Abstract

Flexible alternating current electroluminescent devices (ACEL) are more and more popular and widely used in liquid-crystal display back-lighting, large-scale architectural and decorative lighting due to their uniform light emission, low power consumption and high resolution. However, presently how to acquire high brightness under a certain voltage are confronted with challenges. Here, we demonstrate an electroluminescence (EL) enhancing strategy that tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers (T-ZnOw) are added into the bottom electrode of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) instead of phosphor layer in flexible ACEL devices emitting blue, green and orange lights, and the brightness is greatly enhanced due to the coupling between the T-ZnOw and ZnS phosphor dispersed in the flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer. This strategy provides a new routine for the development of high performance, flexible and large-area ACEL devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. H. Park, S. H. Lee, J. S. Kim, A. K. Kwon, H. L. Park, and S. D. Han, “White-electroluminescent device with ZnS: Mn, cu, cl phosphor,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 566–570 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Tiwari, S. Tiwari, and B. P. Chandra, “Characteristics of a.c. electroluminescence in thin film ZnS: Mn display devices,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 15(9), 569–574 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. F. Wager and P. D. Keir, “Electrical characterization of thin-film electroluminescent devices,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 223–248 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Dür, S. M. Goodnick, S. S. Pennathur, J. F. Wager, M. Reigrotzki, and R. Redmer, “High-field transport and electroluminescence in ZnS phosphor layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3176–3185 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. J. Fang, H. Tian, J. Li, Q. Li, J. Y. Dai, T. L. Ren, G. F. Dong, and Q. F. Yan, “Self-powered flat panel displays enabled by motion-driven alternating current electroluminescence,” Nano Energy 20, 48–56 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. H. Cho, J. Sung, I. Hwang, R. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Jo, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “High performance AC electroluminescence from colloidal quantum dot hybrids,” Adv. Mater. 24(33), 4540–4546 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. H. Cho, S. S. Jo, I. Hwang, J. Sung, J. Seo, S. H. Jung, I. Bae, J. R. Choi, H. Cho, T. Lee, J. K. Lee, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “Extremely bright full color alternating current electroluminescence of solution-blended fluorescent polymers with self-assembled block copolymer micelles,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10809–10817 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Sung, Y. S. Choi, S. J. Kang, S. H. Cho, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “AC Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescence with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 966–972 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. W. Jeong, J. H. Lee, I. T. Han, Y. W. Jin, J. M. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. B. Yoo, and S. G. Yu, “Carbon nanotube induced enhancement of electroluminescence of phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071901 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Khastgir and K. Adachi, “Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of siloxane elastomers filled with bariumtitanate,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 37(21), 3065–3070 (1999).
  13. D. Khastgir and K. Adachi, “Rheological and dielectric studies of aggregation of barium titanate particles suspended in polydimethylsiloxane,” Polymer (Guildf.) 41(16), 6403–6413 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Stauffer and K. Tybrandt, “Bright Stretchable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Displays Based on High Permittivity Composites,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7200–7203 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  16. Y. S. Di, Y. K. Cui, Q. L. Wang, W. Lei, X. B. Zhang, and D. den Engelsen, “Field emission from carbon nanotube and tetrapod-like ZnO compound cathode fabricated by spin-coating method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(8), 4636–4639 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. Q. Wan, K. Yu, T. H. Wang, and C. L. Lin, “Low-field electron emission from tetrapod-like ZnO nanostructures synthesized by rapid evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2253–2255 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. A. Ma and T. L. Guo, “Morphology control and improved field emission properties of ZnO tetrapod films deposited by electrophoretic deposition,” Ceram. Int. 39(6), 6923–6929 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. V. Wood, J. E. Halpert, M. J. Panzer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Alternating current driven electroluminescence from ZnSe/ZnS:Mn/ZnS nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2367–2371 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, P. J. Li, X. Hao, J. B. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. R. Li, “Flexible graphene-based electroluminescent devices,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7149–7154 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. C. H. Yang, B. Chen, J. Zhou, Y. M. Chen, and Z. Suo, “Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4480–4484 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. R. C. Smith, R. D. Forrest, J. D. Carey, W. K. Hsu, and S. R. P. Silva, “Interpretation of enhancement factor in nonplanar field emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013111 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. M. Yu and C. C. Zhu, “Field emission characteristics study for ZnO/Ag and ZnO/CNTs composites produced by DC electrophoresis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8359–8362 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. X. M. Fan, H. G. Zhang, J. Wang, and Z. W. Zhou, “Influence of annealing temperature on field emission from tetrapod-shaped ZnO-whisker films obtained by screen printing,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 13(5–6), 400–404 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. S. Liu, G. J. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, H. Long, and X. Z. Zhao, “Enhanced field emission from three-dimensional patterned carbon nanotube arrays grown on flexible carbon cloth,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(8), 3478–3484 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. J. Huang, Y. S. Hsiao, and W. T. Whang, “Selective growth and enhanced field emission properties of micropatterned iron phthalocyanine nanofiber arrays,” Org. Electron. 12(11), 1826–1834 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. M. Pimenov, V. D. Frolov, A. V. Kudryashov, M. M. Lamanov, N. P. Abanshin, B. I. Gorfinkel, D. W. Kim, Y. J. Choi, J. H. Park, and J. G. Park, “Electron field emission from semiconducting nanowires,” Diamond Related Materials 17(4–5), 758–763 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Wang, C. Yan, K. J. Chee, and P. S. Lee, “Highly Stretchable and Self-Deformable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(18), 2876–2882 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. B. Qiao, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and L. Chen, “Study on ZnGa2O4: Cr3+ a.c. powder electroluminescent device,” Mater. Lett. 61(2), 401–404 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Ibañez, E. Garcia, L. Gil, M. Mollar, and B. Marí, “Frequency-dependent light emission and extinction of electrolumine scent ZnS: Cu phosphor,” Displays 28(3), 112–117 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  31. K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of ZnS nanocrystals doped with copper and halogen,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82(3), 718–725 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  32. G. Sharma, S. D. Han, J. D. Kim, S. P. Khatkar, and Y. W. Rhee, “Electroluminescent efficiency of alternating current thick film devices using ZnS: Cu,Cl phosphor,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 131(1–3), 271–276 (2006).
  33. J. Stanley, Y. Jiang, F. Bridges, S. A. Carter, and L. Ruhlen, “Degradation and rejuvenation studies of AC electroluminescent ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphors,” J. Phys.-Condens. Mat. 22(5), 055301 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  34. L. Chen, M. C. Wong, G. X. Bai, W. J. Jie, and J. H. Hao, “White and green light emissions of flexible polymer composites under electric field and multiple strains,” Nano Energy 14, 372–381 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

