Abstract

We propose a long-range three-dimensional (3D) display using a collimated optics with multi-plane configuration. By using a spherical screen and a collimating lens, users observe the collimated image on the spherical screen, which simulates an image plane located at optical infinity. By combining and modulating overlapped multi-plane images, the observed image is located at desired depth position within the volume of multiple planes. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated by an experimental system composed of a planar and a spherical screen with a collimating lens. In addition, accommodation properties of the proposed system are demonstrated according to the depth modulation method.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Super multi-view windshield display for long-distance image information presentation

Yasuhiro Takaki, Yohei Urano, Shinji Kashiwada, Hiroshi Ando, and Koji Nakamura
Opt. Express 19(2) 704-716 (2011)

Hybrid multi-layer displays providing accommodation cues

Dongyeon Kim, Seungjae Lee, Seokil Moon, Jaebum Cho, Youngjin Jo, and Byoungho Lee
Opt. Express 26(13) 17170-17184 (2018)

Adaptive viewing distance in super multi-view displays using aperiodic 3-D pixel location and dynamic view indices

Min-Koo Kang, Hoang-Phong Nguyen, Donghoon Kang, Soon-Gi Park, and Sung-Kyu Kim
Opt. Express 26(16) 20661-20679 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. M. V. Defensive Driving New York State, https://dmv.ny.gov/about-dmv/chapter-8-defensive-driving .
  3. Y. Takaki, Y. Urano, S. Kashiwada, H. Ando, and K. Nakamura, “Super multi-view windshield display for long-distance image information presentation,” Opt. Express 19(2), 704–716 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and Y. Takaki, “Increase in depth of field of eyes using reduced-view super multi-view displays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022501 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Takaki, K. Tanaka, and J. Nakamura, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. Batchko, S. Robinson, J. Schmidt, and B. Graniela, “A variable-collimation display system,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901109 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Kim, J. Moon, S. Hong, J.-I. Kwon, J. Hong, and H. Kang, “Compact collimated display system using an aspherical screen combined with interaction,” J. Inform. Displ. 16(1), 43–48 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Date, T. Hisaki, H. Takada, S. Suyama, and K. Nakazawa, “Luminance addition of a stack of multidomain liquid-crystal displays and capability for depth-fused three-dimensional display application,” Appl. Opt. 44(6), 898–905 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 461–467 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. G. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. W. Min, “Polarization distributed depth map for depth-fused three-dimensional display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4316–4323 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. G. Park, S. Yoon, J. Yeom, H. Baek, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Lamina 3D display: projection-type depth-fused display using polarization-encoded depth information,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26162–26172 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope: immersive computer graphics via factored near-eye light field displays with focus cues,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002), Chap. 6.
  19. S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Blender, http://blender.org .
  22. S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing projection-type integral imaging system with an embossed screen,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2420–2422 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. G. Park, J.-H. Jung, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Depth-fused display with improved viewing characteristics,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28758–28770 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. Hong, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Integral floating display systems for augmented reality,” Appl. Opt. 51(18), 4201–4209 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, C.-W. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, and Y. Takaki, “Analysis of longitudinal viewing freedom of reduced-view super multi-view display and increased longitudinal viewing freedom using eye-tracking technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(4), 228–234 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. G. Park, J.-Y. Hong, C.-K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Real-mode depth-fused display with viewer tracking,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26710–26722 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. C.-K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

S. G. Park, J.-Y. Hong, C.-K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Real-mode depth-fused display with viewer tracking,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26710–26722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. Moon, S. Hong, J.-I. Kwon, J. Hong, and H. Kang, “Compact collimated display system using an aspherical screen combined with interaction,” J. Inform. Displ. 16(1), 43–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope: immersive computer graphics via factored near-eye light field displays with focus cues,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

J. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and Y. Takaki, “Increase in depth of field of eyes using reduced-view super multi-view displays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022501 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. G. Park, J.-H. Jung, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Depth-fused display with improved viewing characteristics,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28758–28770 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Hong, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Integral floating display systems for augmented reality,” Appl. Opt. 51(18), 4201–4209 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, C.-W. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, and Y. Takaki, “Analysis of longitudinal viewing freedom of reduced-view super multi-view display and increased longitudinal viewing freedom using eye-tracking technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(4), 228–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 461–467 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Wide-viewing projection-type integral imaging system with an embossed screen,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2420–2422 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Akeley, K.

