Abstract

We determine the momentum-dependent group velocities of ( ± 1,0) and (0, ± 1) Bloch-like surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in two-dimensional Au nanohole array by measuring their propagation lengths and decay lifetimes at different SPP propagation length via angle- and polarization-resolved reflectivity spectroscopy and real- and Fourier-space microscopy. We find the decay length and lifetime, as well as group velocity, are highly dependent on the propagation direction. In particular, close to the Γ-M direction where two SPPs begin to interfere, the group velocity decreases due to the increase of the standing wave character. More importantly, the two SPPs are strongly interacted with each other at the Γ-M direction, resulting in forming the dark and bright modes. We find the group velocity of the dark mode is higher that of the bright mode despite its higher quality factor, or longer decay lifetime. We attribute such difference to the distinct field symmetries of dark and bright modes, yielding different effective indices. While bright mode has fields mostly concentrated at the flat metal region to produce higher effective index and therefore lower velocity, the fields of the dark mode are located near the air hole, resulting in higher velocity.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

2013 (6)

C. Y. Chan, Z. L. Cao, and H. C. Ong, “Study of coupling efficiency of molecules to surface plasmon polaritons in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Opt. Express 21(12), 14674–14682 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Determination of coupling rate of light emitter to surface plasmon polaritons supported on nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Direct imaging of radiative decay of surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays by cross-polarization microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093108 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Angelini, E. Enrico, N. De Leo, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, “Fluorescence diffraction assisted by Bloch surface waves on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073002 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wagner and F. Cichos, “Fast measurement of photonic stop bands by back focal plane imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165438 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Langguth, D. Punj, J. Wenger, and A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic band structure controls single-molecule fluorescence,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8840–8848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

S. R. K. Rodriguez, A. Abass, B. Maes, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Vecchi, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Coupling Bright and Dark Plasmonic Lattice Resonances,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021019 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151113 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

D. Y. Lei, J. Li, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, H. C. Ong, and S. A. Maier, “Geometry dependence of surface plasmon polariton lifetimes in nanohole arrays,” ACS Nano 4(1), 432–438 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chen, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, C. G. Poulton, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Group velocity in lossy periodic structured media,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053825 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. G. Pedersen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Limits of slow light in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 153101 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Sauvan, C. Billaudeau, S. Collin, N. Bardou, F. Pardo, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmon coupling on metallic film perforated by two-dimensional rectangular hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011125 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of Plasmon Propagation, Redirection, and Fan-Out in Silver Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abass, A.

S. R. K. Rodriguez, A. Abass, B. Maes, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Vecchi, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Coupling Bright and Dark Plasmonic Lattice Resonances,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021019 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angelini, A.

A. Angelini, E. Enrico, N. De Leo, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, “Fluorescence diffraction assisted by Bloch surface waves on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asatryan, A. A.

P. Y. Chen, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, C. G. Poulton, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Group velocity in lossy periodic structured media,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053825 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bardou, N.

C. Sauvan, C. Billaudeau, S. Collin, N. Bardou, F. Pardo, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmon coupling on metallic film perforated by two-dimensional rectangular hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011125 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernussi, A. A.

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Billaudeau, C.

C. Sauvan, C. Billaudeau, S. Collin, N. Bardou, F. Pardo, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmon coupling on metallic film perforated by two-dimensional rectangular hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011125 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boarino, L.

A. Angelini, E. Enrico, N. De Leo, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, “Fluorescence diffraction assisted by Bloch surface waves on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bokor, J.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botten, L. C.

P. Y. Chen, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, C. G. Poulton, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Group velocity in lossy periodic structured media,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053825 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Z.

Cao, Z. L.

C. Y. Chan, Z. L. Cao, and H. C. Ong, “Study of coupling efficiency of molecules to surface plasmon polaritons in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Opt. Express 21(12), 14674–14682 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Determination of coupling rate of light emitter to surface plasmon polaritons supported on nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Direct imaging of radiative decay of surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays by cross-polarization microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. Y.

Chan, C.-Y.

Chen, P. Y.

P. Y. Chen, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, C. G. Poulton, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Group velocity in lossy periodic structured media,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053825 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. W.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choo, H.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cichos, F.

R. Wagner and F. Cichos, “Fast measurement of photonic stop bands by back focal plane imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Collin, S.

C. Sauvan, C. Billaudeau, S. Collin, N. Bardou, F. Pardo, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmon coupling on metallic film perforated by two-dimensional rectangular hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011125 (2008).
[Crossref]

De Leo, N.

