Abstract

A Si-heavy doped GaN:Si epitaxial layer is transformed into a directional nanopipe GaN layer through a laser-scribing process and a selectively electrochemical (EC) etching process. InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an EC-treated nanopipe GaN layer have a high light extraction efficiency. The direction of the nanopipe structure was directed perpendicular to the laser scribing line and was guided by an external bias electric field. An InGaN LED structure with an embedded nanopipe GaN layer can enhance external quantum efficiency through a one-step epitaxial growth process and a selective EC etching process. A birefringence optical property and a low effective refractive index were observed in the directional-nanopipe GaN layer.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. C. D. Yerino, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, M. L. Lee, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Wang, W. C. Peng, and J. Han, “Shape transformation of nanoporous GaN by annealing: From buried cavities to nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251910 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. F. Cheah, S. C. Lee, S. S. Ng, F. K. Yam, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Surface phonon polariton characteristic of honeycomb nanoporous GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101601 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, and C. H. Hsieh, “Reducing a piezoelectric field in InGaN active layers by varying pattern sapphire substrates,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(12), 4180–4184 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. F. Lin, R. H. Jiang, C. C. Yang, C. M. Lin, H. C. Liu, and K. P. Huang, “Optical properties of InGaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated through dry and wet mesa etching process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(12), H930 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Huang, K. C. Wu, F. H. Fan, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, S. H. Chen, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple-porous GaN structures fabricated through a photoelectrochemical etching process,” ECS J. Solid State Sc. 3(10), R185–R188 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Sun, W. N. Zhao, X. H. Wu, S. S. Liu, Z. C. Ma, J. Peng, J. He, H. F. Xu, S. Y. Liu, and Z. M. Xu, “Porous light-emitting diodes with patterned sapphire substrates realized by high-voltage self-growth and soft UV nanoimprint processes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(2), 326–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, J. Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yang, H. E. Cheng, S. J. Chang, and S. Li, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on electrochemically etched n–GaN template,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(15), 1531–1534 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, and C. H. Hsieh, “Reducing a piezoelectric field in InGaN active layers by varying pattern sapphire substrates,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(12), 4180–4184 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. F. Cheah, S. C. Lee, S. S. Ng, F. K. Yam, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Surface phonon polariton characteristic of honeycomb nanoporous GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101601 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. B. Soh, C. B. Tay, R. J. N. Tan, A. P Vajpeyi, I. P Seetoh, K. K. Ansah-Antwi, and S. J Chua, “Nanopore morphology in porous GaN template and its effect on the LEDs emission,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365102 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

D. Chen, H. Xiao, and J. Han, “Nanopores in GaN by electrochemical anodization in hydrofluoric acid: Formation and mechanism,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 064303 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, B. Leung, and J. Han, “A liftoff process of GaN layers and devices through nanoporous transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181908 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown Air-voids Structure in the InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, Y. H. Yeh, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids grown on Ar-implanted AlN/sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151103 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

C. D. Yerino, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, M. L. Lee, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Wang, W. C. Peng, and J. Han, “Shape transformation of nanoporous GaN by annealing: From buried cavities to nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251910 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. B. Soh, W. Liu, H. Hartono, N. S. S. Ang, S. J. Chua, S. Y. Chow, C. B. Tay, and A. P. Vajpeyi, “Optical performance of amber emitting quantum dots incorporated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with growth on UV-enhanced electrochemically etched nanoporous GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191906 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. Kang, J. Deng, C. Xiong, T. Dai, X. Jiang, T. Yu, Z. Chen, and G. Y. Zhang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals structures fabricated by porous anodic alumina template,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1104–A1108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

C. F. Lin, R. H. Jiang, C. C. Yang, C. M. Lin, H. C. Liu, and K. P. Huang, “Optical properties of InGaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated through dry and wet mesa etching process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(12), H930 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Park, K. M. Song, S. R. Jeon, J. H. Baek, and S. W. Ryu, “Doping selective lateral electrochemical etching of GaN for chemical lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221907 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Yan, Z. Zheng, J. Zhang, H. Gong, Z. Shen, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Orientation controllable growth of MoO3 nanoflakes: micro-raman, field emission, and birefringence properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20259–20263 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, S. Tripathy, and C. G. Fonstad, “Fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 816 (2004).
[Crossref]

Abu Hassan, H.

