Abstract

A selenide integrated platform working in the mid-infrared was designed, fabricated and optically characterized at 7.7 µm. Ge-Sb-Se multilayered structures were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Using i-line photolithography and fluorine-based reactive ion etching, ridge waveguides were processed as Y-junction, spiral and S-shape waveguides. Single-mode optical propagation at 7.7 µm was observed by optical near-field imaging and optical propagation losses of 2.5dB/cm are measured. Limits of detection of 14.2 ppm and 1.6 ppm for methane and nitrous oxide, respectively, could be potentially measured by using this platform as an evanescent field sensor. Hence, these technological, experimental and theoretical results represent a first step towards the development of an integrated optical sensor operating in the mid-infrared wavelength range.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (3)

E. Baudet, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Němec, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, O. De Sagazan, H. Lhermitte, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, J. Charrier, and V. Nazabal, “Selenide sputtered films development for MIR environmental sensor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2616–2627 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Baudet, C. Cardinaud, A. Girard, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Structural analysis of RF sputtered Ge-Sb-Se thin films by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 444, 64–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

C. R. Petersen, U. Moller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4 – 13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(014603), 1–15 (2014).

M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J. M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)100x (Sb2Se3)x glasses in near-and midle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Alrefae, E. Es-sebbar, and A. Farooq, “Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 303, 8–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, Y. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Mid-Infrared Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Y. Yu, X. Gai, Z. Yang, S. Debbarma, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for chemical sensing in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29927–29937 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Integrated highquality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sieger, F. Balluff, X. Wang, S. S. Kim, L. Leidner, G. Gauglitz, and B. Mizaikoff, “On-chip Integrated mid-Infrared GaAs/AlGaAs Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Anal. Chem. 85(6), 3050–3052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q Mid-Infrared Chalcogenide Glass-on-silicon Resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Y. C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J. M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent Wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. P. Zimin, I. I. Amirov, and E. S. Gorlachev, “RF sputtering of epitaxial lead chalcogenide films in argon and krypton plasma,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(055018), 1–6 (2011).

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide Photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16659–16669 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25−xSb10S65(x=0,5)sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, and C. G. Pantano, “Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: Mid-IR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2757–2762 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6 μm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguide components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier., “Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1860–1862 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lucas, M. R. Riley, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, “Advances in chalcogenide fiber evanescent wave biochemical sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 351(1), 1–10 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

O. Malis, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, L. N. Pfeiffer, A. M. Sergent, and K. W. West, “The quantum cascade laser: a versatile high-power semiconductor laser for mid-infrared applications,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 10(3), 199–214 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Siebert and J. Müller, “Infrared integrated optical evanescent field sensor for gas analysis Part II. Fabrication,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 119(2), 584–592 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-IR fiber-optic sensors,” Anal. Chem. 75(11), 258A–267A (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445–458(2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. H. Hoerauf, C. Koller, K. Taeger, and J. Hobbhahn, “Occupational exposure to sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in operating room personnel,” Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 69(2), 134–138 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

W. J. Mindford, S. K. Korotky, and R. C. Alferness, “Low-Loss Ti: LiNbO3 Waveguide bends at λ = 1.3 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1802–1806 (1982).
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Baudet, E.

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E. Baudet, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Němec, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, O. De Sagazan, H. Lhermitte, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, J. Charrier, and V. Nazabal, “Selenide sputtered films development for MIR environmental sensor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2616–2627 (2016).
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C. R. Petersen, U. Moller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4 – 13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25−xSb10S65(x=0,5)sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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Boussard-Pledel, C.

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Boussard-Plédel, C.

P. Lucas, M. R. Riley, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, “Advances in chalcogenide fiber evanescent wave biochemical sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 351(1), 1–10 (2006).
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Brandily, M. L.

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent Wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
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Braud, A.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
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Broquin, J. E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6 μm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
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Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Bureau, B.

E. Baudet, C. Cardinaud, A. Girard, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Structural analysis of RF sputtered Ge-Sb-Se thin films by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 444, 64–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Baudet, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Němec, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, O. De Sagazan, H. Lhermitte, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, J. Charrier, and V. Nazabal, “Selenide sputtered films development for MIR environmental sensor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2616–2627 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent Wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lucas, M. R. Riley, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, “Advances in chalcogenide fiber evanescent wave biochemical sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 351(1), 1–10 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Camy, P.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cardinaud, C.

E. Baudet, C. Cardinaud, A. Girard, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Structural analysis of RF sputtered Ge-Sb-Se thin films by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 444, 64–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

Carras, M.

Casas-Bedoya, A.

Chahal, R.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Chang, Y. C.

Charpentier, F.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25−xSb10S65(x=0,5)sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Charrier, J.

