Abstract

Metallic nano-apertures associated with stair-gratings are proposed for surface enhanced fluorescence with high excitation enhancement and narrow emission beaming effect. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy method was utilized to analyze the fluorescence trace and fluorescence enhancement, and the angular patterns of fluorescent emission were measured with the back focal plane imaging method. The stair-grating presents a strong optical response which covering well both the excitation and the emission bands of the photoluminescence process. Such high enhancement and narrow directionality by the stair-gratings would enable the detection of single molecules with low numerical aperture objective effectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures

Jérôme Wenger, Davy Gérard, José Dintinger, Oussama Mahboub, Nicolas Bonod, Evgeny Popov, Thomas W. Ebbesen, and Hervé Rigneault
Opt. Express 16(5) 3008-3020 (2008)

Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings

Hongming Shen, Guowei Lu, Tianyue Zhang, Jie Liu, Yingbo He, Yuwei Wang, and Qihuang Gong
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9) 2420-2426 (2013)

Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures

Jérôme Wenger, Pierre-Francois Lenne, Evgueni Popov, Hervé Rigneault, José Dintinger, and Thomas W. Ebbesen
Opt. Express 13(18) 7035-7044 (2005)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Toma, K. Toma, P. Adam, J. Homola, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission on plasmonic Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14042–14053 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Toma, K. Toma, P. Adam, J. Homola, W. Knoll, and J. Dostálek, “Surface plasmon-coupled emission on plasmonic Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14042–14053 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Adam, P.

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Axelrod, D.

A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagalkot, V.

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bain, C. D.

D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blair, S.

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bonod, N.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulu, I.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, V. Z. H.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, E. H.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chou, R. Y.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choy, J. T.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dolde, F.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dostálek, J.

Ebbesen, T.

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Farokhzad, O.C

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geier, S.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gérard, D.

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hausmann, B. J. M.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hecker, N. E.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Homola, J.

Hou, L.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, I. C.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. C.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janitz, E.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jon, S

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kantoff, P. W

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karaveli, S.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knoll, W.

Krenn, J. R.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lamprecht, B.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Langer, R

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenne, P. F.

Levy-Nissenbaum, E

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lieb, M. A.

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, G.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahboub, O.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahdavi, F.

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Markham, M. L.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martini, M.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mattheyses, A. L.

A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNally, B.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meller, A.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Möller, M.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mouradian, S. L.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müllen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Novotny, L.

Perriat, P.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Popov, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schröder, T.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

Singer, A.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spatz, J. P.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tillement, O.

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

Toma, K.

Toma, M.

Twitchen, D. J.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Weng, Z.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenger, J.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2276–2287 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wenger, P. F. Lenne, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen, “Single molecule fluorescence in rectangular nano-apertures,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7035–7044 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woods, D. A.

D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yue, S.

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zavislan, J. M.

ZHang, L

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Molecule fluorescence modified by a slit-based nanoantenna with dual gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(9), 2420 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

G. Lu, W. Li, T. Zhang, S. Yue, J. Liu, L. Hou, Z. Li, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced molecular fluorescence within isolated bowtie nano-apertures,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1438–1448 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Sönnichsen, S. Geier, N. E. Hecker, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, F. R. Aussenegg, V. Z. H. Chan, J. P. Spatz, and M. Möller, “Spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles using total internal reflection microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2949 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. T. Choy, I. Bulu, B. J. M. Hausmann, E. Janitz, I. C. Huang, and M. Lončar, “Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Y. Chou, G. Lu, H. Shen, Y. He, Y. Cheng, P. Perriat, M. Martini, O. Tillement, and Q. Gong, “A hybrid nanoantenna for highly enhanced directional spontaneous emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(24), 244310 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. L. Mattheyses and D. Axelrod, “Fluorescence emission patterns near glass and metal-coated surfaces investigated with back focal plane imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054007 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz and Y. Fu, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(1-2), 221–232 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

V. Bagalkot, L ZHang, E Levy-Nissenbaum, S Jon, P. W Kantoff, R Langer, and O.C Farokhzad, “Quantum dot–aptamer conjugates for synchronous cancer imaging, therapy, and sensing of drug delivery based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 3065–3070 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. McNally, A. Singer, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, Z. Weng, and A. Meller, “Optical recognition of converted DNA nucleotides for single-molecule DNA sequencing using nanopore arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2237–2244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, E. H. Chen, J. Zheng, S. L. Mouradian, F. Dolde, T. Schröder, S. Karaveli, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and D. Englund, “Efficient photon collection from a nitrogen vacancy center in a circular bullseye grating,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1493–1497 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 637–644 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. Gérard, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, F. Mahdavi, S. Blair, J. Dintinger, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Nanoaperture-enhanced fluorescence: Towards higher detection rates with plasmonic metals,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 045413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

H. Shen, G. Lu, T. Zhang, J. Liu, and Q. Gong, “Enhanced single-molecule spontaneous emission in an optimized nanoantenna with plasmonic gratings,” Plasmonics 8(2), 869–875 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (1)

D. A. Woods and C. D. Bain, “Total internal reflection spectroscopy for studying soft matter,” Soft Matter 10(8), 1071–1096 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of proposed stair-gratings. We excavate a rectangle part of the corrugations and make it like a stair. There are two new geometry parameters which can use to tune the optical response. (b) and (c) SEM cross profile of the common grating and stair-grating separately.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of optical experiment setup. (b) Optical confocal scanning image of a sample containing bare apertures, nano-apertures surrounded with common and stair grating. (c) Fabrication procedure of the nano-apertures with stair-gratings.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Scattering spectra of nano-aperture with stair and common gratings. (b) Fluorescence spectra of the molecules within different nanostructures: stair-gratings, common gratings and bare aperture. PL spectrum in free solution is also plotted for comparison.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy curves of three different nanostructures. (b) Normalized representative fluorescence intensity trace, and (c) Normalized fluorescence count rate per molecule for different structures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Molecular radiation patterns from different structures (a) Bare nano-aperture (b) Nano-aperture with common gratings (c) Nano-aperture with stair-gratings.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated far-field radiation patterns at different wavelengths for (a) Bare nano-aperture (b) Nano-aperture with common gratings (c) Nano-aperture with stair-gratings, and near-field intensity enhancement indicated in each top-right corner correspondingly.

Metrics