Abstract

We investigated the possibility of practical applications using cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) with Helfrich deformation, which causes the undulation of the helical structure. Usually, the Helfrich deformation is very unstable and can be obtained only in the transient state for a short time (< 10 s) under continuous field application. Here, we found that a ChLC polymerized with spatial pattern distribution exhibited high durability of the Helfrich deformation. Furthermore, we revealed molecular alignment of the Helfrich deformation by scanning electron microscope. Finally, we fabricated a switching device embedded with color-tunable reflection pixels to exhibit potential of reflective display application.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378(6556), 467–469 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-Free, Microsecond Electro-Optic Tuning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. N. Lee, L. C. Chien, and S. Sprunt, “Polymer-stabilized diffraction gratings from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(8), 885–887 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: Drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251907 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. T. Wang and T. H. Lin, “Vertically Integrated Transflective Liquid Crystal Display Using Multi-Stable Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(10), 613–616 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. S.-F. Chen, C.-H. Huang, J.-P. Lu, M.-X. Chan, and H. P. D. Shieh, “IER film and inkjet printing method for full-color transflective cholesteric LCD,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 225–229 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically Tuneable Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgaps,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3915–3918 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. W. Helfrich, “Deformation of cholesteric liquid crystals with low threshold voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(12), 531–532 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. P. Hurault, “Static distortions of a cholesteric planar structure induced by magnetic or ac electric fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 59(4), 2068–2075 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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  20. H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091124 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  21. V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. Fan, S. Vartak, J. N. Eakin, and S. M. Faris, “Surface anchoring effects on spectral broadening of cholesteric liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023108 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, (Oxford University, 1995)
  24. H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-Free, Microsecond Electro-Optic Tuning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. T. Wang and T. H. Lin, “Vertically Integrated Transflective Liquid Crystal Display Using Multi-Stable Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(10), 613–616 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically Tuneable Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgaps,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3915–3918 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fan, S. Vartak, J. N. Eakin, and S. M. Faris, “Surface anchoring effects on spectral broadening of cholesteric liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023108 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091124 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251907 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S.-F. Chen, C.-H. Huang, J.-P. Lu, M.-X. Chan, and H. P. D. Shieh, “IER film and inkjet printing method for full-color transflective cholesteric LCD,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 225–229 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. N. Lee, L. C. Chien, and S. Sprunt, “Polymer-stabilized diffraction gratings from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(8), 885–887 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378(6556), 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: Drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

J. P. Hurault, “Static distortions of a cholesteric planar structure induced by magnetic or ac electric fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 59(4), 2068–2075 (1973).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

W. Helfrich, “Deformation of cholesteric liquid crystals with low threshold voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(12), 531–532 (1970).
[Crossref]

Bailey, C. A.

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bourgerette, C.

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251907 (2006).
[Crossref]

Broer, D. J.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378(6556), 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cazzell, S. A.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, M.-X.

S.-F. Chen, C.-H. Huang, J.-P. Lu, M.-X. Chan, and H. P. D. Shieh, “IER film and inkjet printing method for full-color transflective cholesteric LCD,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 225–229 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-F.

S.-F. Chen, C.-H. Huang, J.-P. Lu, M.-X. Chan, and H. P. D. Shieh, “IER film and inkjet printing method for full-color transflective cholesteric LCD,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 225–229 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.-L.

H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chien, L. C.

S. N. Lee, L. C. Chien, and S. Sprunt, “Polymer-stabilized diffraction gratings from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(8), 885–887 (1998).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. S.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically Tuneable Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgaps,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3915–3918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coles, H.

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically Tuneable Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgaps,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3915–3918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: Drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[Crossref]

Duning, M. M.

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eakin, J. N.

B. Fan, S. Vartak, J. N. Eakin, and S. M. Faris, “Surface anchoring effects on spectral broadening of cholesteric liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fan, B.

B. Fan, S. Vartak, J. N. Eakin, and S. M. Faris, “Surface anchoring effects on spectral broadening of cholesteric liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Faris, S. M.

B. Fan, S. Vartak, J. N. Eakin, and S. M. Faris, “Surface anchoring effects on spectral broadening of cholesteric liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Finkelmann, H.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Freer, A. S.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujii, A.

H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glasser, J.

D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: Drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ha, N. Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helfrich, W.

W. Helfrich, “Deformation of cholesteric liquid crystals with low threshold voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(12), 531–532 (1970).
[Crossref]

Hong, Q.

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-H.

S.-F. Chen, C.-H. Huang, J.-P. Lu, M.-X. Chan, and H. P. D. Shieh, “IER film and inkjet printing method for full-color transflective cholesteric LCD,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 225–229 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huck, W. T. S.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically Tuneable Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgaps,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3915–3918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hurault, J. P.

J. P. Hurault, “Static distortions of a cholesteric planar structure induced by magnetic or ac electric fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 59(4), 2068–2075 (1973).
[Crossref]

Inoue, K.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-Free, Microsecond Electro-Optic Tuning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, S. M.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ke-Yang, D.

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kosa, T.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubo, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-Free, Microsecond Electro-Optic Tuning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. N.

S. N. Lee, L. C. Chien, and S. Sprunt, “Polymer-stabilized diffraction gratings from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(8), 885–887 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liang, C.-C.

H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-H.

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. H.

C. T. Wang and T. H. Lin, “Vertically Integrated Transflective Liquid Crystal Display Using Multi-Stable Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(10), 613–616 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.-H.

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.-P.