H. J. Fang, H. Tian, J. Li, Q. Li, J. Y. Dai, T. L. Ren, G. F. Dong, and Q. F. Yan, “Self-powered flat panel displays enabled by motion-driven alternating current electroluminescence,” Nano Energy 20, 48–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Stauffer and K. Tybrandt, “Bright Stretchable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Displays Based on High Permittivity Composites,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7200–7203 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yang, B. Chen, J. Zhou, Y. M. Chen, and Z. Suo, “Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4480–4484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

J. Wang, C. Yan, K. J. Chee, and P. S. Lee, “Highly Stretchable and Self-Deformable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(18), 2876–2882 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wagstaff and A. Kitai, “Electroluminescence of Zn2GeO4:Mn through SiC whisker electric field enhancement,” J. Lumin. 167, 310–315 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, M. C. Wong, G. X. Bai, W. J. Jie, and J. H. Hao, “White and green light emissions of flexible polymer composites under electric field and multiple strains,” Nano Energy 14, 372–381 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. H. Cho, S. S. Jo, I. Hwang, J. Sung, J. Seo, S. H. Jung, I. Bae, J. R. Choi, H. Cho, T. Lee, J. K. Lee, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “Extremely bright full color alternating current electroluminescence of solution-blended fluorescent polymers with self-assembled block copolymer micelles,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10809–10817 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Ma and T. L. Guo, “Morphology control and improved field emission properties of ZnO tetrapod films deposited by electrophoretic deposition,” Ceram. Int. 39(6), 6923–6929 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

N. S. Liu, G. J. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, H. Long, and X. Z. Zhao, “Enhanced field emission from three-dimensional patterned carbon nanotube arrays grown on flexible carbon cloth,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(8), 3478–3484 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Cho, J. Sung, I. Hwang, R. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Jo, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “High performance AC electroluminescence from colloidal quantum dot hybrids,” Adv. Mater. 24(33), 4540–4546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. Sung, Y. S. Choi, S. J. Kang, S. H. Cho, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “AC Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescence with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 966–972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Huang, Y. S. Hsiao, and W. T. Whang, “Selective growth and enhanced field emission properties of micropatterned iron phthalocyanine nanofiber arrays,” Org. Electron. 12(11), 1826–1834 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, P. J. Li, X. Hao, J. B. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. R. Li, “Flexible graphene-based electroluminescent devices,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7149–7154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

X. M. Fan, H. G. Zhang, J. Wang, and Z. W. Zhou, “Influence of annealing temperature on field emission from tetrapod-shaped ZnO-whisker films obtained by screen printing,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 13(5–6), 400–404 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Stanley, Y. Jiang, F. Bridges, S. A. Carter, and L. Ruhlen, “Degradation and rejuvenation studies of AC electroluminescent ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphors,” J. Phys.-Condens. Mat. 22(5), 055301 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

