Abstract

Sunlight contamination dominates the backscatter noise in space-based lidar measurements during daytime. The background scattered sunlight is highly variable and dependent upon the surface and atmospheric albedo. The scattered sunlight contribution to noise increases over land and snow surfaces where surface albedos are high and thus overwhelm lidar backscatter from optically thin atmospheric constituents like aerosols and thin clouds. In this work, we developed a novel lidar remote sensing concept that potentially can eliminate sunlight induced noise. The new lidar concept requires: (1) a transmitted laser light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM); and (2) a photon sieve (PS) diffractive filter that separates scattered sunlight from laser light backscattered from the atmosphere, ocean and solid surfaces. The method is based on numerical modeling of the focusing of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) laser beam and plane-wave light by a PS. The model results show that after passing through a PS, laser light that carries the OAM is focused on a ring (called “focal ring” here) on the focal plane of the PS filter, very little energy arrives at the center of the focal plane. However, scattered sunlight, as a plane wave without the OAM, focuses at the center of the focal plane and thus can be effectively blocked or ducted out. We also find that the radius of the “focal ring” increases with the increase of azimuthal mode (L) of LG laser light, thus increasing L can more effectively separate the lidar signal away from the sunlight noise.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. L. Wu, J. H. Chae, A. Lambert, and F. F. Zhang, “Characteristics of CALIOP attenuated backscatter noise: implication for cloud/aerosol detection,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(6), 2641–2654 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. W. Sun, B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, and Z. Liu, “On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D17), D17101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(19), L19803 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Sun, G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu, “A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and AIRS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D22), D2207 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. Sun, G. Videen, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Detecting super-thin clouds with polarized sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(2), 688–693 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu, “A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11909–11918 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52(8), 429–431 (1990).
  11. V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39(5), 985–990 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, “Laser beams with phase singularities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(9), S951–S962 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. S. Soskin, V. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. Malos, and N. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4064–4075 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231124 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G. Andersen, “Large optical photon sieve,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 2976–2978 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Tang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. He, “Focusing property of high numerical aperture photon sieves based on vector diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 295, 1–4 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. Sun, Y. Hu, C. Weimer, K. Ayers, R. R. Baize, and T. Lee, “A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.in press.

2015 (1)

W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu, “A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11909–11918 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

W. Sun, G. Videen, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Detecting super-thin clouds with polarized sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(2), 688–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Tang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. He, “Focusing property of high numerical aperture photon sieves based on vector diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 295, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

W. Sun, G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu, “A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and AIRS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D22), D2207 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. L. Wu, J. H. Chae, A. Lambert, and F. F. Zhang, “Characteristics of CALIOP attenuated backscatter noise: implication for cloud/aerosol detection,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(6), 2641–2654 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, and Z. Liu, “On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D17), D17101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(19), L19803 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. S. Soskin, V. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. Malos, and N. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4064–4075 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39(5), 985–990 (1992).
[Crossref]

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, “Laser beams with phase singularities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(9), S951–S962 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52(8), 429–431 (1990).

Adelung, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, G.

Aumann, H. H.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ayers, K.

W. Sun, Y. Hu, C. Weimer, K. Ayers, R. R. Baize, and T. Lee, “A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.in press.

Baize, R. R.

W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu, “A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11909–11918 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, Y. Hu, C. Weimer, K. Ayers, R. R. Baize, and T. Lee, “A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.in press.

Bazhenov, V. Y.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39(5), 985–990 (1992).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52(8), 429–431 (1990).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berndt, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, J. H.

D. L. Wu, J. H. Chae, A. Lambert, and F. F. Zhang, “Characteristics of CALIOP attenuated backscatter noise: implication for cloud/aerosol detection,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(6), 2641–2654 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chahine, M. T.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fu, Q.

W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu, “A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11909–11918 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gautier, C.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, M. D.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gorshkov, V.

M. S. Soskin, V. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. Malos, and N. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4064–4075 (1997).
[Crossref]

Harm, S.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

Y. Tang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. He, “Focusing property of high numerical aperture photon sieves based on vector diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 295, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heckenberg, N.

M. S. Soskin, V. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. Malos, and N. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4064–4075 (1997).
[Crossref]

Heckenberg, N. R.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, “Laser beams with phase singularities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(9), S951–S962 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.

Y. Tang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. He, “Focusing property of high numerical aperture photon sieves based on vector diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 295, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu, “A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11909–11918 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, and Z. Liu, “On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D17), D17101 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu, “A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and AIRS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D22), D2207 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, Y. Hu, C. Weimer, K. Ayers, R. R. Baize, and T. Lee, “A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.in press.

Hunt, W. H.

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(19), L19803 (2007).
[Crossref]

Johnson, R. L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalnay, E.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kato, S.

W. Sun, G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu, “A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and AIRS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D22), D2207 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, and Z. Liu, “On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D17), D17101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kipp, L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lambert, A.

D. L. Wu, J. H. Chae, A. Lambert, and F. F. Zhang, “Characteristics of CALIOP attenuated backscatter noise: implication for cloud/aerosol detection,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(6), 2641–2654 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.

W. Sun, Y. Hu, C. Weimer, K. Ayers, R. R. Baize, and T. Lee, “A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.in press.

Lin, B.

W. Sun, G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu, “A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and AIRS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D22), D2207 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, and Z. Liu, “On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D17), D17101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

W. Sun, B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, and Z. Liu, “On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D17), D17101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lukashin, C.

W. Sun, B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, and Z. Liu, “On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D17), D17101 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu, “A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and AIRS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D22), D2207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Malos, J.

M. S. Soskin, V. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. Malos, and N. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4064–4075 (1997).
[Crossref]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDuff, R.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, “Laser beams with phase singularities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(9), S951–S962 (1992).
[Crossref]

McGill, M. J.

