Abstract

For photon energies of 1 – 5 keV, blazed gratings with multilayer coating are ideally suited for the suppression of stray and higher orders light in grating monochromators. We developed and characterized a blazed 2000 lines/mm grating coated with a 20 period Cr/C- multilayer. The multilayer d-spacing of 7.3 nm has been adapted to the line distance of 500 nm and the blaze angle of 0.84° in order to provide highest efficiency in the photon energy range between 1.5 keV and 3 keV. Efficiency of the multilayer grating as well as the reflectance of a witness multilayer which were coated simultaneously have been measured. An efficiency of 35% was measured at 2 keV while a maximum efficiency of 55% was achieved at 4 keV. In addition, a strong suppression of higher orders was observed which makes blazed multilayer gratings a favorable dispersing element also for the low X-ray energy range.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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  6. V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yuakshin, and Y. A. Agafonov, “Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 3150, 2–8 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. Wernecke, H. Okuda, H. Ogawa, F. Siewert, and M. Krumrey, “Depth-dependent structural changes in PS-b-P2VP thin films induced by annealing macromolecules,” Macromolecules 47(16), 5719–5727 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B4C/Mo2C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of diffraction efficiency via higher-order operation of a multilayer blazed grating,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3157–3160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

B. Löchel, A. Erko, St. Lemke, B. Nelles, M. Schmidt, and F. Senf, “Installation of a technological center for highly efficient optical gratings at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425(21), 212012 (2013).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

F. Schaefers, M. Mertin, and M. Gorgoi, “KMC-1: a high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. L. Windt, “„IMD: Software for modeling optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

R. Follath and F. Senf, “New plane-grating monochromators for third generation synchrotron radiation light sources,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 390(3), 388–394 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yuakshin, and Y. A. Agafonov, “Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 3150, 2–8 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

F. Schäfers and M. Krumrey, “REFLEC - a program to calculate VUV and soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” Technischer Bericht 201, 1 (1996).

1990 (1)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41(4), 418–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

W. Jark, “Enhancement of diffraction grating efficiencies in the soft x-ray region by a multilayer coating,” Opt. Commun. 60(4), 201–205 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

E. Spiller, “Evaporated multilayer dispersion elements for soft x-rays,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 124–130 (1981).
[Crossref]

Agafonov, Y. A.

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yuakshin, and Y. A. Agafonov, “Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 3150, 2–8 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barbee, T. W.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41(4), 418–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. W. Barbee., “Combined microstructure x-ray optics; multilayer diffraction gratings,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp.103, 307–314 (1988).

Bischoff, P.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bridou, F.

Bunau, O.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choueikani, F.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B4C/Mo2C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cruddace, R. G.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41(4), 418–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

Daguerre, J.-P.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delmotte, F.

Deschamps, F.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eggenstein, F.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erko, A.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Löchel, A. Erko, St. Lemke, B. Nelles, M. Schmidt, and F. Senf, “Installation of a technological center for highly efficient optical gratings at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425(21), 212012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, H.

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Follath, R.

R. Follath and F. Senf, “New plane-grating monochromators for third generation synchrotron radiation light sources,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 390(3), 388–394 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gaupp, A.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorgoi, M.

F. Schaefers, M. Mertin, and M. Gorgoi, “KMC-1: a high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

Huang, Q.

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hunter, W. R.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41(4), 418–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jark, W.

W. Jark, “Enhancement of diffraction grating efficiencies in the soft x-ray region by a multilayer coating,” Opt. Commun. 60(4), 201–205 (1986).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Joly, L.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kappler, J. P.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

Krumrey, M.

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B4C/Mo2C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wernecke, H. Okuda, H. Ogawa, F. Siewert, and M. Krumrey, “Depth-dependent structural changes in PS-b-P2VP thin films induced by annealing macromolecules,” Macromolecules 47(16), 5719–5727 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Schäfers and M. Krumrey, “REFLEC - a program to calculate VUV and soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” Technischer Bericht 201, 1 (1996).

Künstner, S.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagarde, B.

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B4C/Mo2C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemke, St.

B. Löchel, A. Erko, St. Lemke, B. Nelles, M. Schmidt, and F. Senf, “Installation of a technological center for highly efficient optical gratings at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425(21), 212012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Löchel, B.

