Abstract

Plasmonic color filters in mass production have been restricted from current fabrication technology, which impede their applications. Soft-X-ray interference lithography (XIL) has recently generated considerable interest as a newly developed technique for the production of periodic nano-structures with resolution theoretically below 4 nm. Here we ameliorate XIL by adding an order sorting aperture and designing the light path properly to achieve perfect-stitching nano-patterns and fast fabrication of large-area color filters. The fill factor of nanostructures prepared on ultrathin Ag films can largely affect the transmission minimum of plasmonic color filters. By changing the fill factor, the color can be controlled flexibly, improving the utilization efficiency of the mask in XIL simultaneously. The calculated data agree well with the experimental results. Finally, an underlying mechanism has been uncovered after systematically analyzing the localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPPs) coupling in electric field distribution.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

2015 (16)

F. Cheng, J. Gao, L. Stan, D. Rosenmann, D. Czaplewski, and X. Yang, “Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14552–14560 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rudolf, J. Bußmann, M. Odstrčil, M. Dong, K. Bergmann, S. Danylyuk, and L. Juschkin, “Interferometric broadband Fourier spectroscopy with a partially coherent gas-discharge extreme ultraviolet light source,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2818–2821 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li and M. C. Marconi, “Extreme ultraviolet Talbot interference lithography,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25532–25538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ye, L. Sun, X. Hu, B. Shi, B. Zeng, L. Wang, J. Zhao, S. Yang, R. Tai, H. J. Fecht, J. Z. Jiang, and D. X. Zhang, “Angle-insensitive plasmonic color filters with randomly distributed silver nanodisks,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4979–4982 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Yang, J. L. Hou, A. Finn, A. Kumar, Y. Ge, and W. J. Fischer, “Synthesis of multifunctional plasmonic nanopillar array using soft thermal nanoimprint lithography for highly sensitive refractive index sensing,” Nanoscale 7(13), 5760–5766 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kim, W. Li, and L. Juschkin, “Optical properties of 2D fractional Talbot patterns under coherent EUV illumination,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(37), 375101 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. H. Solak, C. Dais, F. Clube, and L. Wang, “Phase shifting masks in displacement talbot lithography for printing nano-grids and periodic motifs,” Microelectron. Eng. 143, 74–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Li, L. Urbanski, and M. C. Marconi, “Invited Article: Progress in coherent lithography using table-top extreme ultraviolet lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 121301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Yang, L. S. Wang, J. Zhao, C. F. Xue, Y. Q. Wu, and R. Z. Tai, “Developments at SSRF in soft X-ray interference lithograph,” Nucl. Sci. Tech. 26(1), 010101 (2015).

Z. C. Zhu and R. Z. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. T. Lee, S. Y. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(3), 347–352 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Mojarad, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, J. Gobrecht, and Y. Ekinci, “Single-digit-resolution nanopatterning with extreme ultraviolet light for the 2.5 nm technology node and beyond,” Nanoscale 7(9), 4031–4037 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wen, Q. Chen, S. Song, Y. Yu, L. Jin, and X. Hu, “Photon harvesting, coloring and polarizing in photovoltaic cell integrated color filters: efficient energy routing strategies for power-saving displays,” Nanotechnology 26(26), 265203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Sun, X. L. Hu, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, S. M. Yang, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, D. X. Zhang, and J. Z. Jiang, “Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters,” Nanotechnology 26(30), 305204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Karim, S. A. Tschupp, M. Oezaslan, T. J. Schmidt, J. Gobrecht, J. A. van Bokhoven, and Y. Ekinci, “High-resolution and large-area nanoparticle arrays using EUV interference lithography,” Nanoscale 7(16), 7386–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

