Abstract

An AlN electro-optic phase shifter with a parallel plate capacitor structure is fabricated on Si using the back-end complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which is feasible for multilayer photonics integration. The modulation efficiency (Vπ⋅Lπ product) measured from the fabricated waveguide-ring resonators and Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) modulators near the 1550-nm wavelength is ∼240 V⋅cm for the transverse electric (TE) mode and ∼320 V⋅cm for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode, from which the Pockels coefficient of the deposited AlN is deduced to be ∼1.0 pm/V for both TE and TM modes. The methods for further modulation efficiency improvement are addressed.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, D. Goossens, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Fabrication and characterization of CMOS-compatible integrated tungsten heaters for thermo-optic tuning in silicon photonics devices,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(7), 1383–1388 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2810–2813 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

S. Ghosh and G. Piazza, “Piezoelectric actuation of aluminum nitride contour mode optomechanical resonators,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15477–15490 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Avrutsky, I.

Belardini, A.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, M.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bosco, A.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

Clark, R. D.

R. D. Clark, “Emerging applications for high k materials in VLSI technology,” Materials (Basel) 7(4), 2913–2944 (2014).
[Crossref]

Del Prete, Z.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fazio, E.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fong, K. Y.

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

Goossens, D.

Halir, R.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, Z.

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.

Kumar, P.

Lapointe, J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Larciprete, M. C.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leahu, G.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

Li, X.

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

Li Voti, R.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Masood, A.

Molina-Fernández, Í.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ostuni, R.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pantouvaki, M.

Passaseo, A.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pernice, W. H.

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pernice, W. H. P.

M. Stegmaier and W. H. P. Pernice, “Broadband directional coupling in aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7304–7315 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piazza, G.

Potì, B.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schuck, C.

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sibilia, C.

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stegmaier, M.

Su, W.

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Verheyen, P.

Wang, E.

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wiedmann, M. K.

Winter, C. H.

Xiong, C.

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. X. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.-X.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhou, F.

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. C. Larciprete, A. Bosco, A. Belardini, R. Li Voti, G. Leahu, C. Sibilia, E. Fazio, R. Ostuni, M. Bertolotti, A. Passaseo, B. Potì, and Z. Del Prete, “Blue second harmonic generation from aluminum nitride films deposited onto silicon by sputtering technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023507 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

R. D. Clark, “Emerging applications for high k materials in VLSI technology,” Materials (Basel) 7(4), 2913–2944 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, “Aluminum nitride as a new material for chip-scale optomechanics and nonlinear optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

X. Li, Z. Xu, Z. He, H. Cao, W. Su, Z. Chen, F. Zhou, and E. Wang, “On the properties of AlN thin films grown by low temperature reactive r.f. sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 139(3), 261–274 (1986).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic AlN EO phase shifter, (b) the y-component electric field (Ey) distribution along y-axis, and (c) the calculated Ey at 40-V bias and optical absorption due to the electrodes for 1550-nm TE and TM modes versus the cladding SiO2 thickness (t_upper = t_bottom) for t_AlN = 0.4 µm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Add-drop waveguide ring resonator modulators with radius of 40 µm, (b) Asymmetric MZI modulators with the arm length of 1.4 cm, (c) XTEM of the fabricated device, (d) Zoom-in XTEM of the AlN waveguide, and (e) and (f) numerically calculated TE and TM modes at 1550 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Output power vs. waveguide length measured from waveguides, (b) propagation loss vs. wavelength, (c) TE transmission spectra measured from a ring with R of 40 µm, and (d) TM transmission spectra measured from a ring with R of 100 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Transmission spectra of TE measured on a 100-μm-R ring modulator under −40, 0, and 40 V bias, (b) Transmission spectra of TM measured on a 100-μm-R ring modulator under −40 and 40 V bias, and (c) the extracted resonant wavelength vs. voltage for TE and TM modes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transmission spectra measured an asymmetric AlN MZI modulator under −40, 0, and 40 V bias (a) TE and (b) TM.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Output waveform measured from by an AlN MZI modulator with 1549-nm TE input light and under 0–80-V pulsed voltage bias.

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