B. Löchel, A. Erko, St. Lemke, B. Nelles, M. Schmidt, and F. Senf, “Installation of a technological center for highly efficient optical gratings at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425(21), 212012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marteau, F.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martynov, V. V.

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yuakshin, and Y. A. Agafonov, “Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 3150, 2–8 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mast, M.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meltchakov, E.

Mertin, M.

F. Schaefers, M. Mertin, and M. Gorgoi, “KMC-1: a high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreno, T.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, B.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelles, B.

B. Löchel, A. Erko, St. Lemke, B. Nelles, M. Schmidt, and F. Senf, “Installation of a technological center for highly efficient optical gratings at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425(21), 212012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, H.

J. Wernecke, H. Okuda, H. Ogawa, F. Siewert, and M. Krumrey, “Depth-dependent structural changes in PS-b-P2VP thin films induced by annealing macromolecules,” Macromolecules 47(16), 5719–5727 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ohresser, P.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okuda, H.

J. Wernecke, H. Okuda, H. Ogawa, F. Siewert, and M. Krumrey, “Depth-dependent structural changes in PS-b-P2VP thin films induced by annealing macromolecules,” Macromolecules 47(16), 5719–5727 (2014).
[Crossref]

Otero, E.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padmore, H. A.

D. L. Voronov, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, T. Warwick, and H. A. Padmore, “Enhancement of diffraction efficiency via higher-order operation of a multilayer blazed grating,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3157–3160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yuakshin, and Y. A. Agafonov, “Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 3150, 2–8 (1997).
[Crossref]

Polack, F.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B4C/Mo2C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rife, J. C.

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41(4), 418–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sainctavit, P.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salmassi, F.

Schaefers, F.

F. Schaefers, M. Mertin, and M. Gorgoi, “KMC-1: a high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfers, F.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schäfers and M. Krumrey, “REFLEC - a program to calculate VUV and soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” Technischer Bericht 201, 1 (1996).

Scheurer, F.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J.-S.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M.

B. Löchel, A. Erko, St. Lemke, B. Nelles, M. Schmidt, and F. Senf, “Installation of a technological center for highly efficient optical gratings at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425(21), 212012 (2013).
[Crossref]

Senf, F.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Löchel, A. Erko, St. Lemke, B. Nelles, M. Schmidt, and F. Senf, “Installation of a technological center for highly efficient optical gratings at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425(21), 212012 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Follath and F. Senf, “New plane-grating monochromators for third generation synchrotron radiation light sources,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 390(3), 388–394 (1997).
[Crossref]

She, R.

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Siewert, F.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wernecke, H. Okuda, H. Ogawa, F. Siewert, and M. Krumrey, “Depth-dependent structural changes in PS-b-P2VP thin films induced by annealing macromolecules,” Macromolecules 47(16), 5719–5727 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, A.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, “Evaporated multilayer dispersion elements for soft x-rays,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 124–130 (1981).
[Crossref]

Stanescu, S.

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomasset, M.

Voronov, D. L.

Wang, H.

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Warwick, T.

Wen, M.

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wernecke, J.

J. Wernecke, H. Okuda, H. Ogawa, F. Siewert, and M. Krumrey, “Depth-dependent structural changes in PS-b-P2VP thin films induced by annealing macromolecules,” Macromolecules 47(16), 5719–5727 (2014).
[Crossref]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, “„IMD: Software for modeling optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yuakshin, A.

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yuakshin, and Y. A. Agafonov, “Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 3150, 2–8 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zeschke, T.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

E. Spiller, “Evaporated multilayer dispersion elements for soft x-rays,” AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 124–130 (1981).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “„IMD: Software for modeling optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

B. Löchel, A. Erko, St. Lemke, B. Nelles, M. Schmidt, and F. Senf, “Installation of a technological center for highly efficient optical gratings at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB),” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 425(21), 212012 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23(1), 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macromolecules (1)

J. Wernecke, H. Okuda, H. Ogawa, F. Siewert, and M. Krumrey, “Depth-dependent structural changes in PS-b-P2VP thin films induced by annealing macromolecules,” Macromolecules 47(16), 5719–5727 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

