Abstract

We report a novel strategy to reduce one fine metal mask (FMM) step in a full-color organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display by introducing a common red layer (CRL) which replaces a hole transporting layer (HTL) with the same thickness of a red phosphorescent dye-doped layer. Because the dopant in the HTL acts as a hole trap, careful trap-level engineering is required for achieving efficient green and blue emission from the emitting layer while minimizing the red emission from the CRL. We investigated the characteristics of OLEDs depending on hole trap levels of the CRL with five different organic HTLs, and demonstrated efficient red, green and blue (RGB) emitting devices using the CRL. The electroluminescence spectrum of the devices with the CRL is nearly identical with those of the devices without the CRL. These results open up the possibility of simplified fabrication of practical full-color OLED displays with the reduced FMM steps, resulting in lower manufacturing cost.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. J. Kwak, Y.-Y. Lyu, H. Lee, B. Choi, K. Char, and C. Lee, “New carbazole-based host material for low-voltage and highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(13), 6351–6355 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Matsushima, S. Naka, H. Okada, and H. Onnagawa, “Organic electrophosphorescent devices with mixed hole transport material as emission layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 5(4), 305–308 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-containing triphenylbenzene derivatives with high electron mobility for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  31. F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  32. C. H. Lee, Y. C. Shin, D. S. Kwon, and H. K. Lee, “Improved electroluminescence efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by using molecularly doped hole-transport layer,” Proc. SPIE 5937(1), 593719 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Seino, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “High-performance blue phosphorescent OLEDs using energy transfer from exciplex,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1612–1616 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 326–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

J. Y. Kim, S. Y. Cho, and K. C. Choi, “Analysis and structure optimization of nanostructure-embedded organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inform. Displ. 14(2), 73–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Full color organic electroluminescent display with shared blue light-emitting layer for reducing one fine metal shadow mask,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 31–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kwak, Y.-Y. Lyu, H. Lee, B. Choi, K. Char, and C. Lee, “New carbazole-based host material for low-voltage and highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(13), 6351–6355 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

J. Jeong, D. Mascaro, and S. Blair, “Precise pixel patterning of small molecule organic light-emitting devices by spin casting,” Org. Electron. 12(12), 2095–2102 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Hashimoto, S. Igawa, M. Yashima, I. Kawata, M. Hoshino, and M. Osawa, “Highly efficient green organic light-emitting diodes containing luminescent three-coordinate copper(I) complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(27), 10348–10351 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. McGraw, D. L. Peters, and S. R. Forrest, “Organic vapor jet printing at micrometer resolution using microfluidic nozzle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 013302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “Harvesting excitons via two parallel channels for efficient white organic LEDs with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency: fabrication and emission-mechanism analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-containing triphenylbenzene derivatives with high electron mobility for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lee, Y. C. Shin, D. S. Kwon, and H. K. Lee, “Improved electroluminescence efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by using molecularly doped hole-transport layer,” Proc. SPIE 5937(1), 593719 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Matsushima, S. Naka, H. Okada, and H. Onnagawa, “Organic electrophosphorescent devices with mixed hole transport material as emission layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 5(4), 305–308 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. H. Fong, K. C. Lun, and S. K. So, “Hole transports in molecularly doped triphenylamine derivative,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353(5–6), 407–413 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

P. M. Borsenberger, L. Pautmeier, R. Richert, and H. Bässler, “Hole transport in 1,1‐bis(di‐4‐tolylaminophenyl)cyclohexane,” J. Chem. Phys. 94(12), 8276–8281 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 326–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ai, N.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, C. Adachi, and S. R. Forrest, “Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence. II. Transient analysis of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10967–10977 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bässler, H.

P. M. Borsenberger, L. Pautmeier, R. Richert, and H. Bässler, “Hole transport in 1,1‐bis(di‐4‐tolylaminophenyl)cyclohexane,” J. Chem. Phys. 94(12), 8276–8281 (1991).
[Crossref]

Berner, D.

F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

Blair, S.