L. M. Yu and C. C. Zhu, “Field emission characteristics study for ZnO/Ag and ZnO/CNTs composites produced by DC electrophoresis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8359–8362 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Wood, J. E. Halpert, M. J. Panzer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Alternating current driven electroluminescence from ZnSe/ZnS:Mn/ZnS nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2367–2371 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. W. Jeong, J. H. Lee, I. T. Han, Y. W. Jin, J. M. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. B. Yoo, and S. G. Yu, “Carbon nanotube induced enhancement of electroluminescence of phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Di, Y. K. Cui, Q. L. Wang, W. Lei, X. B. Zhang, and D. den Engelsen, “Field emission from carbon nanotube and tetrapod-like ZnO compound cathode fabricated by spin-coating method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(8), 4636–4639 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Pimenov, V. D. Frolov, A. V. Kudryashov, M. M. Lamanov, N. P. Abanshin, B. I. Gorfinkel, D. W. Kim, Y. J. Choi, J. H. Park, and J. G. Park, “Electron field emission from semiconducting nanowires,” Diamond Related Materials 17(4–5), 758–763 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

B. Qiao, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and L. Chen, “Study on ZnGa2O4: Cr3+ a.c. powder electroluminescent device,” Mater. Lett. 61(2), 401–404 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Ibañez, E. Garcia, L. Gil, M. Mollar, and B. Marí, “Frequency-dependent light emission and extinction of electrolumine scent ZnS: Cu phosphor,” Displays 28(3), 112–117 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. H. Park, S. H. Lee, J. S. Kim, A. K. Kwon, H. L. Park, and S. D. Han, “White-electroluminescent device with ZnS: Mn, cu, cl phosphor,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 566–570 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Sharma, S. D. Han, J. D. Kim, S. P. Khatkar, and Y. W. Rhee, “Electroluminescent efficiency of alternating current thick film devices using ZnS: Cu,Cl phosphor,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 131(1–3), 271–276 (2006).

2005 (1)

R. C. Smith, R. D. Forrest, J. D. Carey, W. K. Hsu, and S. R. P. Silva, “Interpretation of enhancement factor in nonplanar field emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013111 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Tiwari, S. Tiwari, and B. P. Chandra, “Characteristics of a.c. electroluminescence in thin film ZnS: Mn display devices,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 15(9), 569–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Q. Wan, K. Yu, T. H. Wang, and C. L. Lin, “Low-field electron emission from tetrapod-like ZnO nanostructures synthesized by rapid evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2253–2255 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of ZnS nanocrystals doped with copper and halogen,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82(3), 718–725 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. Khastgir and K. Adachi, “Rheological and dielectric studies of aggregation of barium titanate particles suspended in polydimethylsiloxane,” Polymer (Guildf.) 41(16), 6403–6413 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. Khastgir and K. Adachi, “Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of siloxane elastomers filled with bariumtitanate,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 37(21), 3065–3070 (1999).

1998 (1)

M. Dür, S. M. Goodnick, S. S. Pennathur, J. F. Wager, M. Reigrotzki, and R. Redmer, “High-field transport and electroluminescence in ZnS phosphor layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3176–3185 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. F. Wager and P. D. Keir, “Electrical characterization of thin-film electroluminescent devices,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 223–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abanshin, N. P.

S. M. Pimenov, V. D. Frolov, A. V. Kudryashov, M. M. Lamanov, N. P. Abanshin, B. I. Gorfinkel, D. W. Kim, Y. J. Choi, J. H. Park, and J. G. Park, “Electron field emission from semiconducting nanowires,” Diamond Related Materials 17(4–5), 758–763 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adachi, K.

D. Khastgir and K. Adachi, “Rheological and dielectric studies of aggregation of barium titanate particles suspended in polydimethylsiloxane,” Polymer (Guildf.) 41(16), 6403–6413 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Khastgir and K. Adachi, “Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of siloxane elastomers filled with bariumtitanate,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 37(21), 3065–3070 (1999).

Bae, I.

S. H. Cho, S. S. Jo, I. Hwang, J. Sung, J. Seo, S. H. Jung, I. Bae, J. R. Choi, H. Cho, T. Lee, J. K. Lee, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “Extremely bright full color alternating current electroluminescence of solution-blended fluorescent polymers with self-assembled block copolymer micelles,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10809–10817 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, M. J.

M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. W. Jeong, J. H. Lee, I. T. Han, Y. W. Jin, J. M. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. B. Yoo, and S. G. Yu, “Carbon nanotube induced enhancement of electroluminescence of phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bai, G. X.

L. Chen, M. C. Wong, G. X. Bai, W. J. Jie, and J. H. Hao, “White and green light emissions of flexible polymer composites under electric field and multiple strains,” Nano Energy 14, 372–381 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. Wood, J. E. Halpert, M. J. Panzer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Alternating current driven electroluminescence from ZnSe/ZnS:Mn/ZnS nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2367–2371 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bridges, F.

J. Stanley, Y. Jiang, F. Bridges, S. A. Carter, and L. Ruhlen, “Degradation and rejuvenation studies of AC electroluminescent ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphors,” J. Phys.-Condens. Mat. 22(5), 055301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brimicombe, P. D.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

V. Wood, J. E. Halpert, M. J. Panzer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Alternating current driven electroluminescence from ZnSe/ZnS:Mn/ZnS nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2367–2371 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carey, J. D.

R. C. Smith, R. D. Forrest, J. D. Carey, W. K. Hsu, and S. R. P. Silva, “Interpretation of enhancement factor in nonplanar field emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carter, S. A.

