Abstract

An optical sensor based on grating-assisted light coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide is demonstrated (the sensor was proposed and analyzed in [Opt. Express 21, 5897-5909 (2013)]. The wavelength at which the light is strongly coupled between two waveguides is used to the measure the external medium’s refractive index. The sensor was fabricated with silicon nitride waveguides and obvious grating induced band-rejection and band-pass characteristics were observed. The measured sensitivity of the fabricated sensor was −756.1 nm/RIU. Furthermore, by covering the strip waveguide with the silicon dioxide cladding, the sensitivity was measured to be as large as −1970 nm/RIU, which was 2.6 times enhanced. The experimental results agreed well with the calculated sensitivity values.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
A refractive index sensor design based on grating-assisted coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide

Qing Liu, Jack Sheng Kee, and Mi Kyoung Park
Opt. Express 21(5) 5897-5909 (2013)

Optimized sensitivity of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) strip waveguide resonator sensor

Sahba TalebiFard, Shon Schmidt, Wei Shi, WenXuan Wu, Nicolas A. F. Jaeger, Ezra Kwok, Daniel M. Ratner, and Lukas Chrostowski
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2) 500-511 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Yi, D. S. Citrin, and Z. Zhou, “Highly sensitive silicon microring sensor with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2967–2972 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).
  4. M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Extraordinarily high spectral sensitivity in refractive index sensors using multiple optical modes,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10029–10040 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Liu, J. S. Kee, and M. K. Park, “A refractive index sensor design based on grating-assisted coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5897–5909 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. Dai, “Highly sensitive digital optical sensor based on cascaded high-Q ring-resonators,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23817–23822 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2299–2306 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. A. Komatsu, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of miniaturized silicon wire and slot waveguide polarization splitterbased on a resonant tunneling,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19225–19233 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. Dai, Z. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultrashort broadband polarization beam splitter based on an asymmetrical directional coupler,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2590–2592 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and V. Rastogi, “Analysis of corrugated long-period gratings in slab waveguides and their polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3399–3405 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Su and X. G. Huang, “Fresnel-reflection-based fiber sensor for on-line measurement of solute concentration in solutions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 126(2), 579–582 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

2013 (2)

Q. Liu, J. S. Kee, and M. K. Park, “A refractive index sensor design based on grating-assisted coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5897–5909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Yi, D. S. Citrin, and Z. Zhou, “Highly sensitive silicon microring sensor with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2967–2972 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Almeida, V. R.

Armani, A. M.

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

Bowers, J. E.

Cheben, P.

Chiang, K. S.

Citrin, D. S.

Dai, D.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Duan, X.-X.

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

Fan, S.

Fan, X.

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, X. G.

H. Su and X. G. Huang, “Fresnel-reflection-based fiber sensor for on-line measurement of solute concentration in solutions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 126(2), 579–582 (2007).
[Crossref]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

Kee, J. S.

Q. Liu, J. S. Kee, and M. K. Park, “A refractive index sensor design based on grating-assisted coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5897–5909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. W.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Komatsu, M. A.

Koshiba, M.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

Liu, Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pang, W.

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

Park, M. K.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Liu, J. S. Kee, and M. K. Park, “A refractive index sensor design based on grating-assisted coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5897–5909 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Post, E.

Rastogi, V.

Saitoh, K.

Schmid, J. H.

Shin, Y.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, H.

H. Su and X. G. Huang, “Fresnel-reflection-based fiber sensor for on-line measurement of solute concentration in solutions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 126(2), 579–582 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Waldron, P.

Wang, Z.

White, I. M.

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, Q.

Yi, H.

Yoon, Y.-J.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Zhang, D.-H.

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

Zhang, H.

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

Zhang, L.

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

Zhou, X.-Y.

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

X.-Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, A. M. Armani, D.-H. Zhang, X.-X. Duan, J. Liu, H. Zhang, and W. Pang, “On-chip biological and chemical sensing with reversed Fano lineshape enabled by embedded microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 5200110 (2014).

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y.-J. Yoon, G.-Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Su and X. G. Huang, “Fresnel-reflection-based fiber sensor for on-line measurement of solute concentration in solutions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 126(2), 579–582 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Layout of the sensor. Cross sections for sensors (b) without SiO2 isolation and (c) with SiO2 isolation on the strip waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM top view images for (a) the grating coupler, (b) mode converter and (c) two parallel slot and strip waveguides with a corrugation grating on the strip waveguide. SEM top view images and TEM cross section images of the fabricated sensors (d,e) without and (f,g) with SiO2 isolation on the strip waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmission spectra for sensors (a) without and (b) with a grating formed on the strip waveguide. Black: light is coupled into the strip waveguide and detected from the output of the launching strip waveguide; Red: light is coupled into the slot waveguide and detected from the output of the launching slot waveguide; Blue: light is coupled into the strip waveguide and detected from output of the coupled slot waveguide; Green: light is coupled into the slot waveguide and detected from output of the coupled strip waveguide. The grating pitch and length for the sensor with the grating is 16.9 μm and 2000 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Normalized transmission spectra measured at different concentration of NaCl solutions for a sensor without an isolation layer on the strip waveguide. (b) Variation of the resonance wavelength with the RI of NaCl solution.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Normalized transmission spectra measured at different concentration of NaCl solutions for a sensor with an isolation layer on the strip waveguide. (b) Variation of the resonance wavelength with the RI of NaCl solution.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Dependence of the resonance wavelengths on the temperature for sensors without and with SiO2 isolation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sensitivity calculation for the sensor.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d λ 0 d n ex = λ 0 ( N g strip N g slot ) ( N eff strip n ex N eff slot n ex )= λ 0 ΔS Δ N g ,

Metrics