Abstract

Indium tin oxide (ITO)/ indium oxide (InxO) double layer structure was adopted as the transparent conduction and light scattering function layer to improve the light extraction efficiency of the GaN-based blue LEDs. The double layer structure was first deposited in one run by electron beam evaporation using ITO and Indium as the source respectively, and then annealed in an oxygen environment. This method can fabricate transparent electrode with microstructure and low specific contact resistivity one time free from lithography and etching, which makes the fabrication process simple and at a lower cost. For the 220 nm ITO/ 170 nm InxO double layer sample annealed at 600°C for 15 min in oxygen, measurement results show that its root mean square of roughness of the surface microstructure can be as high as 85.2 nm which introduces the strongest light scattering. Its light transmittance at 450 nm can maintain 92.4%. At the same time, it can realize lower specific contact resistivity with p-InGaN. Compared with the GaN-based blue LEDs with only 220 nm ITO electrode, the light output power of the LEDs with 220 nm ITO/ 170 nm InxO double layer structure can be increased about 58.8%, and working voltage at 20 mA injection current is decreased about 0.23 V due to the enhanced current spreading capability. The light output power improvement is also theoretically convinced by finite difference time domain simulations.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

D. Yang, L. Wang, W. B. Lv, Z. B. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Growth and Characterization of Phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes based on InGaN blue quantum wells and green-yellow quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 82(6), 26–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. H. Kim, D. S. Shin, and J. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN based light-emitting diodes using a hemispherical NiCoO lens,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1071–A1078 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (6)

2011 (6)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. Yang, C. Lin, Z. Wang, and J. Lin, “In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanorod bundles and spheres: microemulsion-mediated hydrothermal synthesis and luminescence properties,” Inorg. Chem. 45(22), 8973–8979 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J.-H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K.-D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S.-K. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

K. M. Uang, S. J. Wang, S. L. Chen, C. K. Wu, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “High-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent indium zinc oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2516–2519 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4175–4179 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Xue, Y. J. Han, Z. Wu, and Y. Luo, “Measurement of specific contact resistivity of ohmic contact on p-GaN,” J. Semicond. 25(5), 965–969 (2005).

2004 (2)

Y. Han, S. Xue, T. Wu, Z. Wu, W. Guo, Y. Luo, Z. Hao, and C. Sun, “Nonselective and smooth etching of GaN/AlGaN heterostructures by Cl2/Ar/BCl3 inductively coupled plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(2), 407–411 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

W. K. Man, H. Yan, S. P. Wong, I. H. Wilson, and T. K. S. Wong, “Grain size and hillock growth of vacuum-evaporated SnO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1593–1597 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. N. Mohammad, A. A. Salvador, and H. Morkoç, “Emerging gallium nitride based devices,” Proc. IEEE 83(10), 1306–1355 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Hammiche, R. P. Webb, and I. H. Wilson, “A scanning tunnelling microscopy study of thin gold films evaporated on silicon,” Vacuum 45(5), 569–573 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

C. A. Pan and T. P. Ma, “Work function of In2O3 film as determined from internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(8), 714 (1980).
[Crossref]

Byeon, K. J.

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

Chang, S. C.

K. M. Uang, S. J. Wang, S. L. Chen, C. K. Wu, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “High-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent indium zinc oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2516–2519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chao, S.

Chen, S. L.

K. M. Uang, S. J. Wang, S. L. Chen, C. K. Wu, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “High-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent indium zinc oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2516–2519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. M.

K. M. Uang, S. J. Wang, S. L. Chen, C. K. Wu, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “High-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent indium zinc oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2516–2519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

C. Y. Huang, G. C. Lin, Y. J. Wu, T. Y. Lin, Y. J. Yang, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient Light Harvesting by Well-Aligned In2O3 Nanopushpins as Antireflection Layer on Si Solar Cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(26), 13083–13087 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chien, W. T.

Chiu, C. H.

Cho, H. K.

Cho, J. Y.

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, D. G.

Choi, J.

Choi, J.-H.

Choi, S. B.

Dahiya, A. S.

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gao, K. F.

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

Y. Han, S. Xue, T. Wu, Z. Wu, W. Guo, Y. Luo, Z. Hao, and C. Sun, “Nonselective and smooth etching of GaN/AlGaN heterostructures by Cl2/Ar/BCl3 inductively coupled plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(2), 407–411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hammiche, A.

A. Hammiche, R. P. Webb, and I. H. Wilson, “A scanning tunnelling microscopy study of thin gold films evaporated on silicon,” Vacuum 45(5), 569–573 (1994).
[Crossref]

Han, N.

Han, Y.

Y. Han, S. Xue, T. Wu, Z. Wu, W. Guo, Y. Luo, Z. Hao, and C. Sun, “Nonselective and smooth etching of GaN/AlGaN heterostructures by Cl2/Ar/BCl3 inductively coupled plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(2), 407–411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Han, Y. J.

