Abstract

A large enhancement of color-conversion efficiency of colloidal quantum dots in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with novel structures of nanorods embedded in microholes has been demonstrated. Via the integration of nano-imprint and photolithography technologies, nanorods structures can be fabricated at specific locations, generating functional nanostructured LEDs for high-efficiency performance. With the novel structured LED, the color-conversion efficiency of the existing quantum dots can be enhanced by up to 32.4%. The underlying mechanisms can be attributed to the enhanced light extraction and non-radiative energy transfer, characterized by conducting a series of electroluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. This hybrid nanostructured device therefore exhibits a great potential for the application of multi-color lighting sources.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  15. F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Strite, H. Morkoç, N. Ga, N. Al, and N. In, “A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1237 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. S. Nizamoglu, B. Guzelturk, D. W. Jeon, I. H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, “Efficient nonradiative energy transfer from InGaN/GaN nanopillars to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163108 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Lessard-Viger, M. Rioux, L. Rainville, and D. Boudreau, “FRET Enhancement in Multilayer Core-Shell Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3066–3071 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, and V. I. Klimov, “Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1396–1400 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Chanyawadee, R. T. Harley, M. Henini, D. V. Talapin, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Photocurrent Enhancement in Hybrid Nanocrystal Quantum-Dot p-i-n Photovoltaic Devices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 077402 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. B. Murphy, Y. Zhang, T. Troxler, V. Ferry, J. J. Martin, and W. E. Jones, “Probing Forster and dexter energy-transfer mechanisms in fluorescent conjugated polymer chemosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1537–1543 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

2014 (1)

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

S. Nizamoglu, B. Guzelturk, D. W. Jeon, I. H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, “Efficient nonradiative energy transfer from InGaN/GaN nanopillars to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163108 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased Color-Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes utilizing Non-Radiative Energy Transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[Crossref]

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Lessard-Viger, M. Rioux, L. Rainville, and D. Boudreau, “FRET Enhancement in Multilayer Core-Shell Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3066–3071 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chanyawadee, R. T. Harley, M. Henini, D. V. Talapin, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Photocurrent Enhancement in Hybrid Nanocrystal Quantum-Dot p-i-n Photovoltaic Devices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 077402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Oezel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmueller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113110 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, “White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065709 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, and V. I. Klimov, “Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1396–1400 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, and V. I. Klimov, “Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1039–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429(6992), 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. B. Murphy, Y. Zhang, T. Troxler, V. Ferry, J. J. Martin, and W. E. Jones, “Probing Forster and dexter energy-transfer mechanisms in fluorescent conjugated polymer chemosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1537–1543 (2004).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. Strite, H. Morkoç, N. Ga, N. Al, and N. In, “A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Achermann, M.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, and V. I. Klimov, “Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1396–1400 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, and V. I. Klimov, “Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1039–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429(6992), 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akhadov, E. A.

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, and V. I. Klimov, “Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1039–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al, N.

S. Strite, H. Morkoç, N. Ga, N. Al, and N. In, “A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bi, K.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boudreau, D.

M. Lessard-Viger, M. Rioux, L. Rainville, and D. Boudreau, “FRET Enhancement in Multilayer Core-Shell Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3066–3071 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brossard, M.

Bulovic, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Caruge, J. M.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. Y.

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chanyawadee, S.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased Color-Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes utilizing Non-Radiative Energy Transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chanyawadee, R. T. Harley, M. Henini, D. V. Talapin, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Photocurrent Enhancement in Hybrid Nanocrystal Quantum-Dot p-i-n Photovoltaic Devices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 077402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charlton, M. D. B.

C. Krishnan, M. Brossard, K. Y. Lee, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, H. C. Kuo, M. D. B. Charlton, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Hybrid photonic crystal light-emitting diode renders 123% color conversion effective quantum yield,” Optica 3(5), 503–509 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased Color-Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes utilizing Non-Radiative Energy Transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. J.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. P.

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

Chen, Y. H.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, B. S.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chhajed, S.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chien, S. H.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
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Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
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M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. C.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chu, H.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, and V. I. Klimov, “Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1396–1400 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
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Demir, H. V.