L. B. Sun, X. L. Hu, and D. X. Zhang, “Influence of structural parameters to polarization-independent color-filter behavior in ultrathin Ag films,” Opt. Commun. 333, 16–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6318–6323 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou and L. J. Guo, “Transition from a spectrum filter to a polarizer in a metallic nano-slit array,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3614 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Zhou, X. Jiang, Y. Li, A. Shi, J. Chen, Q. Ou, H. Liu, and J. Tang, “Light extraction of trapped optical modes in polymer light-emitting diodes with nanoimprinted double-pattern gratings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18139–18146 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Shrestha, C. S. Park, and S. S. Lee, “Enhancement of color saturation and color gamut enabled by a dual-band color filter exhibiting an adjustable spectral response,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3691–3704 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2840 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

L. Wang, H. H. Solak, and Y. Ekinci, “Fabrication of high-resolution large-area patterns using EUV interference lithography in a scan-exposure mode,” Nanotechnology 23(30), 305303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics 7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV lithography: Lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. F. Masson, M. P. Murray-Méthot, and L. S. Live, “Nanohole arrays in chemical analysis: manufacturing methods and applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(7), 1483–1489 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Schift, “Nanoimprint lithography: An old story in modern times? A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 26(2), 458–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wavemodel,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Gronheid, H. H. Solak, Y. Ekinci, A. Jouve, and F. V. Roey, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet resists with interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1103–1106 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. H. Solak, “Nanolithography with coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(10), 171–188 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

I. B. Baek and S. Lee, “Electron beam lithography patterning of sub-10 nm line using hydrogen silsesquioxane for nanoscale device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 23(6), 3120–3123 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alloschery, O.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wavemodel,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, I. B.

I. B. Baek and S. Lee, “Electron beam lithography patterning of sub-10 nm line using hydrogen silsesquioxane for nanoscale device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 23(6), 3120–3123 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bai, S. A.

Bartoli, F. J.

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2840 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergmann, K.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgos, S. P.

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bußmann, J.

Chen, J.

L. Zhou, X. Jiang, Y. Li, A. Shi, J. Chen, Q. Ou, H. Liu, and J. Tang, “Light extraction of trapped optical modes in polymer light-emitting diodes with nanoimprinted double-pattern gratings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18139–18146 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

L. Wen, Q. Chen, S. Song, Y. Yu, L. Jin, and X. Hu, “Photon harvesting, coloring and polarizing in photovoltaic cell integrated color filters: efficient energy routing strategies for power-saving displays,” Nanotechnology 26(26), 265203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics 7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, F.

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, L. Stan, D. Rosenmann, D. Czaplewski, and X. Yang, “Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14552–14560 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chitnis, D.

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics 7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clube, F.

L. Wang, F. Clube, C. Dais, H. H. Solak, and J. Gobrecht, “Sub-wavelength printing in the deep ultra-violet region using Displacement Talbot Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 161, 104–108 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. H. Solak, C. Dais, F. Clube, and L. Wang, “Phase shifting masks in displacement talbot lithography for printing nano-grids and periodic motifs,” Microelectron. Eng. 143, 74–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. H. Solak, C. Dais, and F. Clube, “Displacement Talbot lithography: a new method for high-resolution patterning of large areas,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10686–10691 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, S.

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L. Wen, Q. Chen, S. Song, Y. Yu, L. Jin, and X. Hu, “Photon harvesting, coloring and polarizing in photovoltaic cell integrated color filters: efficient energy routing strategies for power-saving displays,” Nanotechnology 26(26), 265203 (2015).
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L. Zhou, X. Jiang, Y. Li, A. Shi, J. Chen, Q. Ou, H. Liu, and J. Tang, “Light extraction of trapped optical modes in polymer light-emitting diodes with nanoimprinted double-pattern gratings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18139–18146 (2014).
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W. Li, L. Urbanski, and M. C. Marconi, “Invited Article: Progress in coherent lithography using table-top extreme ultraviolet lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 121301 (2015).
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N. Mojarad, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, J. Gobrecht, and Y. Ekinci, “Single-digit-resolution nanopatterning with extreme ultraviolet light for the 2.5 nm technology node and beyond,” Nanoscale 7(9), 4031–4037 (2015).
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B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6318–6323 (2014).
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Oezaslan, M.

