Abstract

Space-division multiplexing allows unprecedented scaling of bandwidth density for optical communication. Routing spatial channels among transmission ports is critical for future scalable optical network, however, there is still no characteristic parameter to label the overlapped optical carriers. Here we propose a free-space optical flow routing (OFR) scheme by using optical orbital angular moment (OAM) states to label optical flows and simultaneously steer each flow according to their OAM states. With an OAM multiplexer and a reconfigurable OAM demultiplexer, massive individual optical flows can be routed to the demanded optical ports. In the routing process, the OAM beams act as data carriers at the same time their topological charges act as each carrier’s labels. Using this scheme, we experimentally demonstrate switching, multicasting and filtering network functions by simultaneously steer 10 input optical flows on demand to 10 output ports. The demonstration of data-carrying OFR with nonreturn-to-zero signals shows that this process enables synchronous processing of massive spatial channels and flexible optical network.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Orbital-angular-momentum-based reconfigurable optical switching and routing

Alan E. Willner, Long Li, Guodong Xie, Yongxiong Ren, Hao Huang, Yang Yue, Nisar Ahmed, Moshe J. Willner, Asher J. Willner, Yan Yan, Zhe Zhao, Zhe Wang, Cong Liu, Moshe Tur, and Solyman Ashrafi
Photon. Res. 4(5) B5-B8 (2016)

Demonstration of free space coherent optical communication using integrated silicon photonic orbital angular momentum devices

Tiehui Su, Ryan P. Scott, Stevan S. Djordjevic, Nicolas K. Fontaine, David J. Geisler, Xinran Cai, and S. J. B. Yoo
Opt. Express 20(9) 9396-9402 (2012)

Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication

Zhenwei Xie, Shecheng Gao, Ting Lei, Shengfei Feng, Yan Zhang, Fan Li, Jianbo Zhang, Zhaohui Li, and Xiaocong Yuan
Photon. Res. 6(7) 743-749 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. V. N. Index, “Forecast and Methodology, 2014–2019 White Paper, Cisco, 2015.”
  2. A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(4), 2347–2376 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Ckilper, K. Bergman, V. Schan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical Networks Come of Age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Essiambre and R. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Winzer, “Spatial multiplexing in fiber optics: The 10x scaling of metro/core capacities,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 19, 22–30 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 345–348 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: State of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Chatterjee, N. Sarma, and E. Oki, “Routing and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks: a tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1776–1800 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Nelson, M. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. Taunay, J. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 783–789 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. N. Zilberman, P. Watts, C. Rotsos, and A. Moore, “Reconfigurable Network Systems and Software-Defined Networking,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1102–1124 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Xia, H. Fevrier, T. Wang, and T. Morioka, “Introduction of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 24–33 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Ryf, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Randel, D. Neilson, N. Fontaine, and M. Feuer, “Physical layer transmission and switching solutions in support of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 52–59 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Yan, E. Salas, V. Rancaňo, Y. Shu, G. Saridis, B. Rofoee, Y. Yan, A. Peters, S. Jain, T. Smith, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, and G. Zervas, “Archon: A Function Programmable Optical Interconnect Architecture for Transparent Intra and Inter Data Center SDM/TDM/WDM Networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(8), 1586–1595 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Pedro and B. Gangopadhyay, “Prospects for transparent handover between the metro and core segments of next-generation transport networks,” In Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2015 17th International Conference on. IEEE, 1–5 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Kitayama, Y. Huang, Y. Yoshida, R. Takahashi, T. Segawa, S. Ibrahim, T. Nakahara, Y. Suzaki, M. Hayashitani, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Mizukoshi, and A. Hiramatsu, “Torus-topology data center network based on optical packet/agile circuit switching with intelligent flow management,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(5), 1063–1071 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Cessa, Y. Kaymak, and Z. Dong, “Schemes for Fast Transmission of Flows in Data Center Networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1391–1422 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Marom and M. Blau, “Switching solutions for WDM-SDM optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 60–68 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. Lin, E. Goldstein, and R. Tkach, “Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 4–9 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Wilkinson, B. Crossland, N. Collings, F. Zhang, and M. Fan, “Reconfigurable free-space optical cores for storage area networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(3), 93–99 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. F. Zhang, H. Chou, and W. A. Crossland, “PLZT-based Shutters for Free-Space Optical Fiber Switching,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800512 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. Crossland, I. Manolis, M. Redmond, K. Tan, T. Wilkinson, M. Holmes, T. Parker, H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. Handerek, S. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, C. Stace, H. White, R. Woolley, and G. Henshall, ““Holographic optical switching: the” ROSES” demonstrator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(12), 1845–1854 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. B. Lynn, P. Blanche, A. Miles, J. Wissinger, D. Carothers, L. LaComb, R. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Design and Preliminary Implementation of an N × N Diffractive All-Optical Fiber Optic Switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4016–4021 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Yao and M. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. I. Djordjevic, J. Anguita, and B. Vasic, “Error-correction coded orbital-angular-momentum modulation for FSO channels affected by turbulence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(17), 2846–2852 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
  28. Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovský, “Mixed vortex states of light as information carriers,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 131 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12(22), 5448–5456 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Z. Wang, N. Zhang, and X. C. Yuan, “High-volume optical vortex multiplexing and de-multiplexing for free-space optical communication,” Opt. Express 19(2), 482–492 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. Shapiro, S. Guha, and B. Erkmen, “Ultimate channel capacity of free-space optical communications [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw. 4(8), 501–516 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. Lin, X. C. Yuan, S. H. Tao, and R. E. Burge, “Multiplexing free-space optical signals using superimposed collinear orbital angular momentum states,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4680–4685 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  34. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  36. I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, N. Zhang, and X. C. Yuan, “Encoding generalized phase functions on Dammann gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1536–1538 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. N. Zhang, X. C. Yuan, and R. E. Burge, “Extending the detection range of optical vortices by Dammann vortex gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3495–3497 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. J. Lin, X. C. Yuan, S. H. Tao, and R. E. Burge, “Collinear superposition of multiple helical beams generated by a single azimuthally modulated phase-only element,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3266–3268 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. J. Lin, X. Yuan, S. H. Tao, and R. E. Burge, “Synthesis of multiple collinear helical modes generated by a phase-only element,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1214–1218 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