S. Nizamoglu, B. Guzelturk, D. W. Jeon, I. H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, “Efficient nonradiative energy transfer from InGaN/GaN nanopillars to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163108 (2011).
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S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Oezel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmueller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113110 (2008).
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S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, “White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065709 (2007).
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Eychmueller, A.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Oezel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmueller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ferry, V.

C. B. Murphy, Y. Zhang, T. Troxler, V. Ferry, J. J. Martin, and W. E. Jones, “Probing Forster and dexter energy-transfer mechanisms in fluorescent conjugated polymer chemosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1537–1543 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fleury, B.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ga, N.

S. Strite, H. Morkoç, N. Ga, N. Al, and N. In, “A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gaponik, N.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Oezel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmueller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gu, P.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guzelturk, B.

S. Nizamoglu, B. Guzelturk, D. W. Jeon, I. H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, “Efficient nonradiative energy transfer from InGaN/GaN nanopillars to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Halpert, J. E.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
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Han, H. V.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harley, R. T.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased Color-Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes utilizing Non-Radiative Energy Transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chanyawadee, R. T. Harley, M. Henini, D. V. Talapin, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Photocurrent Enhancement in Hybrid Nanocrystal Quantum-Dot p-i-n Photovoltaic Devices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 077402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henini, M.

S. Chanyawadee, R. T. Harley, M. Henini, D. V. Talapin, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Photocurrent Enhancement in Hybrid Nanocrystal Quantum-Dot p-i-n Photovoltaic Devices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 077402 (2009).
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Hoffbauer, M. A.

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, and V. I. Klimov, “Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1039–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, C. E.

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Y. J.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsueh, T. H.

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hu, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. W.

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased Color-Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes utilizing Non-Radiative Energy Transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J. K.

C. Krishnan, M. Brossard, K. Y. Lee, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, H. C. Kuo, M. D. B. Charlton, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Hybrid photonic crystal light-emitting diode renders 123% color conversion effective quantum yield,” Optica 3(5), 503–509 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

In, N.

S. Strite, H. Morkoç, N. Ga, N. Al, and N. In, “A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, D. W.

S. Nizamoglu, B. Guzelturk, D. W. Jeon, I. H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, “Efficient nonradiative energy transfer from InGaN/GaN nanopillars to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeon, D. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, P. E.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jones, W. E.

C. B. Murphy, Y. Zhang, T. Troxler, V. Ferry, J. J. Martin, and W. E. Jones, “Probing Forster and dexter energy-transfer mechanisms in fluorescent conjugated polymer chemosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1537–1543 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kao, T. S.

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

Kim, G. C.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. W.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T. W.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[Crossref]

Klimov, V. I.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, and V. I. Klimov, “Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1396–1400 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, and V. I. Klimov, “Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1039–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429(6992), 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koleske, D. D.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, and V. I. Klimov, “Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1396–1400 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, and V. I. Klimov, “Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1039–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429(6992), 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kos, S.

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429(6992), 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishnan, C.

Kuo, H. C.

C. Krishnan, M. Brossard, K. Y. Lee, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, H. C. Kuo, M. D. B. Charlton, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Hybrid photonic crystal light-emitting diode renders 123% color conversion effective quantum yield,” Optica 3(5), 503–509 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[Crossref]

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagoudakis, P. G.

C. Krishnan, M. Brossard, K. Y. Lee, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, H. C. Kuo, M. D. B. Charlton, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Hybrid photonic crystal light-emitting diode renders 123% color conversion effective quantum yield,” Optica 3(5), 503–509 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased Color-Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes utilizing Non-Radiative Energy Transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chanyawadee, R. T. Harley, M. Henini, D. V. Talapin, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Photocurrent Enhancement in Hybrid Nanocrystal Quantum-Dot p-i-n Photovoltaic Devices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 077402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, C. F.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, F. I.

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

Lai, F.-I.

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lan, Y. P.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. D.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, I. H.

S. Nizamoglu, B. Guzelturk, D. W. Jeon, I. H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, “Efficient nonradiative energy transfer from InGaN/GaN nanopillars to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. Y.

Lee, P. T.

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. G.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lessard-Viger, M.

