Abstract

In this paper, we point out that the phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride may not have to be volume-confined. Surface-confined phonon polaritons can occur at the edges of ultra-thin boron nitride films. Based on numerical calculations, we have investigated the effective indexes of such phonon polariton modes, and found that these modes normally have much lower losses than the volume-confined ones. Surface-confined phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanoribbons are also investigated that can be seen as the coupling of the phonon polariton modes at two edges of the nanoribbon, and the corresponding losses can be further reduced. Then, we give a deep discussion on the volume-confined and surface-confined phonon polaritons. In the end, the effects of defects and substrates on such modes are presented. The proposed low-loss surface-confined phonon polaritons may be useful in phonon polariton based photonic devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

2015 (8)

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable light–matter interaction and the role of hyperbolicity in graphene–hBN system,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable plasmon–phonon polaritons in layered graphene-hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Z. Zhang and Z. M. Zhang, “Tunable positive and negative refraction of infrared radiation in graphene-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191112 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Ghamsari, X. G. Xu, L. Gilburd, G. C. Walker, and P. Berini, “Mid-infrared surface phonon polaritons in boron-nitride nanotubes,” J. Opt. 16(11), 114008 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Phonon-mediated magnetic polaritons in the infrared region,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A126–A135 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 84(16), 161407 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. C. Kim and X. Cheng, “Infrared dipole antenna enhanced by surface phonon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3748–3750 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

N. Ocelic and R. Hillenbrand, “Subwavelength-scale tailoring of surface phonon polaritons by focused ion-beam implantation,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 606–609 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-González, P.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ancey, S.

Andersen, T.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andreev, G. O.

X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Askenazi, B.

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable light–matter interaction and the role of hyperbolicity in graphene–hBN system,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bando, Y.

X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, G.

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Ghamsari, X. G. Xu, L. Gilburd, G. C. Walker, and P. Berini, “Mid-infrared surface phonon polaritons in boron-nitride nanotubes,” J. Opt. 16(11), 114008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berweger, S.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brar, V. W.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bu, L.

Carole, D.

Carrega, M.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casanova, F.

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, H.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, X.

Choi, M.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, S.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, X.

Décanini, Y.

Delteil, A.

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dominguez, G.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, D.

Fang, N. X.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable light–matter interaction and the role of hyperbolicity in graphene–hBN system,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
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S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
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S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
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S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
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Fietz, C.

Fogler, M. M.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
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S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
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Folacci, A.

Fung, K. H.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable light–matter interaction and the role of hyperbolicity in graphene–hBN system,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
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Gannett, W.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
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X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
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X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
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S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
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A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 84(16), 161407 (2011).
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Guo, Q.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable plasmon–phonon polaritons in layered graphene-hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hillenbrand, R.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Ocelic and R. Hillenbrand, “Subwavelength-scale tailoring of surface phonon polaritons by focused ion-beam implantation,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 606–609 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hone, J.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
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E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
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Jang, M. S.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
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S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable plasmon–phonon polaritons in layered graphene-hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J. H.

X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

Jin, C.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Keilmann, F.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. C.

Kim, L. B.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppens, F. H. L.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

Korobkin, D.

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable light–matter interaction and the role of hyperbolicity in graphene–hBN system,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawandy, N. M.

Li, D.

Liu, M. K.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, J. J.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Low, T.

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable light–matter interaction and the role of hyperbolicity in graphene–hBN system,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lundeberg, M. B.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, Q.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, M. C.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martín-Moreno, L.

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 84(16), 161407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mcleod, A. S.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuner, B.

Nikitin, A. Y.

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nikitin, A. Yu.

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 84(16), 161407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ocelic, N.

N. Ocelic and R. Hillenbrand, “Subwavelength-scale tailoring of surface phonon polaritons by focused ion-beam implantation,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 606–609 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Polini, M.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Principi, A.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Regan, W.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodin, A. S.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sagnes, I.

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schnell, M.

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sherrott, M.

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

Sirtori, C.

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, W.

Sun, Y.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, T.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thiemens, M.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Todorov, Y.

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

Txoperena, O.

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vasanelli, A.

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vignale, G.

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, G. C.

B. G. Ghamsari, X. G. Xu, L. Gilburd, G. C. Walker, and P. Berini, “Mid-infrared surface phonon polaritons in boron-nitride nanotubes,” J. Opt. 16(11), 114008 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable plasmon–phonon polaritons in layered graphene-hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. P.

Wang, X.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable plasmon–phonon polaritons in layered graphene-hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woessner, A.

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Xia, F.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable plasmon–phonon polaritons in layered graphene-hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiang, Y.

Xu, H.

Xu, L.

Xu, X. G.

B. G. Ghamsari, X. G. Xu, L. Gilburd, G. C. Walker, and P. Berini, “Mid-infrared surface phonon polaritons in boron-nitride nanotubes,” J. Opt. 16(11), 114008 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoxall, E.

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, B.

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zettl, A.

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R. Z.

R. Z. Zhang and Z. M. Zhang, “Tunable positive and negative refraction of infrared radiation in graphene-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. M.

R. Z. Zhang and Z. M. Zhang, “Tunable positive and negative refraction of infrared radiation in graphene-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191112 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Phonon-mediated magnetic polaritons in the infrared region,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A126–A135 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable plasmon–phonon polaritons in layered graphene-hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

Zhi, C.

X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.-E.

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zia, R.