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L. Zhou, X. Jiang, Y. Li, A. Shi, J. Chen, Q. Ou, H. Liu, and J. Tang, “Light extraction of trapped optical modes in polymer light-emitting diodes with nanoimprinted double-pattern gratings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18139–18146 (2014).
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K. T. Lee, S. Y. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(3), 347–352 (2015).
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L. Wang, F. Clube, C. Dais, H. H. Solak, and J. Gobrecht, “Sub-wavelength printing in the deep ultra-violet region using Displacement Talbot Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 161, 104–108 (2016).
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Sun, L. B.

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[Crossref]

Tai, R.

M. Ye, L. Sun, X. Hu, B. Shi, B. Zeng, L. Wang, J. Zhao, S. Yang, R. Tai, H. J. Fecht, J. Z. Jiang, and D. X. Zhang, “Angle-insensitive plasmonic color filters with randomly distributed silver nanodisks,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4979–4982 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tai, R. Z.

X. L. Hu, L. B. Sun, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, Z. G. Yu, S. A. Bai, S. M. Yang, L. X. Zhao, Q. Li, M. Qiu, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, J. Z. Jiang, and D. X. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmonic subtractive color filtering in ultrathin Ag nanodisks with high transmission,” Appl. Opt. 55(1), 148–152 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Sun, X. L. Hu, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, S. M. Yang, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, D. X. Zhang, and J. Z. Jiang, “Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters,” Nanotechnology 26(30), 305204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Yang, L. S. Wang, J. Zhao, C. F. Xue, Y. Q. Wu, and R. Z. Tai, “Developments at SSRF in soft X-ray interference lithograph,” Nucl. Sci. Tech. 26(1), 010101 (2015).

Z. C. Zhu and R. Z. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. J.

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

L. Zhou, X. Jiang, Y. Li, A. Shi, J. Chen, Q. Ou, H. Liu, and J. Tang, “Light extraction of trapped optical modes in polymer light-emitting diodes with nanoimprinted double-pattern gratings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18139–18146 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tschupp, S. A.

W. Karim, S. A. Tschupp, M. Oezaslan, T. J. Schmidt, J. Gobrecht, J. A. van Bokhoven, and Y. Ekinci, “High-resolution and large-area nanoparticle arrays using EUV interference lithography,” Nanoscale 7(16), 7386–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbanski, L.

W. Li, L. Urbanski, and M. C. Marconi, “Invited Article: Progress in coherent lithography using table-top extreme ultraviolet lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 121301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Bokhoven, J. A.

W. Karim, S. A. Tschupp, M. Oezaslan, T. J. Schmidt, J. Gobrecht, J. A. van Bokhoven, and Y. Ekinci, “High-resolution and large-area nanoparticle arrays using EUV interference lithography,” Nanoscale 7(16), 7386–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van de Groep, J.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Veen, J. F.

Wagner, C.

C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV lithography: Lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walls, K.

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics 7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, F. Clube, C. Dais, H. H. Solak, and J. Gobrecht, “Sub-wavelength printing in the deep ultra-violet region using Displacement Talbot Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 161, 104–108 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. H. Solak, C. Dais, F. Clube, and L. Wang, “Phase shifting masks in displacement talbot lithography for printing nano-grids and periodic motifs,” Microelectron. Eng. 143, 74–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Mojarad, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, J. Gobrecht, and Y. Ekinci, “Single-digit-resolution nanopatterning with extreme ultraviolet light for the 2.5 nm technology node and beyond,” Nanoscale 7(9), 4031–4037 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ye, L. Sun, X. Hu, B. Shi, B. Zeng, L. Wang, J. Zhao, S. Yang, R. Tai, H. J. Fecht, J. Z. Jiang, and D. X. Zhang, “Angle-insensitive plasmonic color filters with randomly distributed silver nanodisks,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4979–4982 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, H. H. Solak, and Y. Ekinci, “Fabrication of high-resolution large-area patterns using EUV interference lithography in a scan-exposure mode,” Nanotechnology 23(30), 305303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. S.