S. F. Cheah, S. C. Lee, S. S. Ng, F. K. Yam, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Surface phonon polariton characteristic of honeycomb nanoporous GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ang, N. S. S.

C. B. Soh, W. Liu, H. Hartono, N. S. S. Ang, S. J. Chua, S. Y. Chow, C. B. Tay, and A. P. Vajpeyi, “Optical performance of amber emitting quantum dots incorporated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with growth on UV-enhanced electrochemically etched nanoporous GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191906 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ansah-Antwi, K. K.

C. B. Soh, C. B. Tay, R. J. N. Tan, A. P Vajpeyi, I. P Seetoh, K. K. Ansah-Antwi, and S. J Chua, “Nanopore morphology in porous GaN template and its effect on the LEDs emission,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, J. H.

J. Park, K. M. Song, S. R. Jeon, J. H. Baek, and S. W. Ryu, “Doping selective lateral electrochemical etching of GaN for chemical lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bilousov, O. V.

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carvajal, J. J.

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandramohan, S.

Chang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. Y.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, J. Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yang, H. E. Cheng, S. J. Chang, and S. Li, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on electrochemically etched n–GaN template,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(15), 1531–1534 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheah, S. F.

S. F. Cheah, S. C. Lee, S. S. Ng, F. K. Yam, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Surface phonon polariton characteristic of honeycomb nanoporous GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. Xiao, and J. Han, “Nanopores in GaN by electrochemical anodization in hydrofluoric acid: Formation and mechanism,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 064303 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. T.

C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, and C. H. Hsieh, “Reducing a piezoelectric field in InGaN active layers by varying pattern sapphire substrates,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(12), 4180–4184 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown Air-voids Structure in the InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, S. Tripathy, and C. G. Fonstad, “Fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 816 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. H.

K. P. Huang, K. C. Wu, F. H. Fan, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, S. H. Chen, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple-porous GaN structures fabricated through a photoelectrochemical etching process,” ECS J. Solid State Sc. 3(10), R185–R188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, H. E.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, J. Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yang, H. E. Cheng, S. J. Chang, and S. Li, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on electrochemically etched n–GaN template,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(15), 1531–1534 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chien, J. F.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chow, S. Y.

C. B. Soh, W. Liu, H. Hartono, N. S. S. Ang, S. J. Chua, S. Y. Chow, C. B. Tay, and A. P. Vajpeyi, “Optical performance of amber emitting quantum dots incorporated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with growth on UV-enhanced electrochemically etched nanoporous GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191906 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chua, S. J

C. B. Soh, C. B. Tay, R. J. N. Tan, A. P Vajpeyi, I. P Seetoh, K. K. Ansah-Antwi, and S. J Chua, “Nanopore morphology in porous GaN template and its effect on the LEDs emission,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chua, S. J.

C. B. Soh, W. Liu, H. Hartono, N. S. S. Ang, S. J. Chua, S. Y. Chow, C. B. Tay, and A. P. Vajpeyi, “Optical performance of amber emitting quantum dots incorporated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with growth on UV-enhanced electrochemically etched nanoporous GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191906 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, S. Tripathy, and C. G. Fonstad, “Fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 816 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dai, T.

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, J.

Díaz, F.

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dierolf, V.

Fan, F. H.

K. P. Huang, K. C. Wu, F. H. Fan, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, S. H. Chen, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple-porous GaN structures fabricated through a photoelectrochemical etching process,” ECS J. Solid State Sc. 3(10), R185–R188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fonstad, C. G.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, S. Tripathy, and C. G. Fonstad, “Fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 816 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Geaney, H.

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, H.