S. Xue, Y. J. Han, Z. Wu, and Y. Luo, “Measurement of specific contact resistivity of ohmic contact on p-GaN,” J. Semicond. 25(5), 965–969 (2005).

Hao, X.

Hao, Z.

Y. Han, S. Xue, T. Wu, Z. Wu, W. Guo, Y. Luo, Z. Hao, and C. Sun, “Nonselective and smooth etching of GaN/AlGaN heterostructures by Cl2/Ar/BCl3 inductively coupled plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(2), 407–411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z. B.

D. Yang, L. Wang, W. B. Lv, Z. B. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Growth and Characterization of Phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes based on InGaN blue quantum wells and green-yellow quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 82(6), 26–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haranath, D.

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hong, C. H.

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hsu, M. H.

Hsu, Y. P.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

Huang, C. Y.

C. Y. Huang, G. C. Lin, Y. J. Wu, T. Y. Lin, Y. J. Yang, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient Light Harvesting by Well-Aligned In2O3 Nanopushpins as Antireflection Layer on Si Solar Cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(26), 13083–13087 (2011).
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C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, “Light extraction enhancement for InGaN/GaN LED by three dimensional auto-cloned photonics crystal,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23702–23711 (2009).
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R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, X. H.

Jang, J.

Jeon, S. R.

Jeong, H.

Jeong, J. H.

Jeong, J. R.

Jeong, M. S.

Ji, Z.

Jiang, H. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Jung, J. W.

Kang, J. H.

Kim, D. H.

Kim, H.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. B.

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. M.

Kim, S.-K.

Kong, J. J.

Kong, Q.

Krames, M. R.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Kuo, C. T.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. W.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Lai, W. C.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lee, C. E.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. S.

Lee, H.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, K.-D.

Lee, T. H.

D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y.-H.

Leem, D. S.

D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Li, J.

Li, Q.

Liao, Y.

Lin, C.

J. Yang, C. Lin, Z. Wang, and J. Lin, “In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanorod bundles and spheres: microemulsion-mediated hydrothermal synthesis and luminescence properties,” Inorg. Chem. 45(22), 8973–8979 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. Y.

Lin, G. C.

C. Y. Huang, G. C. Lin, Y. J. Wu, T. Y. Lin, Y. J. Yang, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient Light Harvesting by Well-Aligned In2O3 Nanopushpins as Antireflection Layer on Si Solar Cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(26), 13083–13087 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

J. Yang, C. Lin, Z. Wang, and J. Lin, “In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanorod bundles and spheres: microemulsion-mediated hydrothermal synthesis and luminescence properties,” Inorg. Chem. 45(22), 8973–8979 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J. Y.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. Y.

C. Y. Huang, G. C. Lin, Y. J. Wu, T. Y. Lin, Y. J. Yang, and Y. F. Chen, “Efficient Light Harvesting by Well-Aligned In2O3 Nanopushpins as Antireflection Layer on Si Solar Cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(26), 13083–13087 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liou, B. W.

K. M. Uang, S. J. Wang, S. L. Chen, C. K. Wu, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “High-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent indium zinc oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2516–2519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

Liu, X.

Luo, Y.

D. Yang, L. Wang, W. B. Lv, Z. B. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Growth and Characterization of Phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes based on InGaN blue quantum wells and green-yellow quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 82(6), 26–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Xue, Y. J. Han, Z. Wu, and Y. Luo, “Measurement of specific contact resistivity of ohmic contact on p-GaN,” J. Semicond. 25(5), 965–969 (2005).

Y. Han, S. Xue, T. Wu, Z. Wu, W. Guo, Y. Luo, Z. Hao, and C. Sun, “Nonselective and smooth etching of GaN/AlGaN heterostructures by Cl2/Ar/BCl3 inductively coupled plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(2), 407–411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lv, W. B.

D. Yang, L. Wang, W. B. Lv, Z. B. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Growth and Characterization of Phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes based on InGaN blue quantum wells and green-yellow quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 82(6), 26–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, S. H.

Ma, T. P.

C. A. Pan and T. P. Ma, “Work function of In2O3 film as determined from internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(8), 714 (1980).
[Crossref]

Man, W. K.

W. K. Man, H. Yan, S. P. Wong, I. H. Wilson, and T. K. S. Wong, “Grain size and hillock growth of vacuum-evaporated SnO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1593–1597 (1996).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meyaard, D.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
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Mohammad, S. N.

S. N. Mohammad, A. A. Salvador, and H. Morkoç, “Emerging gallium nitride based devices,” Proc. IEEE 83(10), 1306–1355 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mont, F. W.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
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Morkoç, H.

S. N. Mohammad, A. A. Salvador, and H. Morkoç, “Emerging gallium nitride based devices,” Proc. IEEE 83(10), 1306–1355 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pan, C. A.

C. A. Pan and T. P. Ma, “Work function of In2O3 film as determined from internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(8), 714 (1980).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

Park, H. H.