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(19), L19803 (2007).
[Crossref]

McMillin, L. M.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mishchenko, M. I.

W. Sun, G. Videen, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Detecting super-thin clouds with polarized sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(2), 688–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nagali, E.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piccirillo, B.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Revercomb, H.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rosenkranz, P. W.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, “Laser beams with phase singularities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(9), S951–S962 (1992).
[Crossref]

Santamato, E.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seemann, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skibowski, M.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, C. P.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, “Laser beams with phase singularities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(9), S951–S962 (1992).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. L.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Soskin, M. S.

M. S. Soskin, V. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. Malos, and N. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4064–4075 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39(5), 985–990 (1992).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52(8), 429–431 (1990).

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staelin, D. H.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Strow, L. L.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu, “A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11909–11918 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, G. Videen, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Detecting super-thin clouds with polarized sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(2), 688–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, and Z. Liu, “On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D17), D17101 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu, “A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and AIRS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D22), D2207 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, Y. Hu, C. Weimer, K. Ayers, R. R. Baize, and T. Lee, “A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.in press.

Susskind, J.

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. He, “Focusing property of high numerical aperture photon sieves based on vector diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 295, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

M. S. Soskin, V. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. Malos, and N. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4064–4075 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39(5), 985–990 (1992).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52(8), 429–431 (1990).

Videen, G.

W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu, “A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11909–11918 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, G. Videen, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Detecting super-thin clouds with polarized sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(2), 688–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu, “A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and AIRS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D22), D2207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M. J.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, “Laser beams with phase singularities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(9), S951–S962 (1992).
[Crossref]

Weimer, C.

W. Sun, Y. Hu, C. Weimer, K. Ayers, R. R. Baize, and T. Lee, “A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.in press.

Winker, D. M.

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(19), L19803 (2007).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, D. L.

D. L. Wu, J. H. Chae, A. Lambert, and F. F. Zhang, “Characteristics of CALIOP attenuated backscatter noise: implication for cloud/aerosol detection,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(6), 2641–2654 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Tang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. He, “Focusing property of high numerical aperture photon sieves based on vector diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 295, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F. F.

D. L. Wu, J. H. Chae, A. Lambert, and F. F. Zhang, “Characteristics of CALIOP attenuated backscatter noise: implication for cloud/aerosol detection,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(6), 2641–2654 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (2)

D. L. Wu, J. H. Chae, A. Lambert, and F. F. Zhang, “Characteristics of CALIOP attenuated backscatter noise: implication for cloud/aerosol detection,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11(6), 2641–2654 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu, “A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15(20), 11909–11918 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

W. Sun, G. Videen, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Detecting super-thin clouds with polarized sunlight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(2), 688–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, W. H. Hunt, and M. J. McGill, “Initial performance assessment of CALIOP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(19), L19803 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

H. H. Aumann, M. T. Chahine, C. Gautier, M. D. Goldberg, E. Kalnay, L. M. McMillin, H. Revercomb, P. W. Rosenkranz, W. L. Smith, D. H. Staelin, L. L. Strow, and J. Susskind, “AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products, and processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(2), 253–264 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

W. Sun, G. Videen, S. Kato, B. Lin, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu, “A study of subvisual clouds and their radiation effect with a synergy of CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and AIRS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D22), D2207 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, B. Lin, Y. Hu, C. Lukashin, S. Kato, and Z. Liu, “On the consistency of CERES longwave flux and AIRS temperature and humidity profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 116(D17), D17101 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39(5), 985–990 (1992).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett. 52(8), 429–431 (1990).

Nature (1)

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, “Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,” Nature 414(6860), 184–188 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. Tang, S. Hu, Y. Yang, and Y. He, “Focusing property of high numerical aperture photon sieves based on vector diffraction,” Opt. Commun. 295, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, “Laser beams with phase singularities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(9), S951–S962 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. S. Soskin, V. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. Malos, and N. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56(5), 4064–4075 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. Sun, Y. Hu, C. Weimer, K. Ayers, R. R. Baize, and T. Lee, “A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.in press.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of a photon sieve and light of plane wave and light with the OAM focused on the focal plane.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Left panel: Intensity of electric field of a plane-wave light on the focal plane of a photon sieve; and right panel: Intensity of electric field of a regular Gaussian beam on the focal plane of a photon sieve.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Laser with orbital angular momentum (OAM) focused on the focal plane of a photon sieve. The LG laser is of L = 1, L = 3, L = 5, and L = 7, respectively. The spatial distribution of the light intensity is well off the focal point of the photon sieve when L > 5.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(r,φ,z)= C Lp w(z) ( r 2 w(z) ) |L| exp( r 2 w 2 (z) ) L p |L| ( 2 r 2 w 2 (z) ) ×exp(ik r 2 2R(z) )exp(iLφ)exp[i(2p+|L|+1)ζ(z)],
E x (x,y,z)= n=1 M E x n (x,y,z),
E y (x,y,z)= n=1 M E y n (x,y,z),
E z (x,y,z)= n=1 M E z n (x,y,z),
E x n (x,y,z)= r n E x ( x n , y n ) × 0 k exp(ikmz) J 0 ( r ' k r ) J 1 ( r n k r )d k r ,
E y n (x,y,z)= r n E y ( x n , y n ) × 0 k exp(ikmz) J 0 ( r ' k r ) J 1 ( r n k r )d k r ,
E z n (x,y,z)=i r n [ E x ( x n , y n )cosα + E y ( x n , y n )sinα] × 0 k k r km exp(ikmz) J 0 ( r ' k r ) J 1 ( r n k r )d k r ,

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