Abstract

A methodology for calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy (CF-WMS) that is based upon an extensive empirical description of the wavelength-modulation frequency response (WMFR) of DFB laser is presented. An assessment of the WMFR of a DFB laser by the use of an etalon confirms that it consists of two parts: a 1st harmonic component with an amplitude that is linear with the sweep and a nonlinear 2nd harmonic component with a constant amplitude. Simulations show that, among the various factors that affect the line shape of a background-subtracted peak-normalized 2f signal, such as concentration, phase shifts between intensity modulation and frequency modulation, and WMFR, only the last factor has a decisive impact. Based on this and to avoid the impractical use of an etalon, a novel method to pre-determine the parameters of the WMFR by fitting to a background-subtracted peak-normalized 2f signal has been developed. The accuracy of the new scheme to determine the WMFR is demonstrated and compared with that of conventional methods in CF-WMS by detection of trace acetylene. The results show that the new method provides a four times smaller fitting error than the conventional methods and retrieves concentration more accurately.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, “Shot-noise limited Faraday rotation spectroscopy for detection of nitric oxide isotopes in breath, urine, and blood,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
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  6. K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38(27), 5803–5815 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 40(6), 783–793 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrocimica Acta B. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, “Shot-noise limited Faraday rotation spectroscopy for detection of nitric oxide isotopes in breath, urine, and blood,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Qu, R. Ghorbani, D. Valiev, and F. M. Schmidt, “Calibration-free scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy--application to H(2)O and temperature sensing in flames,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16492–16499 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Qu and F. M. Schmidt, “In situ H2O and temperature detection close to burning biomass pellets using calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 45–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53(3), 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. E. Wang, A. P. M. Michel, L. Wang, T. Tsai, M. L. Baeck, J. A. Smith, and G. Wysocki, “A quantum cascade laser-based water vapor isotope analyzer for environmental monitoring,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(9), 093103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sun, R. Sur, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Clark, J. Anthony, S. Machovec, and J. Northington, “Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125203 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52(33), 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters of H2O-, CO2-, and N2-perturbed H2O transitions near 2474 and 2482 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 100–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

P. Zhimin, D. Yanjun, C. Lu, L. Xiaohang, and Z. Kangjie, “Calibration-free wavelength modulated TDLAS under high absorbance conditions,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23104–23110 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 959–966 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 mu m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. P. Bain, W. Johnstone, K. Ruxton, G. Stewart, M. Lengden, and K. Duffin, “Recovery of absolute gas absorption line shapes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation-Part 2: experimental investigation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(7), 987–996 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

A. Farooq, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-pressure measurements of CO2 absorption near 2.7 mu m: Line mixing and finite duration collision effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 949–960 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Fukuda, T. Mishima, N. Nakayama, and T. Masuda, “Temperature and current coefficients of lasing wavelength in tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 377–382 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “Experimental characterization of the frequency modulation behavior of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3–4), 503–511 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 40(6), 783–793 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrocimica Acta B. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The Limits of Signal Averaging in Atmospheric Trace-gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-laser Absorption-Spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57(2), 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Amann, M. C.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 mu m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “Experimental characterization of the frequency modulation behavior of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Anthony, J.

K. Sun, R. Sur, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Clark, J. Anthony, S. Machovec, and J. Northington, “Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Axner, O.

P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 40(6), 783–793 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrocimica Acta B. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38(27), 5803–5815 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baeck, M. L.

W. E. Wang, A. P. M. Michel, L. Wang, T. Tsai, M. L. Baeck, J. A. Smith, and G. Wysocki, “A quantum cascade laser-based water vapor isotope analyzer for environmental monitoring,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(9), 093103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bain, J. R. P.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, “Shot-noise limited Faraday rotation spectroscopy for detection of nitric oxide isotopes in breath, urine, and blood,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belahsene, S.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chao, X.

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125203 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 mu m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “Experimental characterization of the frequency modulation behavior of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cikach, F.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, “Shot-noise limited Faraday rotation spectroscopy for detection of nitric oxide isotopes in breath, urine, and blood,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, T.

K. Sun, R. Sur, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Clark, J. Anthony, S. Machovec, and J. Northington, “Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Comhair, S.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, “Shot-noise limited Faraday rotation spectroscopy for detection of nitric oxide isotopes in breath, urine, and blood,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duffin, K.

Dweik, R. A.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, “Shot-noise limited Faraday rotation spectroscopy for detection of nitric oxide isotopes in breath, urine, and blood,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebert, V.

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[Crossref]

Farooq, A.

A. Farooq, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-pressure measurements of CO2 absorption near 2.7 mu m: Line mixing and finite duration collision effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 949–960 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, M.

M. Fukuda, T. Mishima, N. Nakayama, and T. Masuda, “Temperature and current coefficients of lasing wavelength in tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 377–382 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghorbani, R.

Goldenstein, C. S.

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53(3), 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125203 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52(33), 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters of H2O-, CO2-, and N2-perturbed H2O transitions near 2474 and 2482 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 100–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gustafsson, J.