E. Baudet, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Němec, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, O. De Sagazan, H. Lhermitte, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, J. Charrier, and V. Nazabal, “Selenide sputtered films development for MIR environmental sensor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2616–2627 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent Wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25−xSb10S65(x=0,5)sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
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Chen, Q.

Choi, D. Y.

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Colas, F.

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compère, C.

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q Mid-Infrared Chalcogenide Glass-on-silicon Resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
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H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q Mid-Infrared Chalcogenide Glass-on-silicon Resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
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H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q Mid-Infrared Chalcogenide Glass-on-silicon Resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
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P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
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H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q Mid-Infrared Chalcogenide Glass-on-silicon Resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
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M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Madden, S.

Madsen, C. K.

Malik, A.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, Y. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Mid-Infrared Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Michel, K.

E. Baudet, C. Cardinaud, A. Girard, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Structural analysis of RF sputtered Ge-Sb-Se thin films by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 444, 64–72 (2016).
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E. Baudet, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Němec, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, O. De Sagazan, H. Lhermitte, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, J. Charrier, and V. Nazabal, “Selenide sputtered films development for MIR environmental sensor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2616–2627 (2016).
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F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent Wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
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Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Mizaikoff, B.

M. Sieger, F. Balluff, X. Wang, S. S. Kim, L. Leidner, G. Gauglitz, and B. Mizaikoff, “On-chip Integrated mid-Infrared GaAs/AlGaAs Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Anal. Chem. 85(6), 3050–3052 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Moizan, V.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
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Moller, U.

C. R. Petersen, U. Moller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4 – 13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
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Mujagic, E.

Müller, J.

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Muneeb, M.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, Y. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Mid-Infrared Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Murakowski, M.

Musgraves, J. D.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(014603), 1–15 (2014).

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q Mid-Infrared Chalcogenide Glass-on-silicon Resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myers, T. L.

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nazabal, V.

E. Baudet, C. Cardinaud, A. Girard, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Structural analysis of RF sputtered Ge-Sb-Se thin films by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 444, 64–72 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Baudet, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Němec, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, O. De Sagazan, H. Lhermitte, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, J. Charrier, and V. Nazabal, “Selenide sputtered films development for MIR environmental sensor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2616–2627 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)100x (Sb2Se3)x glasses in near-and midle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent Wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25−xSb10S65(x=0,5)sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nemec, P.

E. Baudet, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Němec, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, O. De Sagazan, H. Lhermitte, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, J. Charrier, and V. Nazabal, “Selenide sputtered films development for MIR environmental sensor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2616–2627 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)100x (Sb2Se3)x glasses in near-and midle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T.

Ni, C.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(014603), 1–15 (2014).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445–458(2003).
[Crossref]

Toor, F.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Troles, J.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
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Tsay, C.

Van Campenhout, Y.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, Y. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Mid-Infrared Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
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Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Verger, F.

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent Wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
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Vigreux-Bercovici, C.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6 μm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
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Vu, K.

Wachtel, P.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(014603), 1–15 (2014).

Wang, X.

M. Sieger, F. Balluff, X. Wang, S. S. Kim, L. Leidner, G. Gauglitz, and B. Mizaikoff, “On-chip Integrated mid-Infrared GaAs/AlGaAs Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Anal. Chem. 85(6), 3050–3052 (2013).
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O. Malis, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, L. N. Pfeiffer, A. M. Sergent, and K. W. West, “The quantum cascade laser: a versatile high-power semiconductor laser for mid-infrared applications,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 10(3), 199–214 (2005).
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Xia, X.

Yanakata, K.

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Yang, Z.

Yu, C.

A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, and C. G. Pantano, “Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: Mid-IR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2757–2762 (2008).
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Yu, Y.

Zdyrko, B.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(014603), 1–15 (2014).

Zha, Y.

Zhou, B.

C. R. Petersen, U. Moller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4 – 13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
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Zimin, S. P.

S. P. Zimin, I. I. Amirov, and E. S. Gorlachev, “RF sputtering of epitaxial lead chalcogenide films in argon and krypton plasma,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(055018), 1–6 (2011).

Zou, Y.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(014603), 1–15 (2014).