B. Yan, Z. Zheng, J. Zhang, H. Gong, Z. Shen, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Orientation controllable growth of MoO3 nanoflakes: micro-raman, field emission, and birefringence properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20259–20263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Leung, and J. Han, “A liftoff process of GaN layers and devices through nanoporous transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181908 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, H. Xiao, and J. Han, “Nanopores in GaN by electrochemical anodization in hydrofluoric acid: Formation and mechanism,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 064303 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. D. Yerino, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, M. L. Lee, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Wang, W. C. Peng, and J. Han, “Shape transformation of nanoporous GaN by annealing: From buried cavities to nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hartono, H.

C. B. Soh, W. Liu, H. Hartono, N. S. S. Ang, S. J. Chua, S. Y. Chow, C. B. Tay, and A. P. Vajpeyi, “Optical performance of amber emitting quantum dots incorporated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with growth on UV-enhanced electrochemically etched nanoporous GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191906 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hassan, Z.

S. F. Cheah, S. C. Lee, S. S. Ng, F. K. Yam, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Surface phonon polariton characteristic of honeycomb nanoporous GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101601 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, J.

Hong, C. H.

Hsieh, C. H.

C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, and C. H. Hsieh, “Reducing a piezoelectric field in InGaN active layers by varying pattern sapphire substrates,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(12), 4180–4184 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. C.

C. D. Yerino, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, M. L. Lee, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Wang, W. C. Peng, and J. Han, “Shape transformation of nanoporous GaN by annealing: From buried cavities to nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. P.

K. P. Huang, K. C. Wu, F. H. Fan, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, S. H. Chen, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple-porous GaN structures fabricated through a photoelectrochemical etching process,” ECS J. Solid State Sc. 3(10), R185–R188 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lin, R. H. Jiang, C. C. Yang, C. M. Lin, H. C. Liu, and K. P. Huang, “Optical properties of InGaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated through dry and wet mesa etching process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(12), H930 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, W.

B. Yan, Z. Zheng, J. Zhang, H. Gong, Z. Shen, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Orientation controllable growth of MoO3 nanoflakes: micro-raman, field emission, and birefringence properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20259–20263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S. R.

J. Park, K. M. Song, S. R. Jeon, J. H. Baek, and S. W. Ryu, “Doping selective lateral electrochemical etching of GaN for chemical lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

Jeong, M. S.

Jiang, H.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, R. H.

C. F. Lin, R. H. Jiang, C. C. Yang, C. M. Lin, H. C. Liu, and K. P. Huang, “Optical properties of InGaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated through dry and wet mesa etching process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(12), H930 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

Jiménez, J.

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, X.

Kim, H. G.

Kim, H. K.

Kim, H. Y.

Lai, W. C.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, J. Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yang, H. E. Cheng, S. J. Chang, and S. Li, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on electrochemically etched n–GaN template,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(15), 1531–1534 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, Y. H. Yeh, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids grown on Ar-implanted AlN/sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. S.

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, Y. H. Yeh, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids grown on Ar-implanted AlN/sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151103 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. D. Yerino, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, M. L. Lee, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Wang, W. C. Peng, and J. Han, “Shape transformation of nanoporous GaN by annealing: From buried cavities to nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. C.

S. F. Cheah, S. C. Lee, S. S. Ng, F. K. Yam, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Surface phonon polariton characteristic of honeycomb nanoporous GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leung, B.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Leung, and J. Han, “A liftoff process of GaN layers and devices through nanoporous transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181908 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. D. Yerino, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, M. L. Lee, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Wang, W. C. Peng, and J. Han, “Shape transformation of nanoporous GaN by annealing: From buried cavities to nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J. Z.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, J. Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yang, H. E. Cheng, S. J. Chang, and S. Li, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on electrochemically etched n–GaN template,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(15), 1531–1534 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, J. Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yang, H. E. Cheng, S. J. Chang, and S. Li, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on electrochemically etched n–GaN template,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(15), 1531–1534 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. F.

