Abstract

We have studied the formation of topological defects in liquid crystal (LC) matrices induced by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and external electric fields. The defects are ascribable to a distortion of the LC molecular director in proximity of the MWCNT surface. The system is analyzed macroscopically using spectroscopic variable angle ellipsometry. Concurrently, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to study the system state at the microscale. This allows to acquire a three-dimensional, spatially-resolved map of the topological defect, determining scale length variations and orientation topography of the LC molecules around the MWCNT.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, X. Quintana, and J. M. Otón, “Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 6, 396–403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Massey, D. Volpati, F. Qaiser, A. Kotsialos, C. Pearson, D. A. Zeze, and M. C. Petty, “Alignment of liquid crystal/carbon nanotube dispersions for application in unconventional computing,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1648, 280009 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zito, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, A. Dochshanov, and A. Sasso, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of cell membrane by a highly homogeneous and isotropic silver nanostructure,” Nanoscale 7(18), 8593–8606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

J. I. Sohn, W. K. Hong, S. S. Choi, H. J. Coles, M. E. Welland, S. N. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “Emerging applications of liquid crystals based on nanotechnology,” Materials (Basel) 7(3), 2044–2061 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

R. Basu and G. S. Iannacchione, “Orientational coupling enhancement in a carbon nanotube dispersed liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81(5), 051705 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Basu, K. A. Boccuzzi, S. Ferjani, and C. Rosenblatt, “Carbon nanotube-induced chirality in an achiral liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121908 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, E. Santamato, N. Bennis, X. Quintana, J. M. Otón, and G. Abbate, “Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073109 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

A. C. De Luca, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, S. Caserta, S. Guido, and A. Sasso, “Diffusion in polymer blends by Raman microscopy,” Macromolecules 41(15), 5512–5514 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Dierking, K. Casson, and R. Hampson, “Reorientation dynamics of liquid crystal-nanotube dispersions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6390–6393 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, A. Marino, F. Vita, M. Giocondo, A. Mazzulla, and L. De Stefano, “High accuracy optical characterization of anisotropic liquids by merging standard techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221110 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, and P. Morales, “Liquid crystal-carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 044309 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, P. Morales, and D. LeClere, “Aligning and Reorienting Carbon Nanotubes with Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(11), 865–869 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. D. Lynch and D. L. Patrick, “Organizing carbon nanotubes with liquid crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1197–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abbate, G.

A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, E. Santamato, N. Bennis, X. Quintana, J. M. Otón, and G. Abbate, “Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073109 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, A. Marino, F. Vita, M. Giocondo, A. Mazzulla, and L. De Stefano, “High accuracy optical characterization of anisotropic liquids by merging standard techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Algorri, J. F.

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, X. Quintana, and J. M. Otón, “Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 6, 396–403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basu, R.

R. Basu and G. S. Iannacchione, “Orientational coupling enhancement in a carbon nanotube dispersed liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81(5), 051705 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Basu, K. A. Boccuzzi, S. Ferjani, and C. Rosenblatt, “Carbon nanotube-induced chirality in an achiral liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beeckman, J.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, “Liquid-crystal photonic applications,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bennis, N.

A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, E. Santamato, N. Bennis, X. Quintana, J. M. Otón, and G. Abbate, “Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boccuzzi, K. A.

R. Basu, K. A. Boccuzzi, S. Ferjani, and C. Rosenblatt, “Carbon nanotube-induced chirality in an achiral liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cacace, T.

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caputo, R.

Caserta, S.

A. C. De Luca, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, S. Caserta, S. Guido, and A. Sasso, “Diffusion in polymer blends by Raman microscopy,” Macromolecules 41(15), 5512–5514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Casson, K.

I. Dierking, K. Casson, and R. Hampson, “Reorientation dynamics of liquid crystal-nanotube dispersions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6390–6393 (2008).
[Crossref]

Castriota, M.

Cazzanelli, E.

Cha, S. N.

J. I. Sohn, W. K. Hong, S. S. Choi, H. J. Coles, M. E. Welland, S. N. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “Emerging applications of liquid crystals based on nanotechnology,” Materials (Basel) 7(3), 2044–2061 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. S.

J. I. Sohn, W. K. Hong, S. S. Choi, H. J. Coles, M. E. Welland, S. N. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “Emerging applications of liquid crystals based on nanotechnology,” Materials (Basel) 7(3), 2044–2061 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

J. I. Sohn, W. K. Hong, S. S. Choi, H. J. Coles, M. E. Welland, S. N. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “Emerging applications of liquid crystals based on nanotechnology,” Materials (Basel) 7(3), 2044–2061 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Luca, A. C.