J. Stanley, Y. Jiang, F. Bridges, S. A. Carter, and L. Ruhlen, “Degradation and rejuvenation studies of AC electroluminescent ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphors,” J. Phys.-Condens. Mat. 22(5), 055301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chandra, B. P.

S. Tiwari, S. Tiwari, and B. P. Chandra, “Characteristics of a.c. electroluminescence in thin film ZnS: Mn display devices,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 15(9), 569–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chee, K. J.

J. Wang, C. Yan, K. J. Chee, and P. S. Lee, “Highly Stretchable and Self-Deformable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(18), 2876–2882 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

C. H. Yang, B. Chen, J. Zhou, Y. M. Chen, and Z. Suo, “Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4480–4484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, M. C. Wong, G. X. Bai, W. J. Jie, and J. H. Hao, “White and green light emissions of flexible polymer composites under electric field and multiple strains,” Nano Energy 14, 372–381 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Qiao, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and L. Chen, “Study on ZnGa2O4: Cr3+ a.c. powder electroluminescent device,” Mater. Lett. 61(2), 401–404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, P. J. Li, X. Hao, J. B. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. R. Li, “Flexible graphene-based electroluminescent devices,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7149–7154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. M.

C. H. Yang, B. Chen, J. Zhou, Y. M. Chen, and Z. Suo, “Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4480–4484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, H.

S. H. Cho, S. S. Jo, I. Hwang, J. Sung, J. Seo, S. H. Jung, I. Bae, J. R. Choi, H. Cho, T. Lee, J. K. Lee, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “Extremely bright full color alternating current electroluminescence of solution-blended fluorescent polymers with self-assembled block copolymer micelles,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10809–10817 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

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J. Ibañez, E. Garcia, L. Gil, M. Mollar, and B. Marí, “Frequency-dependent light emission and extinction of electrolumine scent ZnS: Cu phosphor,” Displays 28(3), 112–117 (2007).
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S. H. Cho, J. Sung, I. Hwang, R. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Jo, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “High performance AC electroluminescence from colloidal quantum dot hybrids,” Adv. Mater. 24(33), 4540–4546 (2012).
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G. Sharma, S. D. Han, J. D. Kim, S. P. Khatkar, and Y. W. Rhee, “Electroluminescent efficiency of alternating current thick film devices using ZnS: Cu,Cl phosphor,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 131(1–3), 271–276 (2006).

Kim, D. W.

S. M. Pimenov, V. D. Frolov, A. V. Kudryashov, M. M. Lamanov, N. P. Abanshin, B. I. Gorfinkel, D. W. Kim, Y. J. Choi, J. H. Park, and J. G. Park, “Electron field emission from semiconducting nanowires,” Diamond Related Materials 17(4–5), 758–763 (2008).
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G. Sharma, S. D. Han, J. D. Kim, S. P. Khatkar, and Y. W. Rhee, “Electroluminescent efficiency of alternating current thick film devices using ZnS: Cu,Cl phosphor,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 131(1–3), 271–276 (2006).

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M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. W. Jeong, J. H. Lee, I. T. Han, Y. W. Jin, J. M. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. B. Yoo, and S. G. Yu, “Carbon nanotube induced enhancement of electroluminescence of phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071901 (2009).
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H. J. Fang, H. Tian, J. Li, Q. Li, J. Y. Dai, T. L. Ren, G. F. Dong, and Q. F. Yan, “Self-powered flat panel displays enabled by motion-driven alternating current electroluminescence,” Nano Energy 20, 48–56 (2016).
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Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, P. J. Li, X. Hao, J. B. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. R. Li, “Flexible graphene-based electroluminescent devices,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7149–7154 (2011).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N. S.

N. S. Liu, G. J. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, H. Long, and X. Z. Zhao, “Enhanced field emission from three-dimensional patterned carbon nanotube arrays grown on flexible carbon cloth,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(8), 3478–3484 (2012).
[Crossref]

Long, H.

N. S. Liu, G. J. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, H. Long, and X. Z. Zhao, “Enhanced field emission from three-dimensional patterned carbon nanotube arrays grown on flexible carbon cloth,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(8), 3478–3484 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, L. A.

L. A. Ma and T. L. Guo, “Morphology control and improved field emission properties of ZnO tetrapod films deposited by electrophoretic deposition,” Ceram. Int. 39(6), 6923–6929 (2013).
[Crossref]

Manzoor, K.

K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of ZnS nanocrystals doped with copper and halogen,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82(3), 718–725 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marí, B.

J. Ibañez, E. Garcia, L. Gil, M. Mollar, and B. Marí, “Frequency-dependent light emission and extinction of electrolumine scent ZnS: Cu phosphor,” Displays 28(3), 112–117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mollar, M.

J. Ibañez, E. Garcia, L. Gil, M. Mollar, and B. Marí, “Frequency-dependent light emission and extinction of electrolumine scent ZnS: Cu phosphor,” Displays 28(3), 112–117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morozov, S. V.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panzer, M. J.