J. Jeong, D. Mascaro, and S. Blair, “Precise pixel patterning of small molecule organic light-emitting devices by spin casting,” Org. Electron. 12(12), 2095–2102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Borsenberger, P. M.

P. M. Borsenberger, L. Pautmeier, R. Richert, and H. Bässler, “Hole transport in 1,1‐bis(di‐4‐tolylaminophenyl)cyclohexane,” J. Chem. Phys. 94(12), 8276–8281 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Char, K.

J. Kwak, Y.-Y. Lyu, H. Lee, B. Choi, K. Char, and C. Lee, “New carbazole-based host material for low-voltage and highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(13), 6351–6355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Full color organic electroluminescent display with shared blue light-emitting layer for reducing one fine metal shadow mask,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 31–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.-H.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “Harvesting excitons via two parallel channels for efficient white organic LEDs with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency: fabrication and emission-mechanism analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiba, T.

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-containing triphenylbenzene derivatives with high electron mobility for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, D.-H.

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, N. S.

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, S. Y.

J. Y. Kim, S. Y. Cho, and K. C. Choi, “Analysis and structure optimization of nanostructure-embedded organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inform. Displ. 14(2), 73–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, B.

J. Kwak, Y.-Y. Lyu, H. Lee, B. Choi, K. Char, and C. Lee, “New carbazole-based host material for low-voltage and highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(13), 6351–6355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. C.

J. Y. Kim, S. Y. Cho, and K. C. Choi, “Analysis and structure optimization of nanostructure-embedded organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inform. Displ. 14(2), 73–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chou, Y.-C.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. Y.

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

D’Andrade, B. W.

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “Harvesting excitons via two parallel channels for efficient white organic LEDs with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency: fabrication and emission-mechanism analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(1), 84–95 (2009).
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H. H. Fong, K. C. Lun, and S. K. So, “Hole transports in molecularly doped triphenylamine derivative,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353(5–6), 407–413 (2002).
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G. J. McGraw, D. L. Peters, and S. R. Forrest, “Organic vapor jet printing at micrometer resolution using microfluidic nozzle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 013302 (2011).
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R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
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S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gather, M. C.

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
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D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
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Han, S.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
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Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
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M. Hashimoto, S. Igawa, M. Yashima, I. Kawata, M. Hoshino, and M. Osawa, “Highly efficient green organic light-emitting diodes containing luminescent three-coordinate copper(I) complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(27), 10348–10351 (2011).
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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
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R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
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M. Hashimoto, S. Igawa, M. Yashima, I. Kawata, M. Hoshino, and M. Osawa, “Highly efficient green organic light-emitting diodes containing luminescent three-coordinate copper(I) complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(27), 10348–10351 (2011).
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H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
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H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
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Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 326–332 (2014).
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Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
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D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
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M. Hashimoto, S. Igawa, M. Yashima, I. Kawata, M. Hoshino, and M. Osawa, “Highly efficient green organic light-emitting diodes containing luminescent three-coordinate copper(I) complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(27), 10348–10351 (2011).
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T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
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T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
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J. Jeong, D. Mascaro, and S. Blair, “Precise pixel patterning of small molecule organic light-emitting devices by spin casting,” Org. Electron. 12(12), 2095–2102 (2011).
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H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
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Jing, X.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “Harvesting excitons via two parallel channels for efficient white organic LEDs with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency: fabrication and emission-mechanism analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(1), 84–95 (2009).
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D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
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J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
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M. Hashimoto, S. Igawa, M. Yashima, I. Kawata, M. Hoshino, and M. Osawa, “Highly efficient green organic light-emitting diodes containing luminescent three-coordinate copper(I) complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(27), 10348–10351 (2011).
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L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
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S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-containing triphenylbenzene derivatives with high electron mobility for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
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T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
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Kong, S.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
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J. Kwak, Y.-Y. Lyu, H. Lee, B. Choi, K. Char, and C. Lee, “New carbazole-based host material for low-voltage and highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(13), 6351–6355 (2012).
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S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Full color organic electroluminescent display with shared blue light-emitting layer for reducing one fine metal shadow mask,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 31–35 (2012).
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C. H. Lee, Y. C. Shin, D. S. Kwon, and H. K. Lee, “Improved electroluminescence efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by using molecularly doped hole-transport layer,” Proc. SPIE 5937(1), 593719 (2005).
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T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
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J. Kwak, Y.-Y. Lyu, H. Lee, B. Choi, K. Char, and C. Lee, “New carbazole-based host material for low-voltage and highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(13), 6351–6355 (2012).
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C. H. Lee, Y. C. Shin, D. S. Kwon, and H. K. Lee, “Improved electroluminescence efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by using molecularly doped hole-transport layer,” Proc. SPIE 5937(1), 593719 (2005).
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Lee, H.