R. Follath and F. Senf, “New plane-grating monochromators for third generation synchrotron radiation light sources,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 390(3), 388–394 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Jark, “Enhancement of diffraction grating efficiencies in the soft x-ray region by a multilayer coating,” Opt. Commun. 60(4), 201–205 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, and R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41(4), 418–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. V. Martynov, H. A. Padmore, A. Yuakshin, and Y. A. Agafonov, “Lamellar multilayer gratings with very high diffraction efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 3150, 2–8 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

F. Schaefers, M. Mertin, and M. Gorgoi, “KMC-1: a high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ohresser, E. Otero, F. Choueikani, K. Chen, S. Stanescu, F. Deschamps, T. Moreno, F. Polack, B. Lagarde, J.-P. Daguerre, F. Marteau, F. Scheurer, L. Joly, J. P. Kappler, B. Muller, O. Bunau, and P. Sainctavit, “DEIMOS: a beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350-2500 eV energy range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Technischer Bericht (1)

F. Schäfers and M. Krumrey, “REFLEC - a program to calculate VUV and soft x-ray optical elements and synchrotron radiation beamlines,” Technischer Bericht 201, 1 (1996).

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Wen, L. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Huang, Z. Wang, R. She, H. Feng, and H. Wang, “High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft x-ray polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 592(B), 262–265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

A. Sokolov, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, Th. Zeschke, and F. Schäfers, “At-wavelength metrology facility for XUV reflection gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., Proc. Intern. Workshop on X-ray Mirror Design, Fabrication and Metrology (IWXM 2015) 2016.

T. W. Barbee., “Combined microstructure x-ray optics; multilayer diffraction gratings,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp.103, 307–314 (1988).

F. Schäfers and R. Cimino, “Soft X-ray reflectivity: from quasi-perfect mirrors to accelerator walls,” In Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects: ECLOUD’12; 2012, La Biodola, Isola d’Elba, Italy, Proc.: CERN Yellow Report No. CERN-2013–002, 105–115 (2013).

Commercial software “DiffractMOD/RSoft” distributed by LIGHT TEC, France.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 After a 6 days ruling process a 30 mm by 60 mm large grating with 2000 l/mm and a blaze angle 6° has been achieved (left). The lines with a distance of 500 nm are barely visible with a microscope (right).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A 5 x 5 µm2 view field with a roughness 0.2 nm on the facets (top) and an integrated (1 µm along the lines) line cross section showing the blaze profile (bottom).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The normalized angle dependent signal from the multilayer blazed grating for 1.7° fixed incidence angle and at 2.2 keV photon energy is shown. The + 1st order dominates the higher orders by more than three orders of magnitude. Even the 0th order signal is a factor of 20 lower.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 An angular (θ-2θ)-scan shows the peak reflectance of a 20 periods witness multilayer at 2.2 keV.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 First diffraction order efficiency measurements from 0.6 keV to 4.8 keV are shown (squares & triangles) as well as a curve fit for the measurements (blue line) and compared to calculated + 1st order efficiencies (green line). Stars and red line indicate results for 0th order measurements and calculations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated reflectance of the witness multilayer without (black line) and with the measured 0.17 nm roughness (red line) as well as the measured reflectance (squares) is shown. The green curve indicates a fit for the measurements.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The measured efficiency of the MLBG (blue) divided by the reflectance of the ML mirror (green) yields the material-independent relative measured efficiency (red).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Detector-scan for the energy 0.8 keV (black) and the double energy 1.6 keV (red). The incidence angle was kept fixed at 5.85°. Each spectrum has been normalized to its I0-flux.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 A normalized (θ-2θ)-scan for 0.8 keV and for 1.6 keV shows that the first multilayer order at 0.8 keV does not coincide with the second order of 1.6 keV. The shift is caused by the difference of the refractive indices at different photon energies.

Equations (5)

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m λ = 2 d G sin ϒ   s i n θ ,
n λ = 2 d M L sin θ ( 1 ( 2 δ ) / ( sin 2 θ ) ) 1 / 2 ,
n λ 2 d M L sin θ .
d M L ( n / m ) d G s i n ϒ .
d M L ( n / m ) d G sin ϒ .

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