V. Wood, J. E. Halpert, M. J. Panzer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Alternating current driven electroluminescence from ZnSe/ZnS:Mn/ZnS nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2367–2371 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C.

S. H. Cho, S. S. Jo, I. Hwang, J. Sung, J. Seo, S. H. Jung, I. Bae, J. R. Choi, H. Cho, T. Lee, J. K. Lee, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “Extremely bright full color alternating current electroluminescence of solution-blended fluorescent polymers with self-assembled block copolymer micelles,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10809–10817 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Cho, J. Sung, I. Hwang, R. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Jo, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “High performance AC electroluminescence from colloidal quantum dot hybrids,” Adv. Mater. 24(33), 4540–4546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sung, Y. S. Choi, S. J. Kang, S. H. Cho, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “AC Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescence with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 966–972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. L.

J. H. Park, S. H. Lee, J. S. Kim, A. K. Kwon, H. L. Park, and S. D. Han, “White-electroluminescent device with ZnS: Mn, cu, cl phosphor,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 566–570 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, J. G.

S. M. Pimenov, V. D. Frolov, A. V. Kudryashov, M. M. Lamanov, N. P. Abanshin, B. I. Gorfinkel, D. W. Kim, Y. J. Choi, J. H. Park, and J. G. Park, “Electron field emission from semiconducting nanowires,” Diamond Related Materials 17(4–5), 758–763 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

S. M. Pimenov, V. D. Frolov, A. V. Kudryashov, M. M. Lamanov, N. P. Abanshin, B. I. Gorfinkel, D. W. Kim, Y. J. Choi, J. H. Park, and J. G. Park, “Electron field emission from semiconducting nanowires,” Diamond Related Materials 17(4–5), 758–763 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Park, S. H. Lee, J. S. Kim, A. K. Kwon, H. L. Park, and S. D. Han, “White-electroluminescent device with ZnS: Mn, cu, cl phosphor,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 566–570 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. W. Jeong, J. H. Lee, I. T. Han, Y. W. Jin, J. M. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. B. Yoo, and S. G. Yu, “Carbon nanotube induced enhancement of electroluminescence of phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pennathur, S. S.

M. Dür, S. M. Goodnick, S. S. Pennathur, J. F. Wager, M. Reigrotzki, and R. Redmer, “High-field transport and electroluminescence in ZnS phosphor layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3176–3185 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pimenov, S. M.

S. M. Pimenov, V. D. Frolov, A. V. Kudryashov, M. M. Lamanov, N. P. Abanshin, B. I. Gorfinkel, D. W. Kim, Y. J. Choi, J. H. Park, and J. G. Park, “Electron field emission from semiconducting nanowires,” Diamond Related Materials 17(4–5), 758–763 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ponomarenko, L. A.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, B.

B. Qiao, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and L. Chen, “Study on ZnGa2O4: Cr3+ a.c. powder electroluminescent device,” Mater. Lett. 61(2), 401–404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Redmer, R.

M. Dür, S. M. Goodnick, S. S. Pennathur, J. F. Wager, M. Reigrotzki, and R. Redmer, “High-field transport and electroluminescence in ZnS phosphor layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3176–3185 (1998).
[Crossref]

Reigrotzki, M.

M. Dür, S. M. Goodnick, S. S. Pennathur, J. F. Wager, M. Reigrotzki, and R. Redmer, “High-field transport and electroluminescence in ZnS phosphor layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3176–3185 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ren, T. L.

H. J. Fang, H. Tian, J. Li, Q. Li, J. Y. Dai, T. L. Ren, G. F. Dong, and Q. F. Yan, “Self-powered flat panel displays enabled by motion-driven alternating current electroluminescence,” Nano Energy 20, 48–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rhee, Y. W.

G. Sharma, S. D. Han, J. D. Kim, S. P. Khatkar, and Y. W. Rhee, “Electroluminescent efficiency of alternating current thick film devices using ZnS: Cu,Cl phosphor,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 131(1–3), 271–276 (2006).

Ruhlen, L.

J. Stanley, Y. Jiang, F. Bridges, S. A. Carter, and L. Ruhlen, “Degradation and rejuvenation studies of AC electroluminescent ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphors,” J. Phys.-Condens. Mat. 22(5), 055301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schedin, F.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, J.

S. H. Cho, S. S. Jo, I. Hwang, J. Sung, J. Seo, S. H. Jung, I. Bae, J. R. Choi, H. Cho, T. Lee, J. K. Lee, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “Extremely bright full color alternating current electroluminescence of solution-blended fluorescent polymers with self-assembled block copolymer micelles,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10809–10817 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, G.

G. Sharma, S. D. Han, J. D. Kim, S. P. Khatkar, and Y. W. Rhee, “Electroluminescent efficiency of alternating current thick film devices using ZnS: Cu,Cl phosphor,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 131(1–3), 271–276 (2006).

Silva, S. R. P.