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrocimica Acta B. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hangauer, A.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 mu m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “Experimental characterization of the frequency modulation behavior of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanson, R. K.

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53(3), 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sun, R. Sur, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Clark, J. Anthony, S. Machovec, and J. Northington, “Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52(33), 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters of H2O-, CO2-, and N2-perturbed H2O transitions near 2474 and 2482 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 100–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125203 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Farooq, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-pressure measurements of CO2 absorption near 2.7 mu m: Line mixing and finite duration collision effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 949–960 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Extension of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1052–1061 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3–4), 503–511 (2004).
[Crossref]

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jahjah, M.

P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
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Jeffries, J. B.

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53(3), 356–367 (2014).
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K. Sun, R. Sur, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Clark, J. Anthony, S. Machovec, and J. Northington, “Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52(33), 7950–7962 (2013).
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K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125203 (2013).
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C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters of H2O-, CO2-, and N2-perturbed H2O transitions near 2474 and 2482 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 100–111 (2013).
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A. Farooq, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-pressure measurements of CO2 absorption near 2.7 mu m: Line mixing and finite duration collision effects,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 949–960 (2010).
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G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5546–5560 (2009).
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H. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Extension of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1052–1061 (2006).
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J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3–4), 503–511 (2004).
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Johnstone, W.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Kao, C.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, “Shot-noise limited Faraday rotation spectroscopy for detection of nitric oxide isotopes in breath, urine, and blood,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
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A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
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O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kluczynski, P.

P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 40(6), 783–793 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrocimica Acta B. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski and O. Axner, “Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals,” Appl. Opt. 38(27), 5803–5815 (1999).
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Koeth, J.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
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Krzempek, K.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
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Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lengden, M.

Lewicki, R.

K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Li, H.

Lindberg, A. M.

P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 40(6), 783–793 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kluczynski, J. Gustafsson, A. M. Lindberg, and O. Axner, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectrometry - an extensive scrutiny of the generation of signals,” Spectrocimica Acta B. 56(8), 1277–1354 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. T. C.

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3–4), 503–511 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lovera, M.

M. Norgia, A. Pesatori, M. Tanelli, and M. Lovera, “Measurement of wavelength-modulation frequency response in a self-mixing interferometer,” in I2MTC: 2009 IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Technology Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 155–158.

Lu, C.

Lundqvist, S.

P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
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Lyulin, O. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Ma, W.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
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Machovec, S.

K. Sun, R. Sur, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Clark, J. Anthony, S. Machovec, and J. Northington, “Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 411–421 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Masuda, T.

M. Fukuda, T. Mishima, N. Nakayama, and T. Masuda, “Temperature and current coefficients of lasing wavelength in tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 377–382 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meffert, C.

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 521–532 (2012).
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Michel, A. P. M.

W. E. Wang, A. P. M. Michel, L. Wang, T. Tsai, M. L. Baeck, J. A. Smith, and G. Wysocki, “A quantum cascade laser-based water vapor isotope analyzer for environmental monitoring,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(9), 093103 (2014).
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Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Mishima, T.

M. Fukuda, T. Mishima, N. Nakayama, and T. Masuda, “Temperature and current coefficients of lasing wavelength in tunable diode laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 377–382 (2010).
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Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The Limits of Signal Averaging in Atmospheric Trace-gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-laser Absorption-Spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57(2), 131–139 (1993).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Northington, J.

K. Sun, R. Sur, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Clark, J. Anthony, S. Machovec, and J. Northington, “Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 411–421 (2014).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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M. Norgia, A. Pesatori, M. Tanelli, and M. Lovera, “Measurement of wavelength-modulation frequency response in a self-mixing interferometer,” in I2MTC: 2009 IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Technology Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 155–158.

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Qu, Z. C.

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Rothman, L. S.

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P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
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K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125203 (2013).
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K. Sun, R. Sur, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Clark, J. Anthony, S. Machovec, and J. Northington, “Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 411–421 (2014).
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K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125203 (2013).
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M. Norgia, A. Pesatori, M. Tanelli, and M. Lovera, “Measurement of wavelength-modulation frequency response in a self-mixing interferometer,” in I2MTC: 2009 IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Technology Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 155–158.

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
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Tsai, T.

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Tyuterev, V. G.

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Valiev, D.

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Vicet, A.

P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
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Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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W. E. Wang, A. P. M. Michel, L. Wang, T. Tsai, M. L. Baeck, J. A. Smith, and G. Wysocki, “A quantum cascade laser-based water vapor isotope analyzer for environmental monitoring,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(9), 093103 (2014).
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W. E. Wang, A. P. M. Michel, L. Wang, T. Tsai, M. L. Baeck, J. A. Smith, and G. Wysocki, “A quantum cascade laser-based water vapor isotope analyzer for environmental monitoring,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(9), 093103 (2014).
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P. Kluczynski, M. Jahjah, L. Nahle, O. Axner, S. Belahsene, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, Y. Rouillard, J. Westberg, A. Vicet, and S. Lundqvist, “Detection of acetylene impurities in ethylene and polyethylene manufacturing processes using tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the 3-μm range,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 427–434 (2011).
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K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
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Wysocki, G.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, “Shot-noise limited Faraday rotation spectroscopy for detection of nitric oxide isotopes in breath, urine, and blood,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
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Xiaohang, L.