F. Zhang, H. Chou, and W. A. Crossland, “PLZT-based Shutters for Free-Space Optical Fiber Switching,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800512 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (12)

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(4), 2347–2376 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chatterjee, N. Sarma, and E. Oki, “Routing and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks: a tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1776–1800 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Zilberman, P. Watts, C. Rotsos, and A. Moore, “Reconfigurable Network Systems and Software-Defined Networking,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1102–1124 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, H. Fevrier, T. Wang, and T. Morioka, “Introduction of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 24–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Randel, D. Neilson, N. Fontaine, and M. Feuer, “Physical layer transmission and switching solutions in support of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 52–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yan, E. Salas, V. Rancaňo, Y. Shu, G. Saridis, B. Rofoee, Y. Yan, A. Peters, S. Jain, T. Smith, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, and G. Zervas, “Archon: A Function Programmable Optical Interconnect Architecture for Transparent Intra and Inter Data Center SDM/TDM/WDM Networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(8), 1586–1595 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kitayama, Y. Huang, Y. Yoshida, R. Takahashi, T. Segawa, S. Ibrahim, T. Nakahara, Y. Suzaki, M. Hayashitani, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Mizukoshi, and A. Hiramatsu, “Torus-topology data center network based on optical packet/agile circuit switching with intelligent flow management,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(5), 1063–1071 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Cessa, Y. Kaymak, and Z. Dong, “Schemes for Fast Transmission of Flows in Data Center Networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1391–1422 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Marom and M. Blau, “Switching solutions for WDM-SDM optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 60–68 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

L. Nelson, M. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. Taunay, J. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 783–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Ckilper, K. Bergman, V. Schan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical Networks Come of Age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Winzer, “Spatial multiplexing in fiber optics: The 10x scaling of metro/core capacities,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 19, 22–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: State of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

B. Lynn, P. Blanche, A. Miles, J. Wissinger, D. Carothers, L. LaComb, R. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Design and Preliminary Implementation of an N × N Diffractive All-Optical Fiber Optic Switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4016–4021 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

I. Djordjevic, J. Anguita, and B. Vasic, “Error-correction coded orbital-angular-momentum modulation for FSO channels affected by turbulence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(17), 2846–2852 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Essiambre and R. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

L. Lin, E. Goldstein, and R. Tkach, “Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 4–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Abedin, K.

Ahmed, N.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aledhari, M.

A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(4), 2347–2376 (2015).
[Crossref]

Al-Fuqaha, A.

A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(4), 2347–2376 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anguita, J.

Ashrafi, N.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Ashrafi, S.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Ayyash, M.

A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(4), 2347–2376 (2015).
[Crossref]

Azodolmolky, S.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: State of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Barnett, S.

Bergman, K.

D. Ckilper, K. Bergman, V. Schan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical Networks Come of Age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Betoule, C.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blanche, P.

Blau, M.