A. C. De Luca, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, S. Caserta, S. Guido, and A. Sasso, “Diffusion in polymer blends by Raman microscopy,” Macromolecules 41(15), 5512–5514 (2008).
[Crossref]

De Sio, L.

De Stefano, L.

V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, A. Marino, F. Vita, M. Giocondo, A. Mazzulla, and L. De Stefano, “High accuracy optical characterization of anisotropic liquids by merging standard techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dierking, I.

I. Dierking, K. Casson, and R. Hampson, “Reorientation dynamics of liquid crystal-nanotube dispersions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6390–6393 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, and P. Morales, “Liquid crystal-carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 044309 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, P. Morales, and D. LeClere, “Aligning and Reorienting Carbon Nanotubes with Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(11), 865–869 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dochshanov, A.

G. Zito, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, A. Dochshanov, and A. Sasso, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of cell membrane by a highly homogeneous and isotropic silver nanostructure,” Nanoscale 7(18), 8593–8606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fasanella, A.

Ferjani, S.

R. Basu, K. A. Boccuzzi, S. Ferjani, and C. Rosenblatt, “Carbon nanotube-induced chirality in an achiral liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121908 (2010).
[Crossref]

García-García, A.

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, X. Quintana, and J. M. Otón, “Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 6, 396–403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geday, M. A.

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

Giocondo, M.

V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, A. Marino, F. Vita, M. Giocondo, A. Mazzulla, and L. De Stefano, “High accuracy optical characterization of anisotropic liquids by merging standard techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guido, S.

A. C. De Luca, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, S. Caserta, S. Guido, and A. Sasso, “Diffusion in polymer blends by Raman microscopy,” Macromolecules 41(15), 5512–5514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hampson, R.

I. Dierking, K. Casson, and R. Hampson, “Reorientation dynamics of liquid crystal-nanotube dispersions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6390–6393 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hong, W. K.

J. I. Sohn, W. K. Hong, S. S. Choi, H. J. Coles, M. E. Welland, S. N. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “Emerging applications of liquid crystals based on nanotechnology,” Materials (Basel) 7(3), 2044–2061 (2014).
[Crossref]

Iannacchione, G. S.

R. Basu and G. S. Iannacchione, “Orientational coupling enhancement in a carbon nanotube dispersed liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81(5), 051705 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, K.-U.

Jeong, S. H.

Jeong, S. J.

Kim, J. M.

J. I. Sohn, W. K. Hong, S. S. Choi, H. J. Coles, M. E. Welland, S. N. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “Emerging applications of liquid crystals based on nanotechnology,” Materials (Basel) 7(3), 2044–2061 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kotsialos, A.

M. K. Massey, D. Volpati, F. Qaiser, A. Kotsialos, C. Pearson, D. A. Zeze, and M. C. Petty, “Alignment of liquid crystal/carbon nanotube dispersions for application in unconventional computing,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1648, 280009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

LeClere, D.

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, P. Morales, and D. LeClere, “Aligning and Reorienting Carbon Nanotubes with Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(11), 865–869 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

Lee, S. M.

K. A. Park, S. M. Lee, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Anchoring a Liquid Crystal Molecule on a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(4), 1620–1624 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

Lu, R.

Lynch, M. D.

M. D. Lynch and D. L. Patrick, “Organizing carbon nanotubes with liquid crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1197–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Marino, A.

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, E. Santamato, N. Bennis, X. Quintana, J. M. Otón, and G. Abbate, “Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073109 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, A. Marino, F. Vita, M. Giocondo, A. Mazzulla, and L. De Stefano, “High accuracy optical characterization of anisotropic liquids by merging standard techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Massey, M. K.

M. K. Massey, D. Volpati, F. Qaiser, A. Kotsialos, C. Pearson, D. A. Zeze, and M. C. Petty, “Alignment of liquid crystal/carbon nanotube dispersions for application in unconventional computing,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1648, 280009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mazzulla, A.

V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, A. Marino, F. Vita, M. Giocondo, A. Mazzulla, and L. De Stefano, “High accuracy optical characterization of anisotropic liquids by merging standard techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Morales, P.

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, and P. Morales, “Liquid crystal-carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 044309 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, P. Morales, and D. LeClere, “Aligning and Reorienting Carbon Nanotubes with Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(11), 865–869 (2004).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, “Liquid-crystal photonic applications,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Otón, J. M.

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, X. Quintana, and J. M. Otón, “Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 6, 396–403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, E. Santamato, N. Bennis, X. Quintana, J. M. Otón, and G. Abbate, “Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, H. S.

Park, K. A.

K. A. Park, S. M. Lee, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Anchoring a Liquid Crystal Molecule on a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(4), 1620–1624 (2007).
[Crossref]

Patrick, D. L.

M. D. Lynch and D. L. Patrick, “Organizing carbon nanotubes with liquid crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1197–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pearson, C.