M. Lessard-Viger, M. Rioux, L. Rainville, and D. Boudreau, “FRET Enhancement in Multilayer Core-Shell Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3066–3071 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, K. M.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, B. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

C. Krishnan, M. Brossard, K. Y. Lee, J. K. Huang, C. H. Lin, H. C. Kuo, M. D. B. Charlton, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Hybrid photonic crystal light-emitting diode renders 123% color conversion effective quantum yield,” Optica 3(5), 503–509 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased Color-Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes utilizing Non-Radiative Energy Transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S. H.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. Y.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ling, S. C.

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. Y.

J. K. Huang, C. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Huang, F. I. Lai, P. T. Lee, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Chang, T. S. Kao, and H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based hybrid nanorods light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 6000107 (2015).

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, J. J.

C. B. Murphy, Y. Zhang, T. Troxler, V. Ferry, J. J. Martin, and W. E. Jones, “Probing Forster and dexter energy-transfer mechanisms in fluorescent conjugated polymer chemosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1537–1543 (2004).
[Crossref]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

S. Strite, H. Morkoç, N. Ga, N. Al, and N. In, “A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mueller, A. H.

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, and V. I. Klimov, “Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1039–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. B.

C. B. Murphy, Y. Zhang, T. Troxler, V. Ferry, J. J. Martin, and W. E. Jones, “Probing Forster and dexter energy-transfer mechanisms in fluorescent conjugated polymer chemosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1537–1543 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mutlugun, E.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Oezel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmueller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nizamoglu, S.

S. Nizamoglu, B. Guzelturk, D. W. Jeon, I. H. Lee, and H. V. Demir, “Efficient nonradiative energy transfer from InGaN/GaN nanopillars to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163108 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Oezel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmueller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113110 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, “White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065709 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oezel, T.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Oezel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmueller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ozel, T.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, “White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065709 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, H. L.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. H.

J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, G. C. Kim, and T. W. Kim, “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3696–3698 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petruska, M. A.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, and V. I. Klimov, “Nanocrystal-based light-emitting diodes utilizing high-efficiency nonradiative energy transfer for color conversion,” Nano Lett. 6(7), 1396–1400 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, and V. I. Klimov, “Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1039–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429(6992), 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfaff, N.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rainville, L.

M. Lessard-Viger, M. Rioux, L. Rainville, and D. Boudreau, “FRET Enhancement in Multilayer Core-Shell Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3066–3071 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rangel, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rioux, M.

M. Lessard-Viger, M. Rioux, L. Rainville, and D. Boudreau, “FRET Enhancement in Multilayer Core-Shell Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 3066–3071 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sapra, S.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Oezel, H. V. Demir, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmueller, “Dual-color emitting quantum-dot-quantum-well CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes for high-quality white light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sari, E.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, “White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065709 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shih, H. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shih, M. H.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. L.

S. Kos, M. Achermann, V. I. Klimov, and D. L. Smith, “Different regimes of Forster-type energy transfer between an epitaxial quantum well and a proximal monolayer of semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205309 (2005).

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, “Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well,” Nature 429(6992), 642–646 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Strite, S.

S. Strite, H. Morkoç, N. Ga, N. Al, and N. In, “A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10(4), 1237 (1992).
[Crossref]

Talapin, D. V.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, and C. H. Lin, “Increased Color-Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes utilizing Non-Radiative Energy Transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22(5), 602–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chanyawadee, R. T. Harley, M. Henini, D. V. Talapin, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Photocurrent Enhancement in Hybrid Nanocrystal Quantum-Dot p-i-n Photovoltaic Devices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(7), 077402 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Troxler, T.

C. B. Murphy, Y. Zhang, T. Troxler, V. Ferry, J. J. Martin, and W. E. Jones, “Probing Forster and dexter energy-transfer mechanisms in fluorescent conjugated polymer chemosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1537–1543 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. H.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, K. A.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Resonant-Enhanced Full-Color Emission of Quantum-Dot-Based Display Technology Using a Pulsed Spray Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M. A.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, K. Y.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Werder, D. J.