D. Marom and M. Blau, “Switching solutions for WDM-SDM optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 60–68 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bonas, I.

Bouchal, Z.

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovský, “Mixed vortex states of light as information carriers,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 131 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burge, R. E.

Cao, Y.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Careglio, D.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: State of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carothers, D.

Celechovský, R.

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovský, “Mixed vortex states of light as information carriers,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 131 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cessa, R.

R. Cessa, Y. Kaymak, and Z. Dong, “Schemes for Fast Transmission of Flows in Data Center Networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1391–1422 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

R. Ryf, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Randel, D. Neilson, N. Fontaine, and M. Feuer, “Physical layer transmission and switching solutions in support of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 52–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chatterjee, B.

B. Chatterjee, N. Sarma, and E. Oki, “Routing and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks: a tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1776–1800 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chou, H.

F. Zhang, H. Chou, and W. A. Crossland, “PLZT-based Shutters for Free-Space Optical Fiber Switching,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800512 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chu, H.

Ckilper, D.

D. Ckilper, K. Bergman, V. Schan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical Networks Come of Age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cohen, G.

Collings, N.

T. Wilkinson, B. Crossland, N. Collings, F. Zhang, and M. Fan, “Reconfigurable free-space optical cores for storage area networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(3), 93–99 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cottrell, D. M.

Courtial, J.

Crossland, B.

T. Wilkinson, B. Crossland, N. Collings, F. Zhang, and M. Fan, “Reconfigurable free-space optical cores for storage area networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(3), 93–99 (2005).
[Crossref]

Crossland, W.

Crossland, W. A.

F. Zhang, H. Chou, and W. A. Crossland, “PLZT-based Shutters for Free-Space Optical Fiber Switching,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800512 (2016).
[Crossref]

Croucher, J.

Cugini, F.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. A.

Djordjevic, I.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

R. Cessa, Y. Kaymak, and Z. Dong, “Schemes for Fast Transmission of Flows in Data Center Networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1391–1422 (2015).
[Crossref]

Erkmen, B.

Essiambre, R.

R. Essiambre and R. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, M.

T. Wilkinson, B. Crossland, N. Collings, F. Zhang, and M. Fan, “Reconfigurable free-space optical cores for storage area networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(3), 93–99 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fazal, I.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feuer, M.

R. Ryf, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Randel, D. Neilson, N. Fontaine, and M. Feuer, “Physical layer transmission and switching solutions in support of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 52–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Nelson, M. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. Taunay, J. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 783–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fevrier, H.

T. Xia, H. Fevrier, T. Wang, and T. Morioka, “Introduction of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 24–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fini, J.

Fontaine, N.

R. Ryf, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Randel, D. Neilson, N. Fontaine, and M. Feuer, “Physical layer transmission and switching solutions in support of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 52–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Gerstel, O.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

Goldstein, E.

L. Lin, E. Goldstein, and R. Tkach, “Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 4–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Guha, S.

Guizani, M.

A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(4), 2347–2376 (2015).
[Crossref]

Handerek, V.

Harel, R.

Hasegawa, Y.

Hayashitani, M.

Henshall, G.

Hiramatsu, A.

Holmes, M.

Huang, H.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Ibrahim, S.

Index, C. V. N.

C. V. N. Index, “Forecast and Methodology, 2014–2019 White Paper, Cisco, 2015.”

Isaac, R.

Jain, S.

Jia, P.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jinno, M.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaymak, Y.

R. Cessa, Y. Kaymak, and Z. Dong, “Schemes for Fast Transmission of Flows in Data Center Networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1391–1422 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kitayama, K.

Klonidis, D.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaComb, L.

Lavery, M.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Lei, T.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Li, Y.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

Lin, L.

L. Lin, E. Goldstein, and R. Tkach, “Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 4–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lopez, V.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lynn, B.

Manolis, I.

Marom, D.

Miles, A.

Min, C.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mizukoshi, Y.

Mohammadi, M.

A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(4), 2347–2376 (2015).
[Crossref]

Molisch, A.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Monga, I.

D. Ckilper, K. Bergman, V. Schan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical Networks Come of Age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moore, A.

N. Zilberman, P. Watts, C. Rotsos, and A. Moore, “Reconfigurable Network Systems and Software-Defined Networking,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1102–1124 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moreno, I.

Morioka, T.

T. Xia, H. Fevrier, T. Wang, and T. Morioka, “Introduction of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 24–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nakahara, T.

Neilson, D.

R. Ryf, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Randel, D. Neilson, N. Fontaine, and M. Feuer, “Physical layer transmission and switching solutions in support of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 52–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L.