K. P. Huang, K. C. Wu, F. H. Fan, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, S. H. Chen, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple-porous GaN structures fabricated through a photoelectrochemical etching process,” ECS J. Solid State Sc. 3(10), R185–R188 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, and C. H. Hsieh, “Reducing a piezoelectric field in InGaN active layers by varying pattern sapphire substrates,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(12), 4180–4184 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown Air-voids Structure in the InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lin, R. H. Jiang, C. C. Yang, C. M. Lin, H. C. Liu, and K. P. Huang, “Optical properties of InGaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated through dry and wet mesa etching process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(12), H930 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. M.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown Air-voids Structure in the InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lin, R. H. Jiang, C. C. Yang, C. M. Lin, H. C. Liu, and K. P. Huang, “Optical properties of InGaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated through dry and wet mesa etching process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(12), H930 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

Liu, H. C.

C. F. Lin, R. H. Jiang, C. C. Yang, C. M. Lin, H. C. Liu, and K. P. Huang, “Optical properties of InGaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated through dry and wet mesa etching process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(12), H930 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. S.

Liu, S. Y.

Liu, W.

C. B. Soh, W. Liu, H. Hartono, N. S. S. Ang, S. J. Chua, S. Y. Chow, C. B. Tay, and A. P. Vajpeyi, “Optical performance of amber emitting quantum dots incorporated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with growth on UV-enhanced electrochemically etched nanoporous GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191906 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z. C.

Martínez, O.

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ng, S. S.

S. F. Cheah, S. C. Lee, S. S. Ng, F. K. Yam, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Surface phonon polariton characteristic of honeycomb nanoporous GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101601 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Dwyer, C.

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parbrook, P. J.

O. V. Bilousov, J. J. Carvajal, H. Geaney, V. Z. Zubialevich, P. J. Parbrook, O. Martínez, J. Jiménez, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, and C. O’Dwyer, “Fully porous GaN p-n junction diodes fabricated by chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(20), 17954–17964 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

J. Park, K. M. Song, S. R. Jeon, J. H. Baek, and S. W. Ryu, “Doping selective lateral electrochemical etching of GaN for chemical lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

Peng, W. C.

C. D. Yerino, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, M. L. Lee, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Wang, W. C. Peng, and J. Han, “Shape transformation of nanoporous GaN by annealing: From buried cavities to nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Ryu, S. W.

J. Park, K. M. Song, S. R. Jeon, J. H. Baek, and S. W. Ryu, “Doping selective lateral electrochemical etching of GaN for chemical lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sander, M. S.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, S. Tripathy, and C. G. Fonstad, “Fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 816 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seetoh, I. P

C. B. Soh, C. B. Tay, R. J. N. Tan, A. P Vajpeyi, I. P Seetoh, K. K. Ansah-Antwi, and S. J Chua, “Nanopore morphology in porous GaN template and its effect on the LEDs emission,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z.

B. Yan, Z. Zheng, J. Zhang, H. Gong, Z. Shen, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Orientation controllable growth of MoO3 nanoflakes: micro-raman, field emission, and birefringence properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20259–20263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, Y. H. Yeh, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids grown on Ar-implanted AlN/sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shieh, B. C.

K. P. Huang, K. C. Wu, F. H. Fan, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, S. H. Chen, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple-porous GaN structures fabricated through a photoelectrochemical etching process,” ECS J. Solid State Sc. 3(10), R185–R188 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, and C. H. Hsieh, “Reducing a piezoelectric field in InGaN active layers by varying pattern sapphire substrates,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(12), 4180–4184 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soh, C. B.

C. B. Soh, C. B. Tay, R. J. N. Tan, A. P Vajpeyi, I. P Seetoh, K. K. Ansah-Antwi, and S. J Chua, “Nanopore morphology in porous GaN template and its effect on the LEDs emission,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365102 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. B. Soh, W. Liu, H. Hartono, N. S. S. Ang, S. J. Chua, S. Y. Chow, C. B. Tay, and A. P. Vajpeyi, “Optical performance of amber emitting quantum dots incorporated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with growth on UV-enhanced electrochemically etched nanoporous GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191906 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, K. M.