R. C. Smith, R. D. Forrest, J. D. Carey, W. K. Hsu, and S. R. P. Silva, “Interpretation of enhancement factor in nonplanar field emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, R. D. Forrest, J. D. Carey, W. K. Hsu, and S. R. P. Silva, “Interpretation of enhancement factor in nonplanar field emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stanley, J.

J. Stanley, Y. Jiang, F. Bridges, S. A. Carter, and L. Ruhlen, “Degradation and rejuvenation studies of AC electroluminescent ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphors,” J. Phys.-Condens. Mat. 22(5), 055301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stauffer, F.

F. Stauffer and K. Tybrandt, “Bright Stretchable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Displays Based on High Permittivity Composites,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7200–7203 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, J.

S. H. Cho, S. S. Jo, I. Hwang, J. Sung, J. Seo, S. H. Jung, I. Bae, J. R. Choi, H. Cho, T. Lee, J. K. Lee, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “Extremely bright full color alternating current electroluminescence of solution-blended fluorescent polymers with self-assembled block copolymer micelles,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10809–10817 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Cho, J. Sung, I. Hwang, R. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Jo, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “High performance AC electroluminescence from colloidal quantum dot hybrids,” Adv. Mater. 24(33), 4540–4546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sung, Y. S. Choi, S. J. Kang, S. H. Cho, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “AC Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescence with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 966–972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suo, Z.

C. H. Yang, B. Chen, J. Zhou, Y. M. Chen, and Z. Suo, “Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4480–4484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Z. L.

B. Qiao, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and L. Chen, “Study on ZnGa2O4: Cr3+ a.c. powder electroluminescent device,” Mater. Lett. 61(2), 401–404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tian, H.

H. J. Fang, H. Tian, J. Li, Q. Li, J. Y. Dai, T. L. Ren, G. F. Dong, and Q. F. Yan, “Self-powered flat panel displays enabled by motion-driven alternating current electroluminescence,” Nano Energy 20, 48–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, S.

S. Tiwari, S. Tiwari, and B. P. Chandra, “Characteristics of a.c. electroluminescence in thin film ZnS: Mn display devices,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 15(9), 569–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Tiwari, S. Tiwari, and B. P. Chandra, “Characteristics of a.c. electroluminescence in thin film ZnS: Mn display devices,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 15(9), 569–574 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tybrandt, K.

F. Stauffer and K. Tybrandt, “Bright Stretchable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Displays Based on High Permittivity Composites,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7200–7203 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vadera, S. R.

K. Manzoor, S. R. Vadera, N. Kumar, and T. R. N. Kutty, “Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of ZnS nanocrystals doped with copper and halogen,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82(3), 718–725 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wager, J. F.

M. Dür, S. M. Goodnick, S. S. Pennathur, J. F. Wager, M. Reigrotzki, and R. Redmer, “High-field transport and electroluminescence in ZnS phosphor layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3176–3185 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. F. Wager and P. D. Keir, “Electrical characterization of thin-film electroluminescent devices,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 223–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wagstaff, B.

B. Wagstaff and A. Kitai, “Electroluminescence of Zn2GeO4:Mn through SiC whisker electric field enhancement,” J. Lumin. 167, 310–315 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wan, Q.

Q. Wan, K. Yu, T. H. Wang, and C. L. Lin, “Low-field electron emission from tetrapod-like ZnO nanostructures synthesized by rapid evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2253–2255 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, C. Yan, K. J. Chee, and P. S. Lee, “Highly Stretchable and Self-Deformable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(18), 2876–2882 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Fan, H. G. Zhang, J. Wang, and Z. W. Zhou, “Influence of annealing temperature on field emission from tetrapod-shaped ZnO-whisker films obtained by screen printing,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 13(5–6), 400–404 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. L.

Y. S. Di, Y. K. Cui, Q. L. Wang, W. Lei, X. B. Zhang, and D. den Engelsen, “Field emission from carbon nanotube and tetrapod-like ZnO compound cathode fabricated by spin-coating method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(8), 4636–4639 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. H.

Q. Wan, K. Yu, T. H. Wang, and C. L. Lin, “Low-field electron emission from tetrapod-like ZnO nanostructures synthesized by rapid evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2253–2255 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. G.

Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, P. J. Li, X. Hao, J. B. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. R. Li, “Flexible graphene-based electroluminescent devices,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7149–7154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whang, W. T.

K. J. Huang, Y. S. Hsiao, and W. T. Whang, “Selective growth and enhanced field emission properties of micropatterned iron phthalocyanine nanofiber arrays,” Org. Electron. 12(11), 1826–1834 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wong, M. C.

L. Chen, M. C. Wong, G. X. Bai, W. J. Jie, and J. H. Hao, “White and green light emissions of flexible polymer composites under electric field and multiple strains,” Nano Energy 14, 372–381 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wood, V.

V. Wood, J. E. Halpert, M. J. Panzer, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Alternating current driven electroluminescence from ZnSe/ZnS:Mn/ZnS nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2367–2371 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, C.

J. Wang, C. Yan, K. J. Chee, and P. S. Lee, “Highly Stretchable and Self-Deformable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(18), 2876–2882 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Q. F.