X. L. Hu, L. B. Sun, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, Z. G. Yu, S. A. Bai, S. M. Yang, L. X. Zhao, Q. Li, M. Qiu, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, J. Z. Jiang, and D. X. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmonic subtractive color filtering in ultrathin Ag nanodisks with high transmission,” Appl. Opt. 55(1), 148–152 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Sun, X. L. Hu, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, S. M. Yang, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, D. X. Zhang, and J. Z. Jiang, “Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters,” Nanotechnology 26(30), 305204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Yang, L. S. Wang, J. Zhao, C. F. Xue, Y. Q. Wu, and R. Z. Tai, “Developments at SSRF in soft X-ray interference lithograph,” Nucl. Sci. Tech. 26(1), 010101 (2015).

Wang, Y.

B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6318–6323 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. M.

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, J. N.

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, L.

L. Wen, Q. Chen, S. Song, Y. Yu, L. Jin, and X. Hu, “Photon harvesting, coloring and polarizing in photovoltaic cell integrated color filters: efficient energy routing strategies for power-saving displays,” Nanotechnology 26(26), 265203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. Q.

S. M. Yang, L. S. Wang, J. Zhao, C. F. Xue, Y. Q. Wu, and R. Z. Tai, “Developments at SSRF in soft X-ray interference lithograph,” Nucl. Sci. Tech. 26(1), 010101 (2015).

Xue, C.

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, C. F.

S. M. Yang, L. S. Wang, J. Zhao, C. F. Xue, Y. Q. Wu, and R. Z. Tai, “Developments at SSRF in soft X-ray interference lithograph,” Nucl. Sci. Tech. 26(1), 010101 (2015).

Xue, S.

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. K.

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Yang, S. C.

S. C. Yang, J. L. Hou, A. Finn, A. Kumar, Y. Ge, and W. J. Fischer, “Synthesis of multifunctional plasmonic nanopillar array using soft thermal nanoimprint lithography for highly sensitive refractive index sensing,” Nanoscale 7(13), 5760–5766 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S. M.

X. L. Hu, L. B. Sun, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, Z. G. Yu, S. A. Bai, S. M. Yang, L. X. Zhao, Q. Li, M. Qiu, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, J. Z. Jiang, and D. X. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmonic subtractive color filtering in ultrathin Ag nanodisks with high transmission,” Appl. Opt. 55(1), 148–152 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Sun, X. L. Hu, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, S. M. Yang, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, D. X. Zhang, and J. Z. Jiang, “Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters,” Nanotechnology 26(30), 305204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Yang, L. S. Wang, J. Zhao, C. F. Xue, Y. Q. Wu, and R. Z. Tai, “Developments at SSRF in soft X-ray interference lithograph,” Nucl. Sci. Tech. 26(1), 010101 (2015).

Yang, X.

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, L. Stan, D. Rosenmann, D. Czaplewski, and X. Yang, “Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14552–14560 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, M.

Yokogawa, S.

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

L. Wen, Q. Chen, S. Song, Y. Yu, L. Jin, and X. Hu, “Photon harvesting, coloring and polarizing in photovoltaic cell integrated color filters: efficient energy routing strategies for power-saving displays,” Nanotechnology 26(26), 265203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z. G.

Zeng, B.

Zhang, D. X.

X. L. Hu, L. B. Sun, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, Z. G. Yu, S. A. Bai, S. M. Yang, L. X. Zhao, Q. Li, M. Qiu, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, J. Z. Jiang, and D. X. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmonic subtractive color filtering in ultrathin Ag nanodisks with high transmission,” Appl. Opt. 55(1), 148–152 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ye, L. Sun, X. Hu, B. Shi, B. Zeng, L. Wang, J. Zhao, S. Yang, R. Tai, H. J. Fecht, J. Z. Jiang, and D. X. Zhang, “Angle-insensitive plasmonic color filters with randomly distributed silver nanodisks,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4979–4982 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Sun, X. L. Hu, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, S. M. Yang, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, D. X. Zhang, and J. Z. Jiang, “Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters,” Nanotechnology 26(30), 305204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Sun, X. L. Hu, and D. X. Zhang, “Influence of structural parameters to polarization-independent color-filter behavior in ultrathin Ag films,” Opt. Commun. 333, 16–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, L. X.