Yanjun, D.

Zhang, E.

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C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52(33), 7950–7962 (2013).
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C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53(3), 356–367 (2014).
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Z. C. Qu and F. M. Schmidt, “In situ H2O and temperature detection close to burning biomass pellets using calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 45–53 (2015).
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K. Krzempek, R. Lewicki, L. Nahle, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, S. Belahsene, Y. Rouillard, L. Worschech, and F. K. Tittel, “Continuous wave, distributed feedback diode laser based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 251–255 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 521–532 (2012).
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A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
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P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, “The Limits of Signal Averaging in Atmospheric Trace-gas Monitoring by Tunable Diode-laser Absorption-Spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57(2), 131–139 (1993).
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J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M. C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 mu m with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 381–389 (2011).
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K. Sun, R. Sur, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, T. Clark, J. Anthony, S. Machovec, and J. Northington, “Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 411–421 (2014).
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J. Vanderover, W. Wang, and M. A. Oehlschlaeger, “A carbon monoxide and thermometry sensor based on mid-IR quantum-cascade laser wavelength-modulation absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 959–966 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows,” Appl. Phys. B 78(3–4), 503–511 (2004).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters of H2O-, CO2-, and N2-perturbed H2O transitions near 2474 and 2482 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 100–111 (2013).
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W. E. Wang, A. P. M. Michel, L. Wang, T. Tsai, M. L. Baeck, J. A. Smith, and G. Wysocki, “A quantum cascade laser-based water vapor isotope analyzer for environmental monitoring,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(9), 093103 (2014).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, “Shot-noise limited Faraday rotation spectroscopy for detection of nitric oxide isotopes in breath, urine, and blood,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
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Sensors (Basel) (1)

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup used for CF-WMS. DFB-distributed feedback diode laser, PD-photodiode, FG-function generation, PC-personal computer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The measured and fitted WMFR from the DFB laser scrutinized. (a) the laser wavelength vs. time (the injection current is proportional to the controlling voltage); (b) the amplitude of FFT of the fitted WMFR; (c) the amplitude of 1st harmonic vs. time.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The comparisons of peak-normalized background-subtracted 2f signal at different (a) concentrations, (b) ψ1, (c) ψ22, and (d) amplitude of WMFR. The lower window in each panel shows the difference of the corresponding two curves.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The comparison of measured frequency response(dots in black) and simulated one based on the 2f method (curve in red). The lower window displays the difference of the two curves.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The fitting results of CF-WMS signal with different WMFR models. (a) Measured WMFR with 2nd harmonic considered (b) Simulated WMFR with 2f method determined parameters (c) WMFR with a constant amplitude of only 1st harmonic (d) WMFR deduced from the slope of wavelength calibration function of sweep and (e) the modulation amplitude of the 1st harmonic component of the WMFR inferred with different methods, corresponding to those of the panels (a) to (d).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The retrieved concentrations at different prepared concentrations by using the 2f method.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The fitting result based on Eq. (2).

Equations (8)

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R 2f / R 1f = X 2f 2 + Y 2f 2 / X 1f 2 + Y 1f 2
WMFR(t)= i=1 3 ( a i + b i t+ c i t 2 )cos(iωt+ θ i )
v(t)= v 0 (t)+WMFR(t) = v 0 (t)+( a 1 + b 1 t)cos(ωt)+ a 2 cos(2ωt+ θ 2 ),
I 0 = I ¯ 0 [1+ i 1 cos( ωt+ ψ 1 )+ i 2 cos( 2ωt+ ψ 2 )]
X 2f =A[ H 2 + i 1 2 ( H 1 + H 3 )cos ψ 1 + i 2 (1+ H 0 + H 4 2 )cos ψ 2 ] Y 2f =A[ i 1 2 ( H 1 H 3 )sin ψ 1 + i 2 (1+ H 0 H 4 2 )sin ψ 2 ],
H k ( ν 0 , a 1 , b 1 , a 2 , θ 2 )= 2 δ k0 2π π π α[ v 0 +( a 1 + b 1 t)cos(ωt)+ a 2 cos(2ωt+ θ 2 ) ] cos( kωt )dωt
X 2f 0 =A i 2 cos ψ 2 Y 2f 0 =A i 2 sin ψ 2
S 2f = [ ( X 2f X 2f 0 ) 2 + ( Y 2f Y 2f 0 ) 2 ] 1/2 =A{ [ H 2 + i 1 2 ( H 1 + H 3 )cos ψ 1 + i 2 ( H 0 + H 4 2 )cos ψ 2 ] 2 + [ i 1 2 ( H 1 H 3 )sin ψ 1 + i 2 ( H 0 H 4 2 )sin ψ 2 ] 2 } 1/2

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