ACS Photonics (2)

Z. Shi, H. A. Bechtel, S. Berweger, Y. Sun, B. Zeng, C. Jin, H. Chang, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, and F. Wang, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved nanospectral imaging of phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 790–796 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia, H. Zhao, Q. Guo, X. Wang, H. Wang, and F. Xia, “Tunable plasmon–phonon polaritons in layered graphene-hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 907–912 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Z. Zhang and Z. M. Zhang, “Tunable positive and negative refraction of infrared radiation in graphene-dielectric multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 191112 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

B. G. Ghamsari, X. G. Xu, L. Gilburd, G. C. Walker, and P. Berini, “Mid-infrared surface phonon polaritons in boron-nitride nanotubes,” J. Opt. 16(11), 114008 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

A. Kumar, T. Low, K. H. Fung, P. Avouris, and N. X. Fang, “Tunable light–matter interaction and the role of hyperbolicity in graphene–hBN system,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3172–3180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. W. Brar, M. S. Jang, M. Sherrott, S. Kim, J. J. Lopez, L. B. Kim, M. Choi, and H. Atwater, “Hybrid surface-phonon-plasmon polariton modes in graphene/monolayer h-BN heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3876–3880 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

X. G. Xu, B. G. Ghamsari, J. H. Jiang, L. Gilburd, G. O. Andreev, C. Zhi, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, P. Berini, and G. C. Walker, “One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4782 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Q. Ma, T. Andersen, A. S. Mcleod, Z. Fei, M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Subdiffractional focusing and guiding of polaritonic rays in a natural hyperbolic material,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6963 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

N. Ocelic and R. Hillenbrand, “Subwavelength-scale tailoring of surface phonon polaritons by focused ion-beam implantation,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 606–609 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, Y. Gao, A. Principi, P. Alonso-González, M. Carrega, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, G. Vignale, M. Polini, J. Hone, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Highly confined low-loss plasmons in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 421–425 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Dai, Q. Ma, M. K. Liu, T. Andersen, Z. Fei, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, F. Keilmann, G. C. A. M. Janssen, S.-E. Zhu, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Yoxall, M. Schnell, A. Y. Nikitin, O. Txoperena, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, F. H. L. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Direct observation of ultraslow hyperbolic polariton propagation with negative phase velocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 674–678 (2015).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

B. Askenazi, A. Vasanelli, A. Delteil, Y. Todorov, L. C. Andreani, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and C. Sirtori, “Ultra-strong light-matter coupling for designer Reststrahlen band,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 043029 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Edge and waveguide terahertz surface plasmon modes in graphene microribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 84(16), 161407 (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable phonon polaritons in atomically thin van der Waals crystals of boron nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Y. Sun, Z. Zheng, J. Cheng, and J. Liu, “The tunable hybrid surface phonon and plasmon polariton modes in boron nitride nanotube and graphene monolayer heterostructures,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.8519

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Cengage Learning, 1976).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic of h-BN, where the c-axis is perpendicular to the boron nitride planes. (b) Red and blue curves respectively indicate the real parts of the relative permittivities perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Electric field intensity profile of the edge mode at 1400 cm−1. The thickness of the h-BN film is 5 nm. The (b) real and (c) imaginary parts of the effective indexes of the edge modes in the upper Reststrahlen band. The thickness of the film varies from 1 nm to 5 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the effective index corresponding to the edge modes in Figs. 2(b) and 2(c). (b) The effective index as a function of the film thickness at 1400 cm−1.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of a h-BN nanoribbon. (b) The electric field intensity profile of the edge mode at 1400 cm−1. The geometric parameters are denoted in the figure. (c) Effective index of the edge mode in a nanoribbon with t = 5 nm, d = 25 nm. (d) Effective index of the edge mode in a nanoribbon with t = 1 nm, d = 5 nm. (e) Ratios neff,r/neff,i of the edge modes in (b) and (c). (d) Effective index as a function of the nanoribbon width at 1400 cm−1. The thickness is 5 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Complex effective indexes of the phonon polariton modes of a h-BN nanowire, where x and y axes are respectively the real and imaginary parts of the indexes. The diameter of the nanowire is 200 nm, and the wavenumber is 1400 cm−1. The electric field intensity distributions of the first, the second and the third phonon polariton modes are respectively shown in (b), (c) and (d). (e) Volume-confined and (f) surface-confined phonon polariton modes in a h-BN nanoribbon. The thickness and width are denoted in the figure.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Electric field intensity profiles of the edge modes. The h-BN film in lower panel has a structural defect on the edge. (b) Effective indexes of the edge modes with and without the defect. (c) Electric field intensity profiles of the edge modes in h-BN nanoribbons. The nanoribbon in (i) is perfect, while there are defects on (ii) one and (iii) two edges of the nanoribbons. (d) The effective indexes of edge modes of the nanoribbons in (c). (e) Ez components of the edge modes propagating along the nanoribbons with smooth (left panel) and rough (right panel) sidewalls. The enlarged views show the structural details of the corresponding nanoribbons.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The electric field intensity profiles of the edge modes of h-BN films on Au, Si and SiO2 substrates. (b) The effective indexes of the edge modes in (a). (c) The electric field intensity distributions of the edge modes of h-BN nanoribbons on smooth and rough dielectric substrates. The materials of the substrates are denoted therein. (d) The effective indexes of the edge modes in (c).

Equations (1)

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ε i = ε i, + ε i, ( ω LO,i ) 2 ( ω TO,i ) 2 ( ω TO,i ) 2 ω 2 iω Γ i

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