S.-F. Chen, C.-H. Huang, J.-P. Lu, M.-X. Chan, and H. P. D. Shieh, “IER film and inkjet printing method for full-color transflective cholesteric LCD,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 225–229 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lub, J.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378(6556), 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mitov, M.

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251907 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mol, G. N.

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378(6556), 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

Morris, S.

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morris, S. M.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically Tuneable Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgaps,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3915–3918 (2009).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, L. V.

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nemati, H.

H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, S.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogawa, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ohtsuka, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-Free, Microsecond Electro-Optic Tuning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Relaix, S.

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251907 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H. P. D.

S.-F. Chen, C.-H. Huang, J.-P. Lu, M.-X. Chan, and H. P. D. Shieh, “IER film and inkjet printing method for full-color transflective cholesteric LCD,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 225–229 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H.-P. D.

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shiozaki, Y.

H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiu, J.-W.

H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
[Crossref]

Siwecki, S. A.

L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sprunt, S.

S. N. Lee, L. C. Chien, and S. Sprunt, “Polymer-stabilized diffraction gratings from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(8), 885–887 (1998).
[Crossref]

Su, L.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, M.-Z.

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sukhomlinova, L.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R. L.

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suzaki, G.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taheri, B.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takanishi, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tondiglia, V. P.

L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tondiglia, V. T.

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.-C.

H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vartak, S.

B. Fan, S. Vartak, J. N. Eakin, and S. M. Faris, “Surface anchoring effects on spectral broadening of cholesteric liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Voevodin, A.

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. T.

C. T. Wang and T. H. Lin, “Vertically Integrated Transflective Liquid Crystal Display Using Multi-Stable Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(10), 613–616 (2012).
[Crossref]

White, T. J.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wofford, J. M.

L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. X.

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xianyu, H.

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091124 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: Drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.-K.

H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yaniv, Z.

D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: Drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-Free, Microsecond Electro-Optic Tuning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zola, R. S.

H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically Tuneable Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgaps,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3915–3918 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D. K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely Tunable, Photoinvertible Cholesteric Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Tunable Lasing from a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film Embedded with a Liquid Crystal Nanopore Network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, H. Kubo, and M. Ozaki, “Deformation-Free, Microsecond Electro-Optic Tuning of Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(3), 256–263 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. N. Lee, L. C. Chien, and S. Sprunt, “Polymer-stabilized diffraction gratings from cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(8), 885–887 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: Drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251907 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, J. M. Wofford, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Laser initiated thermal tuning of a cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011107 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Helfrich, “Deformation of cholesteric liquid crystals with low threshold voltage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17(12), 531–532 (1970).
[Crossref]

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091124 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

V. T. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, C. A. Bailey, M. M. Duning, R. L. Sutherland, D. Ke-Yang, A. Voevodin, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically induced bandwidth broadening in polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053109 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Fan, S. Vartak, J. N. Eakin, and S. M. Faris, “Surface anchoring effects on spectral broadening of cholesteric liquid crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023108 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Nemati, D.-K. Yang, K.-L. Cheng, C.-C. Liang, J.-W. Shiu, C.-C. Tsai, and R. S. Zola, “Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 124513 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshida, Y. Shiozaki, Y. Inoue, M. Takahashi, Y. Ogawa, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Threshold improvement in uniformly lying helix cholesteric liquid crystal laser using auxiliary π-conjugated polymer active layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 203105 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. P. Hurault, “Static distortions of a cholesteric planar structure induced by magnetic or ac electric fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 59(4), 2068–2075 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

C. T. Wang and T. H. Lin, “Vertically Integrated Transflective Liquid Crystal Display Using Multi-Stable Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Film,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(10), 613–616 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-F. Chen, C.-H. Huang, J.-P. Lu, M.-X. Chan, and H. P. D. Shieh, “IER film and inkjet printing method for full-color transflective cholesteric LCD,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 225–229 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y.-P. Huang, X. Zhu, H. Ren, Q. Hong, T. X. Wu, S.-T. Wu, M.-Z. Su, M.-X. Chan, S.-H. Lin, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Full-color transflective cholesteric LCD with image-enhanced reflector,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12(4), 417–422 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Coles and S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. J. Broer, J. Lub, and G. N. Mol, “Wide-band reflective polarizers from cholesteric polymer networks with a pitch gradient,” Nature 378(6556), 467–469 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, (Oxford University, 1995)

S.-T. Wu and D.-K. Yang, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, (John Wiley & Sons, 2006)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The time evolution of optical microscope images of ChLC cells (a) without polymerization and (b) polymerized with spatial pattern distribution. These photographs were taken in observation of reflection. t is the duration of the applied electric field.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The size and the shape dependence of the durability of Helfrich deformation. A, B, and C are non-polymerized regions with areas of 120 μm × 120 μm, 120 μm × 600 μm, and 600 μm × 600 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electro-optic effect of Helfrich deformation. The field-intensity dependence of (a) optical micrographs in observation of reflection, (b) reflection spectra, and (c) response times.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) An optical micrograph of a cured ChLC film prepared for SEM observation. (b-c) SEM images of the cross-section of the ChLC film in the regions with planar alignment and Helfrich deformation. (d-e) FFT images based on their SEM images. (f) Schematic of the Helfrich deformation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) A magnified photograph of the texture of the Helfrich deformation. (b) Schemaic of a path of optical propagation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Fabrication of a switching device embedded with color-tunable reflection pixels. Dynamic tuning of Red-green-blue reflection colors was demonstrated by wall-stabilized Helfrich deformation.

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