Zhen, X.

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, B. Y.

B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6318–6323 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou and L. J. Guo, “Transition from a spectrum filter to a polarizer in a metallic nano-slit array,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3614 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, X. Jiang, Y. Li, A. Shi, J. Chen, Q. Ou, H. Liu, and J. Tang, “Light extraction of trapped optical modes in polymer light-emitting diodes with nanoimprinted double-pattern gratings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18139–18146 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, D.

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z. C.

Z. C. Zhu and R. Z. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

L. Zhou, X. Jiang, Y. Li, A. Shi, J. Chen, Q. Ou, H. Liu, and J. Tang, “Light extraction of trapped optical modes in polymer light-emitting diodes with nanoimprinted double-pattern gratings,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 18139–18146 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Y. Zheng, Y. Wang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Color-selective and CMOS-compatible photodetection based on aluminum plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6318–6323 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Optical Mater. (1)

K. T. Lee, S. Y. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Optical Mater. 3(3), 347–352 (2015).
[Crossref]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

J. F. Masson, M. P. Murray-Méthot, and L. S. Live, “Nanohole arrays in chemical analysis: manufacturing methods and applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(7), 1483–1489 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. C. Zhu and R. Z. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Kim, W. Li, and L. Juschkin, “Optical properties of 2D fractional Talbot patterns under coherent EUV illumination,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(37), 375101 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. H. Solak, “Nanolithography with coherent extreme ultraviolet light,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(10), 171–188 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. (2)

H. Schift, “Nanoimprint lithography: An old story in modern times? A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 26(2), 458–480 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. B. Baek and S. Lee, “Electron beam lithography patterning of sub-10 nm line using hydrogen silsesquioxane for nanoscale device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 23(6), 3120–3123 (2005).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (3)

H. H. Solak, C. Dais, F. Clube, and L. Wang, “Phase shifting masks in displacement talbot lithography for printing nano-grids and periodic motifs,” Microelectron. Eng. 143, 74–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, F. Clube, C. Dais, H. H. Solak, and J. Gobrecht, “Sub-wavelength printing in the deep ultra-violet region using Displacement Talbot Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 161, 104–108 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Gronheid, H. H. Solak, Y. Ekinci, A. Jouve, and F. V. Roey, “Characterization of extreme ultraviolet resists with interference lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4–9), 1103–1106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. Yang, “Plasmonic color palettes for photorealistic printing with aluminum nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength plasmonic color printing protected for ambient use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (3)

W. Karim, S. A. Tschupp, M. Oezaslan, T. J. Schmidt, J. Gobrecht, J. A. van Bokhoven, and Y. Ekinci, “High-resolution and large-area nanoparticle arrays using EUV interference lithography,” Nanoscale 7(16), 7386–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Mojarad, M. Hojeij, L. Wang, J. Gobrecht, and Y. Ekinci, “Single-digit-resolution nanopatterning with extreme ultraviolet light for the 2.5 nm technology node and beyond,” Nanoscale 7(9), 4031–4037 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Yang, J. L. Hou, A. Finn, A. Kumar, Y. Ge, and W. J. Fischer, “Synthesis of multifunctional plasmonic nanopillar array using soft thermal nanoimprint lithography for highly sensitive refractive index sensing,” Nanoscale 7(13), 5760–5766 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (3)

L. Wang, H. H. Solak, and Y. Ekinci, “Fabrication of high-resolution large-area patterns using EUV interference lithography in a scan-exposure mode,” Nanotechnology 23(30), 305303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wen, Q. Chen, S. Song, Y. Yu, L. Jin, and X. Hu, “Photon harvesting, coloring and polarizing in photovoltaic cell integrated color filters: efficient energy routing strategies for power-saving displays,” Nanotechnology 26(26), 265203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Sun, X. L. Hu, B. Zeng, L. S. Wang, S. M. Yang, R. Z. Tai, H. J. Fecht, D. X. Zhang, and J. Z. Jiang, “Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters,” Nanotechnology 26(30), 305204 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV lithography: Lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wavemodel,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Sci. Tech. (1)

S. M. Yang, L. S. Wang, J. Zhao, C. F. Xue, Y. Q. Wu, and R. Z. Tai, “Developments at SSRF in soft X-ray interference lithograph,” Nucl. Sci. Tech. 26(1), 010101 (2015).