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ando, H.

Baek, H.

Banks, M. S.

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804 (2004).
[Crossref]

Batchko, R.

R. Batchko, S. Robinson, J. Schmidt, and B. Graniela, “A variable-collimation display system,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-W.

J. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, C.-W. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, and Y. Takaki, “Analysis of longitudinal viewing freedom of reduced-view super multi-view display and increased longitudinal viewing freedom using eye-tracking technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(4), 228–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

F. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope: immersive computer graphics via factored near-eye light field displays with focus cues,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chun, W. S.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Date, M.

Dorval, R. K.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Favalora, G. E.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, H.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giovinco, M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804 (2004).
[Crossref]

Graniela, B.

R. Batchko, S. Robinson, J. Schmidt, and B. Graniela, “A variable-collimation display system,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heidrich, W.

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hisaki, T.

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J.

Y. Kim, J. Moon, S. Hong, J.-I. Kwon, J. Hong, and H. Kang, “Compact collimated display system using an aspherical screen combined with interaction,” J. Inform. Displ. 16(1), 43–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hong, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Integral floating display systems for augmented reality,” Appl. Opt. 51(18), 4201–4209 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 461–467 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hong, J.-Y.

Hong, S.

Y. Kim, J. Moon, S. Hong, J.-I. Kwon, J. Hong, and H. Kang, “Compact collimated display system using an aspherical screen combined with interaction,” J. Inform. Displ. 16(1), 43–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hua, H.

Huang, F.

F. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope: immersive computer graphics via factored near-eye light field displays with focus cues,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-P.

J. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, C.-W. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, and Y. Takaki, “Analysis of longitudinal viewing freedom of reduced-view super multi-view display and increased longitudinal viewing freedom using eye-tracking technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(4), 228–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeong, Y.

Jung, J.-H.

Jung, S.

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 461–467 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.

Y. Kim, J. Moon, S. Hong, J.-I. Kwon, J. Hong, and H. Kang, “Compact collimated display system using an aspherical screen combined with interaction,” J. Inform. Displ. 16(1), 43–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kashiwada, S.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J. Moon, S. Hong, J.-I. Kwon, J. Hong, and H. Kang, “Compact collimated display system using an aspherical screen combined with interaction,” J. Inform. Displ. 16(1), 43–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 461–467 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kwon, J.-I.

Y. Kim, J. Moon, S. Hong, J.-I. Kwon, J. Hong, and H. Kang, “Compact collimated display system using an aspherical screen combined with interaction,” J. Inform. Displ. 16(1), 43–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lanman, D.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, S.

Liu, S.

Maimone, A.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

Min, S. W.

Min, S.-W.

Moon, J.

Y. Kim, J. Moon, S. Hong, J.-I. Kwon, J. Hong, and H. Kang, “Compact collimated display system using an aspherical screen combined with interaction,” J. Inform. Displ. 16(1), 43–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moon, S.

Nakamura, J.

J. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and Y. Takaki, “Increase in depth of field of eyes using reduced-view super multi-view displays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022501 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, C.-W. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, and Y. Takaki, “Analysis of longitudinal viewing freedom of reduced-view super multi-view display and increased longitudinal viewing freedom using eye-tracking technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(4), 228–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki, K. Tanaka, and J. Nakamura, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, K.

Nakazawa, K.

Napoli, J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, J.-H.

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 461–467 (2004).
[Crossref]

Park, S. G.

Raskar, R.

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ravikumar, S.

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Robinson, S.

R. Batchko, S. Robinson, J. Schmidt, and B. Graniela, “A variable-collimation display system,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, J.

R. Batchko, S. Robinson, J. Schmidt, and B. Graniela, “A variable-collimation display system,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
[Crossref]

Suyama, S.

Takada, H.

Takahashi, T.

J. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, C.-W. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, and Y. Takaki, “Analysis of longitudinal viewing freedom of reduced-view super multi-view display and increased longitudinal viewing freedom using eye-tracking technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(4), 228–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

J. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and Y. Takaki, “Increase in depth of field of eyes using reduced-view super multi-view displays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022501 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, C.-W. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, and Y. Takaki, “Analysis of longitudinal viewing freedom of reduced-view super multi-view display and increased longitudinal viewing freedom using eye-tracking technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(4), 228–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki, Y. Urano, S. Kashiwada, H. Ando, and K. Nakamura, “Super multi-view windshield display for long-distance image information presentation,” Opt. Express 19(2), 704–716 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takaki, K. Tanaka, and J. Nakamura, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

J. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and Y. Takaki, “Increase in depth of field of eyes using reduced-view super multi-view displays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki, K. Tanaka, and J. Nakamura, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urano, Y.