Niu, H.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R.

Oki, E.

B. Chatterjee, N. Sarma, and E. Oki, “Routing and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks: a tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1776–1800 (2015).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

Palkopoulou, E.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: State of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pareta, J.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: State of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Parker, T.

Pas’ko, V.

Peters, A.

Petropoulos, P.

Peyghambarian, N.

Porter, G.

D. Ckilper, K. Bergman, V. Schan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical Networks Come of Age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rancano, V.

Randel, S.

R. Ryf, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Randel, D. Neilson, N. Fontaine, and M. Feuer, “Physical layer transmission and switching solutions in support of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 52–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rauschenbach, K.

D. Ckilper, K. Bergman, V. Schan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical Networks Come of Age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Redmond, M.

Ren, Y.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D.

Robertson, B.

Rofoee, B.

Rotsos, C.

N. Zilberman, P. Watts, C. Rotsos, and A. Moore, “Reconfigurable Network Systems and Software-Defined Networking,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1102–1124 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Randel, D. Neilson, N. Fontaine, and M. Feuer, “Physical layer transmission and switching solutions in support of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 52–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

Salas, E.

Saridis, G.

Sarma, N.

B. Chatterjee, N. Sarma, and E. Oki, “Routing and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks: a tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1776–1800 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schan, V.

D. Ckilper, K. Bergman, V. Schan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical Networks Come of Age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Segawa, T.

Sekiya, M.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, J.

Shu, Y.

Siracusa, D.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, T.

Stace, C.

Suzaki, Y.

Takahashi, R.

Tan, K.

Tao, S. H.

Taunay, T.

Thouenon, G.

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tkach, R.

R. Essiambre and R. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Lin, E. Goldstein, and R. Tkach, “Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 4–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: State of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vasic, B.

Vasnetsov, M.

Wang, J.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

T. Xia, H. Fevrier, T. Wang, and T. Morioka, “Introduction of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 24–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Warr, S.

Watts, P.

N. Zilberman, P. Watts, C. Rotsos, and A. Moore, “Reconfigurable Network Systems and Software-Defined Networking,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1102–1124 (2015).
[Crossref]

White, H.

Wilkinson, T.

Willner, A.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winzer, P.

P. Winzer, “Spatial multiplexing in fiber optics: The 10x scaling of metro/core capacities,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 19, 22–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wissinger, J.

Woolley, R.

Xia, C.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, T.

T. Xia, H. Fevrier, T. Wang, and T. Morioka, “Introduction of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 24–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Xu, X.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, S.

Yan, Y.

S. Yan, E. Salas, V. Rancaňo, Y. Shu, G. Saridis, B. Rofoee, Y. Yan, A. Peters, S. Jain, T. Smith, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, and G. Zervas, “Archon: A Function Programmable Optical Interconnect Architecture for Transparent Intra and Inter Data Center SDM/TDM/WDM Networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(8), 1586–1595 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, A.

A. Yao and M. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, Y.

Yu, C.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, X. Yuan, S. H. Tao, and R. E. Burge, “Synthesis of multiple collinear helical modes generated by a phase-only element,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1214–1218 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, X. C.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zervas, G.

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, H. Chou, and W. A. Crossland, “PLZT-based Shutters for Free-Space Optical Fiber Switching,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800512 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wilkinson, B. Crossland, N. Collings, F. Zhang, and M. Fan, “Reconfigurable free-space optical cores for storage area networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(3), 93–99 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, N.

Zhao, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Zhou, X.

Zhu, B.

Zilberman, N.

N. Zilberman, P. Watts, C. Rotsos, and A. Moore, “Reconfigurable Network Systems and Software-Defined Networking,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1102–1124 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (3)

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

A. Yao and M. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

P. Winzer, “Spatial multiplexing in fiber optics: The 10x scaling of metro/core capacities,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 19, 22–30 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (5)

T. Xia, H. Fevrier, T. Wang, and T. Morioka, “Introduction of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 24–33 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Klonidis, F. Cugini, O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, V. Lopez, E. Palkopoulou, M. Sekiya, D. Siracusa, G. Thouenon, and C. Betoule, “Spectrally and spatially flexible optical network planning and operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 69–78 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Randel, D. Neilson, N. Fontaine, and M. Feuer, “Physical layer transmission and switching solutions in support of spectrally and spatially flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 52–59 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Marom and M. Blau, “Switching solutions for WDM-SDM optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(2), 60–68 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Wilkinson, B. Crossland, N. Collings, F. Zhang, and M. Fan, “Reconfigurable free-space optical cores for storage area networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(3), 93–99 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. (3)

