Abstract

The integration of spatial distribution of light intensity and color in the midfield is instrumental for LED optical design. On the basis of this rationale, we proposed an accurate and convenient method for developing white LED optical models. Near-field hyperspectral images and far-field spectral-angular distributions were integrated to illustrate changes in spatial light intensity and color distribution in the mid-field, to the exclusion of the absorption, conversion, and scattering of phosphors. The corresponding optical models were developed for three LED samples under different packaging conditions. Their normalized cross-correlation values for spatial light intensity and correlated-color-temperature distribution between simulation and measurement averaged as high as 0.995 and 0.99 respectively, which validated the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed method.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

A. De Almeida, B. Santos, B. Paolo, and M. Quicheron, “Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34, 30–48 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. W. Sanderson and K. L. Simons, “Light emitting diodes and the lighting revolution: The emergence of a solid-state lighting industry,” Res. Policy 43(10), 1730–1746 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, H. Y. Tsai, and K. C. Huang, “Yellow-ring measurement of white LED in various environments,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 232–235 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, W. Cai, X. Lei, X. Du, and W. Chen, “Far-field distance for surface light source with different luminous area,” Appl. Opt. 52(8), 1629–1635 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, Y. Wang, L. Li, X. Fu, Y. Zou, and X. Luo, “Dip-transfer phosphor coating on designed substrate structure for high angular color uniformity of white light emitting diodes with conventional chips,” Opt. Express 21(S6Suppl 6), A933–A941 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (3)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, H. Y. He, C. C. Chen, W. T. Chien, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, “Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs,” Opt. Express 16(24), 20060–20066 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LED array: where does far-field begin?” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580R (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1997 (1)

R. F. Rykowski and C. B. Wooley, “Source modeling for illumination design,” Proc. SPIE 3130, 204–208 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

Cao, B.

Chen, C. C.

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, F.

Chen, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. J.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Chien, S. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chien, W. T.

Chiu, C. Y.

Chung, C. Y.

Chung, T. Y.

De Almeida, A.

A. De Almeida, B. Santos, B. Paolo, and M. Quicheron, “Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34, 30–48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Du, X.

Fu, X.

He, H. Y.

He, Y.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

H. Zheng, X. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. C.

C. C. Yang, H. Y. Tsai, and K. C. Huang, “Yellow-ring measurement of white LED in various environments,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 232–235 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. M.

Kuo, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. L.

Lei, X.

Li, L.

Lin, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

H. Zheng, X. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. Wang, and S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Liu, Z.

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Ma, S. H.

Moreno, I.

Paolo, B.

A. De Almeida, B. Santos, B. Paolo, and M. Quicheron, “Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34, 30–48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y. N.

Quicheron, M.

A. De Almeida, B. Santos, B. Paolo, and M. Quicheron, “Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34, 30–48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rykowski, R. F.

R. F. Rykowski and C. B. Wooley, “Source modeling for illumination design,” Proc. SPIE 3130, 204–208 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sanderson, S. W.

S. W. Sanderson and K. L. Simons, “Light emitting diodes and the lighting revolution: The emergence of a solid-state lighting industry,” Res. Policy 43(10), 1730–1746 (2014).
[Crossref]

Santos, B.

A. De Almeida, B. Santos, B. Paolo, and M. Quicheron, “Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34, 30–48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, F. G.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shih, M. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shuai, Y.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Simons, K. L.

S. W. Sanderson and K. L. Simons, “Light emitting diodes and the lighting revolution: The emergence of a solid-state lighting industry,” Res. Policy 43(10), 1730–1746 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

Tran, N. T.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. Y.

C. C. Yang, H. Y. Tsai, and K. C. Huang, “Yellow-ring measurement of white LED in various environments,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 232–235 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Liu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. H.

Wooley, C. B.

R. F. Rykowski and C. B. Wooley, “Source modeling for illumination design,” Proc. SPIE 3130, 204–208 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, H. Y. Tsai, and K. C. Huang, “Yellow-ring measurement of white LED in various environments,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 232–235 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, T. H.

Yeh, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

Zou, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

R. Hu, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Study on the optical properties of conformal coating light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo simulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1673–1675 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT uniformity of phosphor converted white LEDs: Effects of phosphor materials and packaging structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An investigation of the optical analysis in white light-emitting diodes with conformal and remote phosphor structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

C. C. Yang, H. Y. Tsai, and K. C. Huang, “Yellow-ring measurement of white LED in various environments,” Opt. Rev. 20(2), 232–235 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. F. Rykowski and C. B. Wooley, “Source modeling for illumination design,” Proc. SPIE 3130, 204–208 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LED array: where does far-field begin?” Proc. SPIE 7058, 70580R (2008).
[Crossref]

Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (1)

A. De Almeida, B. Santos, B. Paolo, and M. Quicheron, “Solid state lighting review – Potential and challenges in Europe,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34, 30–48 (2014).
[Crossref]

Res. Policy (1)

S. W. Sanderson and K. L. Simons, “Light emitting diodes and the lighting revolution: The emergence of a solid-state lighting industry,” Res. Policy 43(10), 1730–1746 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

SPECIM, http://www.specim.fi/

Radian Vision System, http://www.radiantvisionsystems.com/

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A pc-WLED yellow ring on (a) the light-emitting surface and (b) LED light distribution pattern on a screen 10 cm away from the light source.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Defects associated with the exclusion of spatial color information from LED secondary optical design: (a) secondary optical lens (b) corresponding illuminance distribution (c) corresponding color distribution.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The pc-WLEDs with different packaging structures: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spatial light intensity distributions at different measurement distances: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 NCC in function of the measurement distance for the three pc-WLED samples.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spatial CCT distribution at different measurement distances: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The ACCTD at different measurement distances: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3. The hatched area denotes the benchmark ACCTD at a distance of 100 mm, with a percentage change of ACCTD lower than 10%.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Scanning hyperspectral image system.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spectral images of three pc-WLED samples at the wavelengths of 450 nm and 550 nm (pseudo color).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Normalized far-field light intensity distribution at the wavelength of 450 nm and 550 nm for the three pc-WLED samples: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Flowchart of building an LED optical model with spatial color deviation.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Comparison of spatial light intensity distributions between measurement and simulation at different distances: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Measurement and simulation NCC values for spatial light intensity distributions at their corresponding measurement distances: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Comparison of spatial CCT distributions between measurement and simulation at different distances: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Measurement and simulation NCC values for spatial CCT distributions at their corresponding measurement distances: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Comparison of changes in the ACCTD at different distances between measurement and simulation: (a) Type 1 (b) Type 2 (c) Type 3.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Directional TIR lens: (a) CAD diagram (b) physical appearance.
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Spatial light intensity and CCT distribution following the secondary optical design on a TIR lens.

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