H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q Mid-Infrared Chalcogenide Glass-on-silicon Resonators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1470–1472 (2013).
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Anal. Biochem. (1)

P. Lucas, M. R. Riley, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, “Advances in chalcogenide fiber evanescent wave biochemical sensing,” Anal. Biochem. 351(1), 1–10 (2006).
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Anal. Chem. (2)

B. Mizaikoff, “Mid-IR fiber-optic sensors,” Anal. Chem. 75(11), 258A–267A (2003).
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M. Sieger, F. Balluff, X. Wang, S. S. Kim, L. Leidner, G. Gauglitz, and B. Mizaikoff, “On-chip Integrated mid-Infrared GaAs/AlGaAs Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Anal. Chem. 85(6), 3050–3052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J. E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6 μm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 011110 (2007).
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P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and M. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251121 (2013).
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R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Integrated highquality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).
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Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(14), 141106 (2016).
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Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

O. Malis, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, L. N. Pfeiffer, A. M. Sergent, and K. W. West, “The quantum cascade laser: a versatile high-power semiconductor laser for mid-infrared applications,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 10(3), 199–214 (2005).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. J. Mindford, S. K. Korotky, and R. C. Alferness, “Low-Loss Ti: LiNbO3 Waveguide bends at λ = 1.3 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(10), 1802–1806 (1982).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, Y. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon Mid-Infrared Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
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Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health (1)

K. H. Hoerauf, C. Koller, K. Taeger, and J. Hobbhahn, “Occupational exposure to sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in operating room personnel,” Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 69(2), 134–138 (1996).
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P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss study of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25−xSb10S65(x=0,5)sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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M. Alrefae, E. Es-sebbar, and A. Farooq, “Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 303, 8–14 (2014).
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J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

E. Baudet, C. Cardinaud, A. Girard, E. Rinnert, K. Michel, B. Bureau, and V. Nazabal, “Structural analysis of RF sputtered Ge-Sb-Se thin films by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 444, 64–72 (2016).
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A. Ganjoo, H. Jain, C. Yu, J. Irudayaraj, and C. G. Pantano, “Detection and fingerprinting of pathogens: Mid-IR biosensor using amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2757–2762 (2008).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguide components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 840–848 (2006).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Couderti, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

P. Nemec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendova, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)100x (Sb2Se3)x glasses in near-and midle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

R. Soref, “Mid-Infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
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B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide Photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

C. R. Petersen, U. Moller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4 – 13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15523–15530 (2010).
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C. Tsay, Y. Zha, C. B. Arnold, and C. B. Arnold, “Solution-processed chalcogenide glass for integrated single-mode mid-infrared waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26744–26753 (2010).
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C. C. Huang, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Deposition and characterization of germanium sulphide glass planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2501–2506 (2004).
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P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Y. Yu, X. Gai, Z. Yang, S. Debbarma, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for chemical sensing in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29927–29937 (2013).
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M. Brun, P. Labeye, G. Grand, J. M. Hartmann, F. Boulila, M. Carras, and S. Nicoletti, “Low loss SiGe graded index waveguides for mid-IR applications,” Opt. Express 22(1), 508–518 (2014).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (1)

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. (1)

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(014603), 1–15 (2014).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. P. Zimin, I. I. Amirov, and E. S. Gorlachev, “RF sputtering of epitaxial lead chalcogenide films in argon and krypton plasma,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(055018), 1–6 (2011).

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F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent Wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
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Sensors (Basel) (1)

M. L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide glass optical waveguides for infrared biosensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Top. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445–458(2003).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross section of ridge waveguide (SEM image) made of two different compositions of chalcogenide glasses: Ge12.5Sb25Se62.5 (Se6) as guiding layer, Ge28.1Sb6.3Se65.6 (Se2) as confinement layer and the silicon substrate. (b) Schematic of cross-section of chalcogenide ridge waveguide showing the dimensions and refractive index of the different layers. (c) Evolution of the evanescent power factor η as a function of width (w) and height (h) in the detection gases at λ = 7.7 µm. The color area represents the dimensions where the effective index of guided mode is a value amongst the refractive index of confinement and guiding layer respectively. (d) Simulation of TM fundamental mode in a ridge waveguide (h = 1.7 µm, w = 10 µm).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simulation of mode profile in a bend waveguide. (b) Bending losses at 90° as a function of the radius of curvature for guiding layer widths equal to 10 µm of selenide ridge waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Near field of propagated light at λ = 7.7 µm and microscopic images of single mode ridge waveguides made of chalcogenide glasses (Ge-Sb-Se) in configuration of spiral, (b) S-shape and (c) Y-junction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical propagation loss at λ = 7.7 µm measured by mode profile imaging method for selenide ridge waveguides with height equal to 1.7 µm. Each point represents averaged data for 3 experimental measures. Propagation loss of 2.6 ± 0.1 dB/cm and 2.5 ± 0.1 dB/cm are given for widths of 14 µm and for 10 µm, 12 µm respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Molar absorption of methane and nitrous oxide in the Mid-IR under normal conditions of pressure and temperature (1 atm, T = 273 K) [42, 43]. (b) Evolution of the sensitivity S as a function of the waveguide length L for α = 2.5 dB/cm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P = P 0 exp( η ε C L α prop L )
S = | dP dC | = ε η L P 0 exp( -ε η C L - α prop L )
C min = ln[ 1 SNR NEP B P 0 exp( α L opt ) ] ε η L opt

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