R. Cessa, Y. Kaymak, and Z. Dong, “Schemes for Fast Transmission of Flows in Data Center Networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1391–1422 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Fuqaha, M. Guizani, M. Mohammadi, M. Aledhari, and M. Ayyash, “Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(4), 2347–2376 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chatterjee, N. Sarma, and E. Oki, “Routing and spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks: a tutorial,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 17(3), 1776–1800 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Lin, E. Goldstein, and R. Tkach, “Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(1), 4–9 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

F. Zhang, H. Chou, and W. A. Crossland, “PLZT-based Shutters for Free-Space Optical Fiber Switching,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(1), 7800512 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

W. Crossland, I. Manolis, M. Redmond, K. Tan, T. Wilkinson, M. Holmes, T. Parker, H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. Handerek, S. Warr, B. Robertson, I. Bonas, C. Stace, H. White, R. Woolley, and G. Henshall, ““Holographic optical switching: the” ROSES” demonstrator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(12), 1845–1854 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Lynn, P. Blanche, A. Miles, J. Wissinger, D. Carothers, L. LaComb, R. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Design and Preliminary Implementation of an N × N Diffractive All-Optical Fiber Optic Switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4016–4021 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Djordjevic, J. Anguita, and B. Vasic, “Error-correction coded orbital-angular-momentum modulation for FSO channels affected by turbulence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(17), 2846–2852 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kitayama, Y. Huang, Y. Yoshida, R. Takahashi, T. Segawa, S. Ibrahim, T. Nakahara, Y. Suzaki, M. Hayashitani, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Mizukoshi, and A. Hiramatsu, “Torus-topology data center network based on optical packet/agile circuit switching with intelligent flow management,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(5), 1063–1071 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yan, E. Salas, V. Rancaňo, Y. Shu, G. Saridis, B. Rofoee, Y. Yan, A. Peters, S. Jain, T. Smith, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, and G. Zervas, “Archon: A Function Programmable Optical Interconnect Architecture for Transparent Intra and Inter Data Center SDM/TDM/WDM Networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(8), 1586–1595 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Nelson, M. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. Taunay, J. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 783–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

P. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

Z. Bouchal and R. Celechovský, “Mixed vortex states of light as information carriers,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 131 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

D. Ckilper, K. Bergman, V. Schan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical Networks Come of Age,” Opt. Photonics News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (3)

R. Essiambre and R. Tkach, “Capacity Trends and Limits of Optical Communication Networks,” Proc. IEEE 100(5), 1035–1055 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Zilberman, P. Watts, C. Rotsos, and A. Moore, “Reconfigurable Network Systems and Software-Defined Networking,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1102–1124 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Tomkos, S. Azodolmolky, J. Pareta, D. Careglio, and E. Palkopoulou, “A tutorial on the flexible optical networking paradigm: State of the art, trends, and research challenges,” Proc. IEEE 102(9), 1317–1337 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Pedro and B. Gangopadhyay, “Prospects for transparent handover between the metro and core segments of next-generation transport networks,” In Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2015 17th International Conference on. IEEE, 1–5 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. V. N. Index, “Forecast and Methodology, 2014–2019 White Paper, Cisco, 2015.”

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of OAM-labeled optical flow routing process; (b) OAM-labeled optical flow routing functions: initial, switch, multicast, and filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Principle of optical flow routing based on CGH, (a) reference, (b) switch, (c) multicast, (d) filter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for illustrate 10 optical flows routing, FC: fiber coupler, PM: power monitor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Intensity profile of input beams (right) before the CGHs, the intensity distribution of diffraction array in the receive plane corresponding to the initial (middle) and switch functions (left).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The measured BER of the switched optical channels (flows),(b) The distribution of the desired and undesired received power among all the output ports in the reference and switched case.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Intensity profile of input beams (right) before the CGHs, the intensity distribution of optical beams array in the receive plane corresponding to the multicast (middle) and filter functions (left).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The measured BER of the output ports III, VII and IX under the multicast and filter case (nc: no crosstalk with only one input flow), (b) The coupled power from the 10 output ports with 10 input flows, the optical flows labeled with −2, −7, 3, 13 are multicast and 2 output ports are filtered.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

exp [ i Φ ( x , y ) ] = m = + n = + + a ' m , n exp [ i m ( 2 π x T + l x θ ) + i n ( 2 π y T + l y θ ) ]
exp [ i Φ ( x , y ) ] = m = + n = + a m , n exp [ i ( 2 π m x T + 2 π n y T + l m n θ ) ]

Metrics