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. B. Sun, X. L. Hu, and D. X. Zhang, “Influence of structural parameters to polarization-independent color-filter behavior in ultrathin Ag films,” Opt. Commun. 333, 16–21 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

Q. Chen, D. Das, D. Chitnis, K. Walls, T. D. Drysdale, S. Collins, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A CMOS image sensor integrated with plasmonic colour filters,” Plasmonics 7(4), 695–699 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

W. Li, L. Urbanski, and M. C. Marconi, “Invited Article: Progress in coherent lithography using table-top extreme ultraviolet lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86(12), 121301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xue, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Wu, X. Zhen, M. Chen, J. Chen, S. Xue, Z. Peng, Q. Lu, and R. Tai, “High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (3)

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou and L. J. Guo, “Transition from a spectrum filter to a polarizer in a metallic nano-slit array,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3614 (2014).
[PubMed]

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2840 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic layout of the XIL beamline.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic illustration of four-beam interference: four first order beams interfere in the center to form nano-hole array, surrounded by four grating patterns which are from zeroth order diffracted beams. (b) A schematic representation of the color filter. In this work, P is the period, D is the diameter, h is the thickness of ultrathin Ag film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmission spectra of nano-cylinder arrays for 20 nm-thick Ag with various fill factors ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 in a step of 0.05 for selected three periods (a) 180 nm, (b) 230 nm and (c) 280 nm. (d)-(f) CIE1931 chromaticity diagrams overlaid with points corresponding to the simulated transmission spectra colors above. The color varies from pink to blue and deviates progressively from the white point (0.31, 0.32) towards the spectral curve of the diagram, suggesting higher color purity.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of four-beam interference lithography showing cross-section of the shutter, mask, OSA and two interfering beams. Diffracted beams interfere and form periodic nano-cylinder arrays on the PMMA plane. Only first-orders and zeroth-order diffraction are shown for simplicity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The SEM images of nano-cylinder arrays on a 20 nm-thick Ag film with period 230 nm, (a) fill factor = 0.25, (b) fill factor = 0.4, (c) fill factor = 0.5, (d) fill factor = 0.6 and (e) fill factor = 0.75. Optical transmission micrographs under white light illumination and measured transmission spectra below the SEM images are consistent with the simulated results in Figs. 3(d)-3(f), realizing color tunability with various fill factors.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 One filter device, fabricated by XIL stitching, held by fingers. The insert on the up-right corner shows cylinder arrays of 20 nm in height, 0.45 in fill factor and 230 nm in period.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulated and measured transmission spectra of filters with fill factor ranging from 0.3 to 0.7, together with the dashed trend line tracing the location of resonance wavelength.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Two dimensional transmission spectrum maps for 20 nm-thick Ag films composed of cylinder arrays with fill factor from 0.3 to 0.7. The white curve refers to LSPPs. The dashed line represents analytical dispersion relations for SRSPPs modes. (b)-(d) In-plane (xy-cutting plane) views of Electric fields of two nano-cylinder illuminated by an x-polarized plane wave at their resonant wavelengths of 507, 616 and 715 nm with fill factor of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75, respectively.

Equations (7)

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dsinθ=mλ
Z s = L d + L g 2tanθ
Z OSA = L g + L d L OSA 2 tanθ ( L OSA L d )
ΔL= Z S Z OSA = L OSA L g 2tanθ
tanh( k 2 h)= ε m k 2 ( ε d1 k 3 + ε d2 k 1 ) ε d1 ε d2 k 2 2 + ε m 2 k 1 k 3
k spp = k 0 sinα+a G x +b G y
| k spp |= 2π P a 2 + b 2

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