A. H. Mueller, M. A. Petruska, M. Achermann, D. J. Werder, E. A. Akhadov, D. D. Koleske, M. A. Hoffbauer, and V. I. Klimov, “Multicolor light-emitting diodes based on semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in GaN charge injection layers,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1039–1044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C. C.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology 23(4), 045303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
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Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
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Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
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Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
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C. B. Murphy, Y. Zhang, T. Troxler, V. Ferry, J. J. Martin, and W. E. Jones, “Probing Forster and dexter energy-transfer mechanisms in fluorescent conjugated polymer chemosensors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1537–1543 (2004).
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Zhao, J.

Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
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Y. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, P. Gu, K. Bi, Q. Zhang, H. Chu, T. Zhang, T. Cui, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, and W. W. Yu, “White-light-emitting diodes using GaN-excited CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots,” Particuology 15, 90–93 (2014).
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F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
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M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication process flow of hybrid nanorods LED with QDs dispensed by pulsed-spraying technique. (a)-(d) schematically demonstrate the fabrication process of nanorods structures embedded in constituent microhole arrays, including the standard lithography (SL), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) for nanostructures, and LED process for the completion of the LED chips. The hybrid MHNR-LED is accomplished with homogenously pulsed sprayed CdSe QDs on the structured LED chips, which is schematically indicated in (e) and (f).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Geometry investigations of the fabricated nanorods structure with sprayed QDs. (a) shows the scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the nanorods array in one microhole at a cross-sectional view. The diameter of the constituent nanorods is about 300 nm. SEM image (b) indicates that the nanorods are covered with the sprayed QDs. (c) Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) measurements were carried out and the results of observation on the QDs adhesions. The zoom-in observation on the QDs adhesions was shown in (d). The sprayed QDs are successfully injected into the gaps between the nanorods of MQWs structure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Morphology and optical field distributions of the air pulsed sprayed QDs on structured LEDs. (a) and (b) beam-view images of the microholes array LED and the hybrid LED chip with embedded nanorods array with a blue filter, respectively. From the beam view images, the QDs emission intensity of microhole with nanorods array is much stronger than that of microhole without nanorods array.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 3-D finite difference time domain simulation results. (a)-(c) show the mapping of electric field of C-LED, MH-LED and MHNR-LED, the MHNR-LED integrated intensity has a 59% enhancement compared to C-LED. (d)-(f) show the related three dimensional electric field distribution of conventional LED, MH-LED and MHNR-LED, it could be clearly observed that the nanorods structure can have a more efficient light extraction.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical characterizations of the structured LEDs with CdSe QDs. (a) and (b) show the measured electroluminescence (EL) results of the C-LEDs and MHNR-LEDs with pulse sprayed QDs (red curves), respectively. In both cases, the structured LEDs without capped QDs are used for comparison (black curves) for their device performance at the operation current of 20 mA. From the EL measurement, the color-conversion efficiency of hybrid MHNR-LED is enhanced by up to 32.4%. (c) and (d) show the time resolved photoluminescence emission spectra of MQWs (450 nm) and QDs (620nm) at room temperature. (c) shows the MQWs (450 nm) TRPL results of hybrid MHNR-LED (red solid line) and MHNR-LED (blue solid line), the decay rate changes when the QDs are deposited on the MHNR-LED due to the energy transfer. The inset shows the TRPL results of the conventional LED (CLED) (blue solid line) and hybrid CLED (red solid line), which reveals identical decay rate due to the absence of energy transfer. (d) shows the QDs (620 nm) TRPL results of hybrid MHNR-LED (red solid line) and hybrid CLED (blue solid line), these results show that the hybrid MHNR-LED possesses an additional decay channel arising from FRET process, and the decay rate becomes slower.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Room-temperature TRPL measurements of the hybrid MHNR-LEDs with (blue circles) and without (red triangles) deposited CdSe QDs. Through the curve fitting, the slopes of the decay rates of these two cases start to change at around 1.8 ns, which provides a firm evidence for the interaction between donor (QW) and acceptor (CdSe).

Equations (4)

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η c = η O I QDs H I B I B H ,
I B H =A e k B t +B e ( k B + k ET )t I B = e k B t η ET = k ET /( k ET + k B )
I QD H =C e k QD t +D e k nr t
I QD H =C e k QD t +D e k nr t +E( e ( k B + k ET )t e k QD t )

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