H. J. Fang, H. Tian, J. Li, Q. Li, J. Y. Dai, T. L. Ren, G. F. Dong, and Q. F. Yan, “Self-powered flat panel displays enabled by motion-driven alternating current electroluminescence,” Nano Energy 20, 48–56 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. H.

C. H. Yang, B. Chen, J. Zhou, Y. M. Chen, and Z. Suo, “Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4480–4484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, J. B.

M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. W. Jeong, J. H. Lee, I. T. Han, Y. W. Jin, J. M. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. B. Yoo, and S. G. Yu, “Carbon nanotube induced enhancement of electroluminescence of phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, K.

Q. Wan, K. Yu, T. H. Wang, and C. L. Lin, “Low-field electron emission from tetrapod-like ZnO nanostructures synthesized by rapid evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2253–2255 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, L. M.

L. M. Yu and C. C. Zhu, “Field emission characteristics study for ZnO/Ag and ZnO/CNTs composites produced by DC electrophoresis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8359–8362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. G.

M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. W. Jeong, J. H. Lee, I. T. Han, Y. W. Jin, J. M. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. B. Yoo, and S. G. Yu, “Carbon nanotube induced enhancement of electroluminescence of phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeng, W.

N. S. Liu, G. J. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, H. Long, and X. Z. Zhao, “Enhanced field emission from three-dimensional patterned carbon nanotube arrays grown on flexible carbon cloth,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(8), 3478–3484 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. G.

X. M. Fan, H. G. Zhang, J. Wang, and Z. W. Zhou, “Influence of annealing temperature on field emission from tetrapod-shaped ZnO-whisker films obtained by screen printing,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 13(5–6), 400–404 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. B.

Y. S. Di, Y. K. Cui, Q. L. Wang, W. Lei, X. B. Zhang, and D. den Engelsen, “Field emission from carbon nanotube and tetrapod-like ZnO compound cathode fabricated by spin-coating method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(8), 4636–4639 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. T.

B. Qiao, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and L. Chen, “Study on ZnGa2O4: Cr3+ a.c. powder electroluminescent device,” Mater. Lett. 61(2), 401–404 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. Z.

N. S. Liu, G. J. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, H. Long, and X. Z. Zhao, “Enhanced field emission from three-dimensional patterned carbon nanotube arrays grown on flexible carbon cloth,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(8), 3478–3484 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

N. S. Liu, G. J. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, H. Long, and X. Z. Zhao, “Enhanced field emission from three-dimensional patterned carbon nanotube arrays grown on flexible carbon cloth,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(8), 3478–3484 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

C. H. Yang, B. Chen, J. Zhou, Y. M. Chen, and Z. Suo, “Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4480–4484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. W.

X. M. Fan, H. G. Zhang, J. Wang, and Z. W. Zhou, “Influence of annealing temperature on field emission from tetrapod-shaped ZnO-whisker films obtained by screen printing,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 13(5–6), 400–404 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C. C.

L. M. Yu and C. C. Zhu, “Field emission characteristics study for ZnO/Ag and ZnO/CNTs composites produced by DC electrophoresis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8359–8362 (2009).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

S. H. Cho, S. S. Jo, I. Hwang, J. Sung, J. Seo, S. H. Jung, I. Bae, J. R. Choi, H. Cho, T. Lee, J. K. Lee, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “Extremely bright full color alternating current electroluminescence of solution-blended fluorescent polymers with self-assembled block copolymer micelles,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10809–10817 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. G. Wang, Y. F. Chen, P. J. Li, X. Hao, J. B. Liu, R. Huang, and Y. R. Li, “Flexible graphene-based electroluminescent devices,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7149–7154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (4)

C. H. Yang, B. Chen, J. Zhou, Y. M. Chen, and Z. Suo, “Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability,” Adv. Mater. 28(22), 4480–4484 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, C. Yan, K. J. Chee, and P. S. Lee, “Highly Stretchable and Self-Deformable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Devices,” Adv. Mater. 27(18), 2876–2882 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stauffer and K. Tybrandt, “Bright Stretchable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Displays Based on High Permittivity Composites,” Adv. Mater. 28(33), 7200–7203 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Cho, J. Sung, I. Hwang, R. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, S. S. Jo, T. W. Lee, and C. Park, “High performance AC electroluminescence from colloidal quantum dot hybrids,” Adv. Mater. 24(33), 4540–4546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. F. Wager and P. D. Keir, “Electrical characterization of thin-film electroluminescent devices,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 223–248 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Q. Wan, K. Yu, T. H. Wang, and C. L. Lin, “Low-field electron emission from tetrapod-like ZnO nanostructures synthesized by rapid evaporation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2253–2255 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. J. Bae, S. H. Park, T. W. Jeong, J. H. Lee, I. T. Han, Y. W. Jin, J. M. Kim, J. Y. Kim, J. B. Yoo, and S. G. Yu, “Carbon nanotube induced enhancement of electroluminescence of phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071901 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. C. Smith, R. D. Forrest, J. D. Carey, W. K. Hsu, and S. R. P. Silva, “Interpretation of enhancement factor in nonplanar field emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