A. Angelini, E. Enrico, N. De Leo, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, “Fluorescence diffraction assisted by Bloch surface waves on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073002 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Sterke, C. M.

P. Y. Chen, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, C. G. Poulton, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Group velocity in lossy periodic structured media,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053825 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Descrovi, E.

A. Angelini, E. Enrico, N. De Leo, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, “Fluorescence diffraction assisted by Bloch surface waves on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhuey, S.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dufresne, E. R.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of Plasmon Propagation, Redirection, and Fan-Out in Silver Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eghlidi, H.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Enrico, E.

A. Angelini, E. Enrico, N. De Leo, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, “Fluorescence diffraction assisted by Bloch surface waves on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.

D. Y. Lei, J. Li, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, H. C. Ong, and S. A. Maier, “Geometry dependence of surface plasmon polariton lifetimes in nanohole arrays,” ACS Nano 4(1), 432–438 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajic, R.

G. Isić, R. Gajić, and S. Vuković, “Plasmonic lifetimes and propagation lengths in metallodielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165427 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Isić and R. Gajić, “Lifetime and propagation length of light in nanoscopic metallic slots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(2), 393–399 (2014).
[Crossref]

Galler, N.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Giorgis, F.

A. Angelini, E. Enrico, N. De Leo, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, “Fluorescence diffraction assisted by Bloch surface waves on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gómez Rivas, J.

S. R. K. Rodriguez, A. Abass, B. Maes, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Vecchi, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Coupling Bright and Dark Plasmonic Lattice Resonances,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021019 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gotzinger, S.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grave de Peralta, L.

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ho, H. P.

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hohng, S. C.

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isic, G.

G. Isić, R. Gajić, and S. Vuković, “Plasmonic lifetimes and propagation lengths in metallodielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165427 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Isić and R. Gajić, “Lifetime and propagation length of light in nanoscopic metallic slots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(2), 393–399 (2014).
[Crossref]

Iu, H.

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jamshidi, A.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janssen, O. T. A.

S. R. K. Rodriguez, A. Abass, B. Maes, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Vecchi, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Coupling Bright and Dark Plasmonic Lattice Resonances,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021019 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. S.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koenderink, A. F.

L. Langguth, D. Punj, J. Wenger, and A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic band structure controls single-molecule fluorescence,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8840–8848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Krishnan, A.

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kukura, P.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lakhani, A.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

C. Sauvan, C. Billaudeau, S. Collin, N. Bardou, F. Pardo, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmon coupling on metallic film perforated by two-dimensional rectangular hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011125 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langguth, L.

L. Langguth, D. Punj, J. Wenger, and A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic band structure controls single-molecule fluorescence,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8840–8848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lei, D. Y.

D. Y. Lei, J. Li, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, H. C. Ong, and S. A. Maier, “Geometry dependence of surface plasmon polariton lifetimes in nanohole arrays,” ACS Nano 4(1), 432–438 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lettow, R.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

D. Y. Lei, J. Li, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, H. C. Ong, and S. A. Maier, “Geometry dependence of surface plasmon polariton lifetimes in nanohole arrays,” ACS Nano 4(1), 432–438 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, H.-Y.

Lopez-Boada, R.

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maes, B.

S. R. K. Rodriguez, A. Abass, B. Maes, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Vecchi, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Coupling Bright and Dark Plasmonic Lattice Resonances,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021019 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

D. Y. Lei, J. Li, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, H. C. Ong, and S. A. Maier, “Geometry dependence of surface plasmon polariton lifetimes in nanohole arrays,” ACS Nano 4(1), 432–438 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malyarchuk, V.

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

P. Y. Chen, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, C. G. Poulton, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Group velocity in lossy periodic structured media,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053825 (2010).
[Crossref]

Michelotti, F.

A. Angelini, E. Enrico, N. De Leo, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, “Fluorescence diffraction assisted by Bloch surface waves on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mortensen, N. A.

J. G. Pedersen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Limits of slow light in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 153101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Munzert, P.

A. Angelini, E. Enrico, N. De Leo, P. Munzert, L. Boarino, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and E. Descrovi, “Fluorescence diffraction assisted by Bloch surface waves on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 073002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ong, H. C.

Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Determination of coupling rate of light emitter to surface plasmon polaritons supported on nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241109 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chan, Z. L. Cao, and H. C. Ong, “Study of coupling efficiency of molecules to surface plasmon polaritons in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Opt. Express 21(12), 14674–14682 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Direct imaging of radiative decay of surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays by cross-polarization microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093108 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Lei, J. Li, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, H. C. Ong, and S. A. Maier, “Geometry dependence of surface plasmon polariton lifetimes in nanohole arrays,” ACS Nano 4(1), 432–438 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ong, H.-C.

Pardo, F.

C. Sauvan, C. Billaudeau, S. Collin, N. Bardou, F. Pardo, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmon coupling on metallic film perforated by two-dimensional rectangular hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011125 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, D. J.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. W.

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Q. H.

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedersen, J. G.

J. G. Pedersen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Limits of slow light in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 153101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pelouard, J.-L.

C. Sauvan, C. Billaudeau, S. Collin, N. Bardou, F. Pardo, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmon coupling on metallic film perforated by two-dimensional rectangular hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011125 (2008).
[Crossref]

Poulton, C. G.

P. Y. Chen, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, C. G. Poulton, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Group velocity in lossy periodic structured media,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053825 (2010).
[Crossref]

Punj, D.

L. Langguth, D. Punj, J. Wenger, and A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic band structure controls single-molecule fluorescence,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8840–8848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, M. A.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of Plasmon Propagation, Redirection, and Fan-Out in Silver Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regan, C. J.

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Renn, A.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, S. R. K.

S. R. K. Rodriguez, A. Abass, B. Maes, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Vecchi, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Coupling Bright and Dark Plasmonic Lattice Resonances,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021019 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Routenberg, D. A.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of Plasmon Propagation, Redirection, and Fan-Out in Silver Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanders, A. W.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of Plasmon Propagation, Redirection, and Fan-Out in Silver Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sauvan, C.

C. Sauvan, C. Billaudeau, S. Collin, N. Bardou, F. Pardo, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmon coupling on metallic film perforated by two-dimensional rectangular hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011125 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schuck, P. J.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartzberg, A. M.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seok, T. J.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steel, M. J.

P. Y. Chen, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, C. G. Poulton, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Group velocity in lossy periodic structured media,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053825 (2010).
[Crossref]

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stibenz, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vecchi, G.

S. R. K. Rodriguez, A. Abass, B. Maes, O. T. A. Janssen, G. Vecchi, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Coupling Bright and Dark Plasmonic Lattice Resonances,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021019 (2011).
[Crossref]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vukovic, S.

G. Isić, R. Gajić, and S. Vuković, “Plasmonic lifetimes and propagation lengths in metallodielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wagner, R.

R. Wagner and F. Cichos, “Fast measurement of photonic stop bands by back focal plane imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wan, J. T. K.

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Waye, M. Y.

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wenger, J.

L. Langguth, D. Punj, J. Wenger, and A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic band structure controls single-molecule fluorescence,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8840–8848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiley, B. J.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of Plasmon Propagation, Redirection, and Fan-Out in Silver Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of Plasmon Propagation, Redirection, and Fan-Out in Silver Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

J. G. Pedersen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Limits of slow light in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 153101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. B.

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yee, K. J.

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, Y. C.

D. S. Kim, S. C. Hohng, V. Malyarchuk, Y. C. Yoon, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Yee, J. W. Park, J. Kim, Q. H. Park, and C. Lienau, “Microscopic origin of surface-plasmon radiation in plasmonic band-gap nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 143901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

ACS Nano (2)

D. Y. Lei, J. Li, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, H. C. Ong, and S. A. Maier, “Geometry dependence of surface plasmon polariton lifetimes in nanohole arrays,” ACS Nano 4(1), 432–438 (2010).
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L. Langguth, D. Punj, J. Wenger, and A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic band structure controls single-molecule fluorescence,” ACS Nano 7(10), 8840–8848 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. Li, H. Iu, D. Y. Lei, J. T. K. Wan, J. B. Xu, H. P. Ho, M. Y. Waye, and H. C. Ong, “Dependence of surface plasmon lifetimes on the hole size in two-dimensional metallic arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 183112 (2009).
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Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Direct imaging of radiative decay of surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays by cross-polarization microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093108 (2013).
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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
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C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, and A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151113 (2011).
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Z. L. Cao and H. C. Ong, “Determination of coupling rate of light emitter to surface plasmon polaritons supported on nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241109 (2013).
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C. Sauvan, C. Billaudeau, S. Collin, N. Bardou, F. Pardo, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmon coupling on metallic film perforated by two-dimensional rectangular hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011125 (2008).
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Nano Lett. (2)