Park, H. J.

Park, J.

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

Poxson, D. J.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
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Prathap, P.

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rauthan,

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ryu, J. H.

Salvador, A. A.

S. N. Mohammad, A. A. Salvador, and H. Morkoç, “Emerging gallium nitride based devices,” Proc. IEEE 83(10), 1306–1355 (1995).
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I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
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I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993).
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Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, D. J.

Seo, T. H.

Seong, T. Y.

D. S. Leem, T. H. Lee, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793–796 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shakya, J.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, and J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303–1305 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. P.

Shin, D. S.

Singh, P. K.

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sivaiah, B.

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. H.

Srivastava, C. M. S.

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, M.

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, S. K.

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

Suh, E. K.

Sun, C.

Y. Han, S. Xue, T. Wu, Z. Wu, W. Guo, Y. Luo, Z. Hao, and C. Sun, “Nonselective and smooth etching of GaN/AlGaN heterostructures by Cl2/Ar/BCl3 inductively coupled plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 22(2), 407–411 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. M.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M. A.

Uang, K. M.

K. M. Uang, S. J. Wang, S. L. Chen, C. K. Wu, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “High-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent indium zinc oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2516–2519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Uthirakumar, P.

Vandana, R.

P. Prathap, A. S. Dahiya, M. Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava, B. Sivaiah, D. Haranath, R. Vandana, C. M. S. Srivastava, Rauthan, and P. K. Singh, “Anti-reflection In2O3 nanocones for silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 106(8), 102–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Wang, H.

Wang, H. B.

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

D. Yang, L. Wang, W. B. Lv, Z. B. Hao, and Y. Luo, “Growth and Characterization of Phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes based on InGaN blue quantum wells and green-yellow quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 82(6), 26–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, P. T.

C. M. Tsai, J. K. Sheu, W. C. Lai, Y. P. Hsu, P. T. Wang, C. T. Kuo, C. W. Kuo, S. J. Chang, and Y. K. Su, “Enhanced output power in GaN-based LEDs with naturally textured surface grown by MOCVD,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26(7), 464–466 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. J.

K. M. Uang, S. J. Wang, S. L. Chen, C. K. Wu, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “High-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent indium zinc oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2516–2519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

J. Yang, C. Lin, Z. Wang, and J. Lin, “In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanorod bundles and spheres: microemulsion-mediated hydrothermal synthesis and luminescence properties,” Inorg. Chem. 45(22), 8973–8979 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R. P.

A. Hammiche, R. P. Webb, and I. H. Wilson, “A scanning tunnelling microscopy study of thin gold films evaporated on silicon,” Vacuum 45(5), 569–573 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilson, I. H.

W. K. Man, H. Yan, S. P. Wong, I. H. Wilson, and T. K. S. Wong, “Grain size and hillock growth of vacuum-evaporated SnO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1593–1597 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Hammiche, R. P. Webb, and I. H. Wilson, “A scanning tunnelling microscopy study of thin gold films evaporated on silicon,” Vacuum 45(5), 569–573 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wong, S. P.

W. K. Man, H. Yan, S. P. Wong, I. H. Wilson, and T. K. S. Wong, “Grain size and hillock growth of vacuum-evaporated SnO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1593–1597 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wong, T. K. S.

W. K. Man, H. Yan, S. P. Wong, I. H. Wilson, and T. K. S. Wong, “Grain size and hillock growth of vacuum-evaporated SnO2 thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1593–1597 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. K.

K. M. Uang, S. J. Wang, S. L. Chen, C. K. Wu, S. C. Chang, T. M. Chen, and B. W. Liou, “High-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes with transparent indium zinc oxide films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2516–2519 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. Y.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication process of ITO/ InxO samples.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Calculated light transmittance at 430 nm of all samples as a function of the annealing time; (b) Calculated light transmittance of all samples as a function of the wavelength; (c) Calculated light transmittance at 430 nm as a function of the indium thickness.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 AFM morphology of sample A, B, C, D and E.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of light scattering measurement system.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The measured scattered light intensity distribution of sample A, B, C, D and E; (b) The scattered light intensity distribution along any azimuth for all the samples.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of fabrication process of GaN blue LED structures with ITO/ InxO ohmic contact.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Top view of the GaN-based LED chip.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 I-V characteristics between220 nm ITO/ 170 nm InxO and p-InGaN as a function of annealing time in 600°C.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) The measured I-V characteristics for all LED samples; (b) Light output power of all samples as a function of the injection current ;(c) Electroluminescence spectrum of all LED samples at 20 mA injection current.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Schematic diagrams of the possible photon travelling path (a) without InxO microstructure, and (b) with InxO microstructure.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The simulated LED light emitting intensity distributions for different InxO thickness in polar coordinates.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The simulated LED light output power as a function of the InxO thicknesses.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the Surface Microstructure Measured by AFM

Tables Icon

Table 2 Scattering Flux with Different Scattering Angle Range

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