J. Kwak, Y.-Y. Lyu, H. Lee, B. Choi, K. Char, and C. Lee, “New carbazole-based host material for low-voltage and highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(13), 6351–6355 (2012).
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Lee, H. K.

C. H. Lee, Y. C. Shin, D. S. Kwon, and H. K. Lee, “Improved electroluminescence efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by using molecularly doped hole-transport layer,” Proc. SPIE 5937(1), 593719 (2005).
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Lee, J.

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
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Lee, J.-I.

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
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Lee, Y. K.

T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
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Leo, K.

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
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S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
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S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
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Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 326–332 (2014).
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Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
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H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

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J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
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S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z. H.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lun, K. C.

H. H. Fong, K. C. Lun, and S. K. So, “Hole transports in molecularly doped triphenylamine derivative,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353(5–6), 407–413 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, J.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lyu, Y.-Y.

J. Kwak, Y.-Y. Lyu, H. Lee, B. Choi, K. Char, and C. Lee, “New carbazole-based host material for low-voltage and highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(13), 6351–6355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, C.

F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ma, D.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “Harvesting excitons via two parallel channels for efficient white organic LEDs with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency: fabrication and emission-mechanism analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mascaro, D.

J. Jeong, D. Mascaro, and S. Blair, “Precise pixel patterning of small molecule organic light-emitting devices by spin casting,” Org. Electron. 12(12), 2095–2102 (2011).
[Crossref]

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H. Matsushima, S. Naka, H. Okada, and H. Onnagawa, “Organic electrophosphorescent devices with mixed hole transport material as emission layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 5(4), 305–308 (2005).
[Crossref]

McGraw, G. J.

G. J. McGraw, D. L. Peters, and S. R. Forrest, “Organic vapor jet printing at micrometer resolution using microfluidic nozzle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 013302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meng, Y.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murawski, C.

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naka, S.

H. Matsushima, S. Naka, H. Okada, and H. Onnagawa, “Organic electrophosphorescent devices with mixed hole transport material as emission layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 5(4), 305–308 (2005).
[Crossref]

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Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nomura, H.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 326–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

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F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. F.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Okada, H.

H. Matsushima, S. Naka, H. Okada, and H. Onnagawa, “Organic electrophosphorescent devices with mixed hole transport material as emission layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 5(4), 305–308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Onnagawa, H.

H. Matsushima, S. Naka, H. Okada, and H. Onnagawa, “Organic electrophosphorescent devices with mixed hole transport material as emission layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 5(4), 305–308 (2005).
[Crossref]

Osawa, M.

M. Hashimoto, S. Igawa, M. Yashima, I. Kawata, M. Hoshino, and M. Osawa, “Highly efficient green organic light-emitting diodes containing luminescent three-coordinate copper(I) complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(27), 10348–10351 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. J.

T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, S. K.

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, T. J.

T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
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Pautmeier, L.

P. M. Borsenberger, L. Pautmeier, R. Richert, and H. Bässler, “Hole transport in 1,1‐bis(di‐4‐tolylaminophenyl)cyclohexane,” J. Chem. Phys. 94(12), 8276–8281 (1991).
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Peng, J.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peng, K.

Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peters, D. L.

G. J. McGraw, D. L. Peters, and S. R. Forrest, “Organic vapor jet printing at micrometer resolution using microfluidic nozzle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 013302 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pode, R.