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of Plasmon Propagation, Redirection, and Fan-Out in Silver Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
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T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2606–2610 (2011).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Gotzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 166–169 (2011).
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Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Y. Chen, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, C. G. Poulton, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, “Group velocity in lossy periodic structured media,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053825 (2010).
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G. Isić, R. Gajić, and S. Vuković, “Plasmonic lifetimes and propagation lengths in metallodielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 89(16), 165427 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The FDTD unit cell for 1D groove grating. (b) The simulated reflectivity as a function of incident wavevector for different wavelengths indicating (−1,0) SPP mode is excited at the reflection dips. (c) The FDTD supercell for 1D groove grating. (d) The spatial profile of the scattered near field for different wavelengths in logarithmic scale, showing exponentially decrease of intensity. (e) The plot of propagation length against resonant wavelength deduced from two methods.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The p-polarized wavevector-resolved reflectivity mapping of 2D Au nanohole array taken in Γ-X direction. The dashed line is calculated by using phase-matching equation, indicating the excitation of (−1,0) SPP mode. Inset: the SEM image of the nanohole array. The scale bar is 500nm. (b) The corresponding reflectivity spectra for different incident wavevectors. The dashed lines are the best fits. (c) The corresponding reflectivity plots for different photon energies. The dashed lines are the best fits. (d) The deduced group velocities for different resonant wavelength. The dot line is ∂ω/∂k from the mapping.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The schematic setup for real- and Fourier-space microscopy. (b) The plot of reflectivity against incident angle from 2D Au nanohole array for λ = 633 nm obtained from the microscopy. The dashed line is extracted from the goniometer for comparison. Three crosses are located at off- and on- SPP resonance regions labeled as (c)-(e). (c) & (e) The off-resonance real images. The hexagon indicates the region illuminated by light. The solid line indicates the region extracted for examining the spatial decay of light. (d) The on-resonance real image featuring long light tails extending around the hexagon in a particular direction. The arrows define the directions of incident light and SPP propagation. (f) The extracted spatial decay of light from (c)-(e) in logarithmic scale. Only the on-resonance decay shows exponential behavior. (g) The measured propagation length as a function of azimuthal angle.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The unpolarized Fourier reflection image taken at λ = 633 nm from 2D Au nanohole array taken by microscopy. The solid and dashed lines indicate the SPP modes and Wood’s anomalies calculated from the phase-matching equations. The dot line defines the first Brillouin zone together with the reduced zone given by Γ-X-M triangle. (b) The unpolarized k-space mapping at λ = 633 nm from 2D Au nanohole array taken by angle-resolved goniometry. (c) Several (−1,0) SPP cuts taken at different azimuthal angles are extracted from the unpolarized Fourier image. The dashed lines are the best-fits for determining the corresponding propagation lengths. (d) The deduced (■) propagation length as a function of azimuthal angle. The positions of dark and bright modes and the Wood’s anomaly are also indicated. The (●) LD obtained from the real-space imaging in Fig. 3(g) is overlaid for comparison.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The experimental total decay rate Γtot of (−1,0) SPPs plotted as a function of azimuthal angle φ. The solid line indicates the emergence of Wood’s anomaly. (b) The FDTD simulated (▲) total decay Γtot, (■) radiative decay Γrad, and (●) absorption Γabs rates of (−1,0) SPPs as a function of azimuthal angle φ. At φ = 45°, two (−1,0) and (0,-1) SPP modes couple, leading to the splitting of the rates.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The plots of vg of (−1,0) SPPs as a function of azimuthal angle φ. At φ = 45°, two (−1,0) and (0,-1) SPP modes couple, leading to the splitting of vg. (b) The unpolarized incident angle-resolved reflectivity mapping taken at φ = 45°, indicating the presence of dark and bright modes. The dispersions are weak.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The plane-view field patterns |E| and the Poynting vector maps for (a) bright and (b) dark modes simulated by FDTD for λ = 633 nm at φ = 45°.

Equations (3)

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R P ω ( k // )= | r p ω + χ ω κ ω i( k // +2nπ/P k spp )+( 1/2 L D ) | 2 ,
k spp = k // + 2nπ P x ^ + 2mπ P y ^ =( ω c sinθcosφ+ 2nπ P ) x ^ +( ω c sinθsinφ+ 2mπ P ) y ^ ,
d dt [ a 1 a 2 ]=[ i ω o Γ tot /2 i ω 12 i ω 21 i ω o Γ tot /2 ][ a 1 a 2 ],

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