Watt, S. J.

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wetzstein, G.

F. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope: immersive computer graphics via factored near-eye light field displays with focus cues,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yeom, J.

Yoo, D.

Yoon, S.

ACM Trans. Graph. (4)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, and M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Maimone, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, D. Lanman, R. Raskar, and H. Fuchs, “Focus 3D: compressive accommodation display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 32(5), 1–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Huang, K. Chen, and G. Wetzstein, “The light field stereoscope: immersive computer graphics via factored near-eye light field displays with focus cues,” ACM Trans. Graph. 34(4), 60 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

J. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and Y. Takaki, “Increase in depth of field of eyes using reduced-view super multi-view displays,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022501 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Inform. Displ. (1)

Y. Kim, J. Moon, S. Hong, J.-I. Kwon, J. Hong, and H. Kang, “Compact collimated display system using an aspherical screen combined with interaction,” J. Inform. Displ. 16(1), 43–48 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

S. Jung, J. Hong, J.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral-imaging 3D display using different optical path lengths by polarization devices or mirror barrier array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 461–467 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, C.-W. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, and Y. Takaki, “Analysis of longitudinal viewing freedom of reduced-view super multi-view display and increased longitudinal viewing freedom using eye-tracking technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(4), 228–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

Y. Takaki, K. Tanaka, and J. Nakamura, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takaki, Y. Urano, S. Kashiwada, H. Ando, and K. Nakamura, “Super multi-view windshield display for long-distance image information presentation,” Opt. Express 19(2), 704–716 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Park, J. H. Kim, and S. W. Min, “Polarization distributed depth map for depth-fused three-dimensional display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4316–4323 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Park, S. Yoon, J. Yeom, H. Baek, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Lamina 3D display: projection-type depth-fused display using polarization-encoded depth information,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26162–26172 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu and H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Park, J.-Y. Hong, C.-K. Lee, and B. Lee, “Real-mode depth-fused display with viewer tracking,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26710–26722 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-K. Lee, S. Moon, S. Lee, D. Yoo, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19531–19544 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Park, J.-H. Jung, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Depth-fused display with improved viewing characteristics,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28758–28770 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100-million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Batchko, S. Robinson, J. Schmidt, and B. Graniela, “A variable-collimation display system,” Proc. SPIE 9011, 901109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

D. M. V. Defensive Driving New York State, https://dmv.ny.gov/about-dmv/chapter-8-defensive-driving .

Blender, http://blender.org .

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002), Chap. 6.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (6951 KB)      Continuous focus change of the experimental systems

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Viewing distances to various objects while driving.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Conceptual diagram of the multi-layer display.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical configuration of the collimated multi-layer display: (a) concept of the collimated display and (b) collimated multi-layer display.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 3D scene used in the simulation: (a) color image, (b) depth map in dioptric distance, and (c) depth map in metric distance.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Base images for near and far planes obtained by each method: (a) linear depth blending, (b) monocular light field factorization, and (c) binocular light field factorization.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Computationally reconstructed depth scene with various focusing depth: (a) linear depth blending, (b) monocular light field decomposition, and (c) left and (d) right eye view of binocular light field decomposition. The focusing distance is shown at the left.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic diagram of experimental system.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Experimental system.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Test pattern images at the view point: (a) before calibration and (b) after calibration.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Experimental results of the proposed system using (a) linear depth blending and (b) monocular light field decomposition method. The yellow boxes show the enlarged image of the specific parts of the result images. Visualization 1 shows the continuous change of focusing in both cases.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Experimental results using the binocular light field decomposition method.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= I 1 + I 2 ,
I 1 =I D 2 -D D 2 - D 1 ,
I 2 =I D- D 1 D 2 - D 1 ,
I(v)= I 1 (x)+ I 2 (θ).
θ=arctan x-v d l + d lp ,
d lp = f d ls f- d ls .
minimize I ||L-pI| | 2 , subject to 0I I max ,
I= [ I 1 T I 2 T ] T ,

Metrics