L. M. Yu and C. C. Zhu, “Field emission characteristics study for ZnO/Ag and ZnO/CNTs composites produced by DC electrophoresis,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(20), 8359–8362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Di, Y. K. Cui, Q. L. Wang, W. Lei, X. B. Zhang, and D. den Engelsen, “Field emission from carbon nanotube and tetrapod-like ZnO compound cathode fabricated by spin-coating method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(8), 4636–4639 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Int. (1)

L. A. Ma and T. L. Guo, “Morphology control and improved field emission properties of ZnO tetrapod films deposited by electrophoretic deposition,” Ceram. Int. 39(6), 6923–6929 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diamond Related Materials (1)

S. M. Pimenov, V. D. Frolov, A. V. Kudryashov, M. M. Lamanov, N. P. Abanshin, B. I. Gorfinkel, D. W. Kim, Y. J. Choi, J. H. Park, and J. G. Park, “Electron field emission from semiconducting nanowires,” Diamond Related Materials 17(4–5), 758–763 (2008).
[Crossref]

Displays (1)

J. Ibañez, E. Garcia, L. Gil, M. Mollar, and B. Marí, “Frequency-dependent light emission and extinction of electrolumine scent ZnS: Cu phosphor,” Displays 28(3), 112–117 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Dür, S. M. Goodnick, S. S. Pennathur, J. F. Wager, M. Reigrotzki, and R. Redmer, “High-field transport and electroluminescence in ZnS phosphor layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3176–3185 (1998).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (2186 KB)      The emission in the bending process remains stable.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Structure diagram and device characterization. (a) Representative schematic of the three devices (blue, green and orange emissions), where the T-ZnOw enhance the EL of phosphor; (b) SEM image of phosphor ZnS:Cu particles; (c) SEM image of T-ZnOw; (d) X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of T-ZnOw; (e) The T-ZnOw are entwined by CNTs; (f) Cross-section observation of the device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electro-optical characteristics of the device. (a) EL spectra of the devices with various concentrations of the ZnS:Cu phosphor in PDMS under an AC electric field with a voltage of 200 V and a frequency of 1 kHz. The optimum concentration is 2g/ml; (b) EL spectra of the devices with various weight ratio of the T-ZnOw to CNTs under a 200 V-AC electric field of 1 kHz. The optimum ratio is 1:1; (c)The EL intensity increases with voltage, derived from the device with the optimum conditions; (d) EL spectra under various frequencies and a voltage of 200 V, derived from the device with the optimum conditions. The EL intensity increases with the frequency; (e) The luminance versus frequency. A saturated brightness ~16 cd/m2 is obtained at 200 V and 100 kHz. Luminance (L) of the ACEL devices vs voltage (V) under various frequencies is shown in inset; (f) The CIE diagram showing the blue light emitting coordinates from the ACEL device.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The EL image of the ACEL device at 1 kHz and 200 V. (a) Emitting green light; (b) EL spectra of the green light device and the intensity is enhanced by ~130% compared to the ACEL without T-ZnOw addition at the optimum ratio; (c) Emitting orange light. EL spectra of the devices with various weight ratio of the T-ZnOw to CNTs under applied 200 V-AC electric field at 1 kHz. It can be observed that 1:1 is the optimum ratio for the emission. (d) EL spectra of the orange light device. At the optimum ratio, the intensity is enhanced by ~84% compared to the condition without T-ZnOw addition.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electro-optical characteristics of two devices (a-c are from a device, and d-f from another device). (a) Green EL spectra of the devices driven by various voltages at a fixed frequency of 1 kHz; (b) The EL emissions of the devices at 200 V under various frequencies; (c) The EL luminance of Fig. 3(a) versus frequency. A saturated brightness ~9.5 cd/m2 is obtained at 200 V and 100 kHz; (d) Orange EL spectra of the device driven by various voltages at a fixed frequency of 1 kHz; (e) The orange EL intensity of the devices under 200 V at different frequencies; (f) The luminance versus frequency. A saturated brightness ~4 cd/m2 is obtained at 200 V and 100 kHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The explanation for the two devices with different behaviors, a and b are for the device in Fig. 3a and b, while c and d are for the device in Fig. 3d and e. (a) CIE coordinates of the light emission change from green to blue with the frequency increase; (b) Band diagram of the EL of ZnS:Cu phosphor. Low frequency irradiates green light and high frequency irradiates blue light; (c) CIE coordinates of the orange light; (d) Band diagram for the orange emission from ZnS:Mn:Cu phosphor.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The flexibility of the ACEL device with blue emission. (a) The initial state of the device under no bending; (b) The device under bending state; (c) At the initial state, the device emits blue light at 200 V and 1 kHz; (d) Under a bending with ratio of 1:5.5 (height to length), the device emits blue light with almost the same intensity as in (c); (e) The comparison between the two EL spectra at the initial state and the bending state; (f) The comparison between the two EL spectra at the initial state and the state after 1000 bending cycles.

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