 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sotomayor, J.

M. C. Silva, J. Sotomayor, and J. Figueirinhas, “Effect of an additive on the permanent memory effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 90(9), 1565–1569 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, Y.

N. Mizoshita, Y. Suzuki, K. Hanabusa, and T. Kato, “Bistable nematic liquid crystals with self-assembled fibers,” Adv. Mater. 17(6), 692–696 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thompson, C. L.

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 585–623 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ting, C. L.

Tsai, M. S.

Tsai, S. F.

H. C. Lin, M. R. Yang, S. F. Tsai, and S. C. Yan, “Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Walba, D.

H. Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. T.

Wilkinson, T. D.

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wong, M.

J. X. Guo, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Wu, Y. C.

Wu, Z. H.

Xie, Z. L.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yan, S. C.

H. C. Lin, M. R. Yang, S. F. Tsai, and S. C. Yan, “Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, M. R.

H. C. Lin, M. R. Yang, S. F. Tsai, and S. C. Yan, “Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T. H.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

J. W. Chen, C. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chao, “Supramolecular liquid-crystal gels formed by polyfluorene-based π-conjugated polymer for switchable anisotropic scattering device,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(9), 6757–6764 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Cheng, P. Y. Lee, M. M. Qasim, C. K. Liu, W. F. Cheng, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Electrically switchable and permanently stable light scattering modes by dynamic fingerprint chiral textures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(16), 10483–10493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

N. Mizoshita, Y. Suzuki, K. Hanabusa, and T. Kato, “Bistable nematic liquid crystals with self-assembled fibers,” Adv. Mater. 17(6), 692–696 (2005).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 585–623 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

A. Y. G. Fuh, J. T. Chiang, Y. S. Chien, C. J. Chang, and H. C. Lin, “Multistable phase-retardation plate based on gelator-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 021702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. X. Guo, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Chen, R. Shao, E. Korblova, W. Lee, D. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “A bistable liquid-crystal display mode based on electrically driven smectic A layer reorientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163506 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. M. Morris, M. Qasim, K. T. Cheng, F. Castles, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, S. Nosheen, T. D. Wilkinson, H. J. Coles, C. Burgess, and H. Lee, “Optically activated shutter using a photo-tunable short-pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(10), 101105 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. C. Lin, M. R. Yang, S. F. Tsai, and S. C. Yan, “Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011907 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. A. P. Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. (1)

M. C. Silva, J. Sotomayor, and J. Figueirinhas, “Effect of an additive on the permanent memory effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystal films,” J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 90(9), 1565–1569 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

M. Kaczmarek and A. Dyadyusha, “Structured, Photosensitive PVK and PVCN polymer layers for control of liquid crystal alignment,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 12(4), 547–555 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, C. K. Liu, and K. T. Cheng, “Radial alignment of liquid crystal by circular rubbing the substrate coated with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) film,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(21), 215304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Med. Phys. (1)

L. A. DeWerd and P. R. Moran, “Solid-state electrophotography with Al2O3,” Med. Phys. 5(1), 23–26 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Moheghi, H. Nemati, Y. Li, Q. Li, and D. K. Yang, “Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter,” Opt. Mater. 52, 219–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “High-efficiency multistable switchable glazing using smectic A liquid crystals,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(3), 301–306 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setups for (a) measuring transmission versus applied DC voltage curves and (b) addressing patterns onto the LC cell.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Variations in transmission of the LC cell under cross-polarizers as a function of the applied DC voltage when the sample is exposed to UV light of various intensities at TBR-H (~90°C): (a) without UV illumination and (b)−(d) with UV illumination (λ = 365 nm) at intensities of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mW/cm2, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dynamic transmission (response) of the LC cell applied with a DC voltage of 25 V, and turning on (a) [(b) and (c)] and off (d) [(e) and (f)] the simultaneous illumination of UV light at an intensity of 1.0 [3.5 and 5.0] mW/cm2. The widths of orange and green stripes represent the initiation (τini) and relaxation (τrel) times, as well as the rise (τrise) and fall (τfall) times, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of the EOT mechanism addressing of (a) initial fresh TN cell at Troom; (b) heated TN cell at TBR-H (~90°C); (c) heated LC cell with the application of DC voltage and simultaneous illumination of UV light through the photo-mask at TBR-H; (d) cooling the temperature of the heated LC cell to Troom; and (e) LC cell with addressed patterns at Troom.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Images of the demonstrated EOT patternable, erasable, and rewritable display device observed under cross-polarizers at Troom photographed using a digital camera. (a) Addressed pattern “TY” via the EOT addressing method; (b) re-addressed pattern “PVK;” (c) and (d) edge portions of the red circles in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) observed under a crossed-polarizer polarized optical microscope. VA and TN represent vertical alignment and twisted nematics, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Photographs of the LC display device with stably demonstrated grayscales addressed through the application of a DC voltage of 15 V and the simultaneous illumination of UV light with various intensities of (a) 1.0 (transmission of approximately 57.1%), (b) 3.0 (transmission of approximately 11.9%), and (c) 5.0 (transmission of approximately 6.7%) mW/cm2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Images of the (a) fresh LC cell and (b) addressed pattern “HI” onto the bistable scattering mode gelator-doped LC cell. (c) Edge of the red circle in Fig. 7(b) observed under cross-polarizer POM.

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