J. Park, K. M. Song, S. R. Jeon, J. H. Baek, and S. W. Ryu, “Doping selective lateral electrochemical etching of GaN for chemical lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suh, E. K.

Sun, Q.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, T. Y.

Tan, R. J. N.

C. B. Soh, C. B. Tay, R. J. N. Tan, A. P Vajpeyi, I. P Seetoh, K. K. Ansah-Antwi, and S. J Chua, “Nanopore morphology in porous GaN template and its effect on the LEDs emission,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

Tay, C. B.

C. B. Soh, C. B. Tay, R. J. N. Tan, A. P Vajpeyi, I. P Seetoh, K. K. Ansah-Antwi, and S. J Chua, “Nanopore morphology in porous GaN template and its effect on the LEDs emission,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365102 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. B. Soh, W. Liu, H. Hartono, N. S. S. Ang, S. J. Chua, S. Y. Chow, C. B. Tay, and A. P. Vajpeyi, “Optical performance of amber emitting quantum dots incorporated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with growth on UV-enhanced electrochemically etched nanoporous GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191906 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tripathy, S.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, S. Tripathy, and C. G. Fonstad, “Fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 816 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tseng, W. P.

K. P. Huang, K. C. Wu, F. H. Fan, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, S. H. Chen, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple-porous GaN structures fabricated through a photoelectrochemical etching process,” ECS J. Solid State Sc. 3(10), R185–R188 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, and C. H. Hsieh, “Reducing a piezoelectric field in InGaN active layers by varying pattern sapphire substrates,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 60(12), 4180–4184 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tu, S. J.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, Y. H. Yeh, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids grown on Ar-implanted AlN/sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Uthirakumar, P.

Vajpeyi, A. P

C. B. Soh, C. B. Tay, R. J. N. Tan, A. P Vajpeyi, I. P Seetoh, K. K. Ansah-Antwi, and S. J Chua, “Nanopore morphology in porous GaN template and its effect on the LEDs emission,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(36), 365102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vajpeyi, A. P.

C. B. Soh, W. Liu, H. Hartono, N. S. S. Ang, S. J. Chua, S. Y. Chow, C. B. Tay, and A. P. Vajpeyi, “Optical performance of amber emitting quantum dots incorporated InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with growth on UV-enhanced electrochemically etched nanoporous GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191906 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. K.

C. D. Yerino, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, M. L. Lee, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Wang, W. C. Peng, and J. Han, “Shape transformation of nanoporous GaN by annealing: From buried cavities to nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. D.

Y. D. Wang, S. J. Chua, M. S. Sander, P. Chen, S. Tripathy, and C. G. Fonstad, “Fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 816 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, K. C.

K. P. Huang, K. C. Wu, F. H. Fan, W. P. Tseng, B. C. Shieh, S. H. Chen, and C. F. Lin, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with multiple-porous GaN structures fabricated through a photoelectrochemical etching process,” ECS J. Solid State Sc. 3(10), R185–R188 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. H.

Xiao, H.

D. Chen, H. Xiao, and J. Han, “Nanopores in GaN by electrochemical anodization in hydrofluoric acid: Formation and mechanism,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 064303 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

Xu, H. F.

Xu, K.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. M.

Yam, F. K.

S. F. Cheah, S. C. Lee, S. S. Ng, F. K. Yam, H. Abu Hassan, and Z. Hassan, “Surface phonon polariton characteristic of honeycomb nanoporous GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101601 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, B.

B. Yan, Z. Zheng, J. Zhang, H. Gong, Z. Shen, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Orientation controllable growth of MoO3 nanoflakes: micro-raman, field emission, and birefringence properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20259–20263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, K. T. Chen, and C. M. Lin, “Direct-grown Air-voids Structure in the InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(12), 1738–1740 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lin, R. H. Jiang, C. C. Yang, C. M. Lin, H. C. Liu, and K. P. Huang, “Optical properties of InGaN-based light emitting diodes fabricated through dry and wet mesa etching process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(12), H930 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. C. Yang, C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, C. C. Chang, K. T. Chen, J. F. Chien, and C. Y. Chang, “Improving light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with pattern-nanoporous p-type GaN:Mg surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.-Y.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, J. Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yang, H. E. Cheng, S. J. Chang, and S. Li, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on electrochemically etched n–GaN template,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(15), 1531–1534 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeh, Y. H.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, Y. H. Yeh, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids grown on Ar-implanted AlN/sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yen, C. H.