M. K. Massey, D. Volpati, F. Qaiser, A. Kotsialos, C. Pearson, D. A. Zeze, and M. C. Petty, “Alignment of liquid crystal/carbon nanotube dispersions for application in unconventional computing,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1648, 280009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pesce, G.

G. Zito, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, A. Dochshanov, and A. Sasso, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of cell membrane by a highly homogeneous and isotropic silver nanostructure,” Nanoscale 7(18), 8593–8606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. De Luca, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, S. Caserta, S. Guido, and A. Sasso, “Diffusion in polymer blends by Raman microscopy,” Macromolecules 41(15), 5512–5514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Petty, M. C.

M. K. Massey, D. Volpati, F. Qaiser, A. Kotsialos, C. Pearson, D. A. Zeze, and M. C. Petty, “Alignment of liquid crystal/carbon nanotube dispersions for application in unconventional computing,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1648, 280009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Piccirillo, B.

Pissadakis, S.

Qaiser, F.

M. K. Massey, D. Volpati, F. Qaiser, A. Kotsialos, C. Pearson, D. A. Zeze, and M. C. Petty, “Alignment of liquid crystal/carbon nanotube dispersions for application in unconventional computing,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1648, 280009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Quintana, X.

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, X. Quintana, and J. M. Otón, “Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 6, 396–403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, E. Santamato, N. Bennis, X. Quintana, J. M. Otón, and G. Abbate, “Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rosenblatt, C.

R. Basu, K. A. Boccuzzi, S. Ferjani, and C. Rosenblatt, “Carbon nanotube-induced chirality in an achiral liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121908 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rusciano, G.

G. Zito, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, A. Dochshanov, and A. Sasso, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of cell membrane by a highly homogeneous and isotropic silver nanostructure,” Nanoscale 7(18), 8593–8606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. De Luca, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, S. Caserta, S. Guido, and A. Sasso, “Diffusion in polymer blends by Raman microscopy,” Macromolecules 41(15), 5512–5514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saar, B. G.

Santamato, E.

A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, E. Santamato, N. Bennis, X. Quintana, J. M. Otón, and G. Abbate, “Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073109 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasso, A.

G. Zito, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, A. Dochshanov, and A. Sasso, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of cell membrane by a highly homogeneous and isotropic silver nanostructure,” Nanoscale 7(18), 8593–8606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. De Luca, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, S. Caserta, S. Guido, and A. Sasso, “Diffusion in polymer blends by Raman microscopy,” Macromolecules 41(15), 5512–5514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scalia, G.

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, and P. Morales, “Liquid crystal-carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 044309 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, P. Morales, and D. LeClere, “Aligning and Reorienting Carbon Nanotubes with Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(11), 865–869 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sohn, J. I.

J. I. Sohn, W. K. Hong, S. S. Choi, H. J. Coles, M. E. Welland, S. N. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “Emerging applications of liquid crystals based on nanotechnology,” Materials (Basel) 7(3), 2044–2061 (2014).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A. K.

Sureshkumar, P.

Tkachenko, V.

A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, E. Santamato, N. Bennis, X. Quintana, J. M. Otón, and G. Abbate, “Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073109 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, A. Marino, F. Vita, M. Giocondo, A. Mazzulla, and L. De Stefano, “High accuracy optical characterization of anisotropic liquids by merging standard techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Umeton, C.

Vanbrabant, P. J. M.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, “Liquid-crystal photonic applications,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vergaz, R.

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, X. Quintana, and J. M. Otón, “Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 6, 396–403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vita, F.

V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, A. Marino, F. Vita, M. Giocondo, A. Mazzulla, and L. De Stefano, “High accuracy optical characterization of anisotropic liquids by merging standard techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Volpati, D.

M. K. Massey, D. Volpati, F. Qaiser, A. Kotsialos, C. Pearson, D. A. Zeze, and M. C. Petty, “Alignment of liquid crystal/carbon nanotube dispersions for application in unconventional computing,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1648, 280009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Welland, M. E.

J. I. Sohn, W. K. Hong, S. S. Choi, H. J. Coles, M. E. Welland, S. N. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “Emerging applications of liquid crystals based on nanotechnology,” Materials (Basel) 7(3), 2044–2061 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

Xie, X. S.

Zeze, D. A.

M. K. Massey, D. Volpati, F. Qaiser, A. Kotsialos, C. Pearson, D. A. Zeze, and M. C. Petty, “Alignment of liquid crystal/carbon nanotube dispersions for application in unconventional computing,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1648, 280009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zito, G.

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zito, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, A. Dochshanov, and A. Sasso, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of cell membrane by a highly homogeneous and isotropic silver nanostructure,” Nanoscale 7(18), 8593–8606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zito and S. Pissadakis, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal Bragg grating integrated inside a solid core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3253–3256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zito, B. Piccirillo, E. Santamato, A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, and G. Abbate, “Two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals by single beam computer-generated holography,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5164–5170 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, P. Morales, and D. LeClere, “Aligning and Reorienting Carbon Nanotubes with Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(11), 865–869 (2004).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

M. K. Massey, D. Volpati, F. Qaiser, A. Kotsialos, C. Pearson, D. A. Zeze, and M. C. Petty, “Alignment of liquid crystal/carbon nanotube dispersions for application in unconventional computing,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1648, 280009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Basu, K. A. Boccuzzi, S. Ferjani, and C. Rosenblatt, “Carbon nanotube-induced chirality in an achiral liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121908 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Tkachenko, G. Abbate, A. Marino, F. Vita, M. Giocondo, A. Mazzulla, and L. De Stefano, “High accuracy optical characterization of anisotropic liquids by merging standard techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. (2)

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, X. Quintana, and J. M. Otón, “Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 6, 396–403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-García, R. Vergaz, J. F. Algorri, G. Zito, T. Cacace, A. Marino, J. M. Otón, and M. A. Geday, “Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 7, 825–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Marino, V. Tkachenko, E. Santamato, N. Bennis, X. Quintana, J. M. Otón, and G. Abbate, “Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(7), 073109 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Dierking, G. Scalia, and P. Morales, “Liquid crystal-carbon nanotube dispersions,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 044309 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

K. A. Park, S. M. Lee, S. H. Lee, and Y. H. Lee, “Anchoring a Liquid Crystal Molecule on a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(4), 1620–1624 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Dierking, K. Casson, and R. Hampson, “Reorientation dynamics of liquid crystal-nanotube dispersions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(8), 6390–6393 (2008).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (1)

A. C. De Luca, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, S. Caserta, S. Guido, and A. Sasso, “Diffusion in polymer blends by Raman microscopy,” Macromolecules 41(15), 5512–5514 (2008).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

J. I. Sohn, W. K. Hong, S. S. Choi, H. J. Coles, M. E. Welland, S. N. Cha, and J. M. Kim, “Emerging applications of liquid crystals based on nanotechnology,” Materials (Basel) 7(3), 2044–2061 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. D. Lynch and D. L. Patrick, “Organizing carbon nanotubes with liquid crystals,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1197–1201 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

G. Zito, G. Rusciano, G. Pesce, A. Dochshanov, and A. Sasso, “Surface-enhanced Raman imaging of cell membrane by a highly homogeneous and isotropic silver nanostructure,” Nanoscale 7(18), 8593–8606 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, and P. J. M. Vanbrabant, “Liquid-crystal photonic applications,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 081202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

R. Basu and G. S. Iannacchione, “Orientational coupling enhancement in a carbon nanotube dispersed liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81(5), 051705 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College, 1998).

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon Press, 1995).

S. Schymura and G. Scalia, “On the effect of carbon nanotubes on properties of liquid crystals,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 371, 20120261 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Effect of an OFF-ON-OFF voltage cycle on the sample LC cell. (a) LC and MWCNTs are originally both planar aligned. (b) Applying voltage above threshold, the positive dielectric anisotropy LC switches to an orientation perpendicular to the plates. (c) When the voltage is switched off, only LC molecules relax to their initial alignment, while CNTs recover only partially.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental (symbols) and simulated (lines) Ψ and Ψsp parameters, before and after the application of an external field.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental and simulated data for transmittance of the p- and s-polarized light, before and after the application of the high intensity external field.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Representative LC spectra in different configurations: the incident light is polarized along the x axis, while the LC molecular director may lay along it (a), or orthogonal (b). The intensities are normalized to the highest peak. Depending on the orientation of the LC molecules, the aromatic ring CC (1610 cm−1), cyano group CN (2220 cm−1), and CH2 (2800-3000 cm−1) stretching modes change their intensity.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Integrated intensity maps of CN band of LC at different depths; the central zone corresponds to the MWCNT presence. (b) Maps of the ratio between the integrated intensity of the CN and CH2 bands over a surface of 100 μm2 around a defect (central point). The cell is in two configurations: with the rubbing direction parallel to x-axis (i) and along y-axis (ii). Incident polarization is parallel to the x-axis. The beam, having a confocal depth of 2.6 μm, is focused nearly 6 μm above the bottom glass. Right pictures depict a sketch of the proposed corresponding LC director distribution around the defect (the black dot indicates the vertically aligned MWCNT).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Raster scans of the integrated intensity of the cyano peak CN acquired at different depths along the cell around the MWCNT.

Equations (1)

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[ B p B s ]=[ t pp t sp t ps t ss ][ A p A s ]

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