W. C. Lai, C. H. Yen, J. Z. Li, Y.-Y. Yang, H. E. Cheng, S. J. Chang, and S. Li, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes on electrochemically etched n–GaN template,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(15), 1531–1534 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yerino, C. D.

C. D. Yerino, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, M. L. Lee, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Wang, W. C. Peng, and J. Han, “Shape transformation of nanoporous GaN by annealing: From buried cavities to nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. Kang, J. Deng, C. Xiong, T. Dai, X. Jiang, T. Yu, Z. Chen, and G. Y. Zhang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals structures fabricated by porous anodic alumina template,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1104–A1108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yan, Z. Zheng, J. Zhang, H. Gong, Z. Shen, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Orientation controllable growth of MoO3 nanoflakes: micro-raman, field emission, and birefringence properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20259–20263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yuan, G.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, G. Y.

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yan, Z. Zheng, J. Zhang, H. Gong, Z. Shen, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Orientation controllable growth of MoO3 nanoflakes: micro-raman, field emission, and birefringence properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20259–20263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
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Zhao, H.

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B. Yan, Z. Zheng, J. Zhang, H. Gong, Z. Shen, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Orientation controllable growth of MoO3 nanoflakes: micro-raman, field emission, and birefringence properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20259–20263 (2009).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

S. Huang, Y. Zhang, B. Leung, G. Yuan, G. Wang, H. Jiang, Y. Fan, Q. Sun, J. Wang, K. Xu, and J. Han, “Mechanical properties of nanoporous GaN and its application for separation and transfer of GaN thin films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 11074–11079 (2013).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic of the NP-LED structure with fully EC-treated nanopipe GaN structure and the partially-etched top/bottom n-type GaN:Si layers. The dimension of the LED chip is 540 × 890 μm2 in size.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of an oblique view of NP-LED (a), its cross-section at a laser scribing (LS) line between 2 LED chips (b), cross-section perpendicular to the LS line (c) and cross-section parallel to the LS line (d), oblique view of residual n+GaN showing NP aligned along the etching direction after partial peeling of the LED layers on top (e), and cross-section showing nanopipes and nano-holes in the bottom conductive GaN:Si layer (f).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Polarized optical microscopy images of the NP-LED structure were observed focused on (a) the metal lines and (b) the NP-GaN structure through the fixed analyzer (A). The incident polarizer (red, (P) and the analyzer (white, fixed, (A) are clearly labeled. OM images of the NP-LED were observed when the polarizer was rotated (c) 45° clockwise and (d) 45° counter clockwise. The inserted polarized images were observed by using a 450nm LED illuminated light source.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 EL emission images of the (a) ST-LED and the (b) NP-LED observed via a beam profiler.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 EL emission spectra of ST-LED (a) and NP-LED (b), peak wavelength and light output power under driving current up to 20mA (c), and light output power under driving current up to 150 mA(d).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PL spectra of the ST-LED (a) and NP-LED (b) structures were measured at room temperature (300K) and 10K. The relative internal quantum efficiencies of both LED structures were calculated from the ratio of integrated PL intensity at the two measurement temperatures.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Angle-resolved PL spectra of the (a) ST-LED and (b) NP-LED structures were measured using a 405nm diode laser as an excitation source. The far-field radiation patterns were measured from the PL light collected from the front side of the LED chips.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) An SEM image of the nanopipe-GaN/u-GaN/sapphire structure was prepared for optical analysis. (b) The refractive index as a function of the wavelength is measured for the n-type GaN and the fabricated NP GaN structure.

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