T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pu, Y.-J.

Y. Seino, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “High-performance blue phosphorescent OLEDs using energy transfer from exciplex,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1612–1616 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puzzo, D. P.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qu, B.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ren, X.

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Richert, R.

P. M. Borsenberger, L. Pautmeier, R. Richert, and H. Bässler, “Hole transport in 1,1‐bis(di‐4‐tolylaminophenyl)cyclohexane,” J. Chem. Phys. 94(12), 8276–8281 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

Y. Seino, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “High-performance blue phosphorescent OLEDs using energy transfer from exciplex,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1612–1616 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaer, M.

F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seino, Y.

Y. Seino, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “High-performance blue phosphorescent OLEDs using energy transfer from exciplex,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1612–1616 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, Y.

Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.-M.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.-W.

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shin, Y. C.

C. H. Lee, Y. C. Shin, D. S. Kwon, and H. K. Lee, “Improved electroluminescence efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by using molecularly doped hole-transport layer,” Proc. SPIE 5937(1), 593719 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shoustikov, A.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shyue, J.-J.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sibley, S.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

So, S. K.

H. H. Fong, K. C. Lun, and S. K. So, “Hole transports in molecularly doped triphenylamine derivative,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353(5–6), 407–413 (2002).
[Crossref]

Su, S.-J.

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-containing triphenylbenzene derivatives with high electron mobility for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takeda, T.

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-containing triphenylbenzene derivatives with high electron mobility for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 326–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tutiš, E.

F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Triplet-exciton quenching in organic phosphorescent light-emitting diodes with Ir-based emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 75(12), 125328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “Harvesting excitons via two parallel channels for efficient white organic LEDs with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency: fabrication and emission-mechanism analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.-C.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “Harvesting excitons via two parallel channels for efficient white organic LEDs with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency: fabrication and emission-mechanism analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “Harvesting excitons via two parallel channels for efficient white organic LEDs with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency: fabrication and emission-mechanism analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.-B.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. B.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, B.

Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, N.

Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.-H.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.-H.

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, L.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yashima, M.

M. Hashimoto, S. Igawa, M. Yashima, I. Kawata, M. Hoshino, and M. Osawa, “Highly efficient green organic light-emitting diodes containing luminescent three-coordinate copper(I) complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(27), 10348–10351 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, Y.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 326–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, P.

Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zuppiroli, L.

F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “Harvesting excitons via two parallel channels for efficient white organic LEDs with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency: fabrication and emission-mechanism analysis,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(1), 84–95 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Nüesch, D. Berner, E. Tutiš, M. Schaer, C. Ma, X. Wang, B. Zhang, and L. Zuppiroli, “Doping-induced charge trapping in organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 323–330 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-containing triphenylbenzene derivatives with high electron mobility for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Seino, H. Sasabe, Y.-J. Pu, and J. Kido, “High-performance blue phosphorescent OLEDs using energy transfer from exciplex,” Adv. Mater. 26(10), 1612–1616 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. J. Park, W. S. Jeon, J. J. Park, S. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, J. Jang, J. H. Kwon, and R. Pode, “Efficient simple structure red phosphorescent organic light emitting devices with narrow band-gap fluorescent host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113308 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. J. McGraw, D. L. Peters, and S. R. Forrest, “Organic vapor jet printing at micrometer resolution using microfluidic nozzle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 013302 (2011).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, S.-M. Shen, S.-H. Chen, M.-H. Wu, W.-B. Wang, H.-C. Wang, C.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chou, P.-H. Wu, and J.-J. Shyue, “Highly efficient orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode using 2,7-bis(carbazo-9-yl)-9,9-ditolyfluorene as the host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. H. Fong, K. C. Lun, and S. K. So, “Hole transports in molecularly doped triphenylamine derivative,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353(5–6), 407–413 (2002).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Matsushima, S. Naka, H. Okada, and H. Onnagawa, “Organic electrophosphorescent devices with mixed hole transport material as emission layer,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 5(4), 305–308 (2005).
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ETRI J. (1)

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J. Moon, S. K. Park, C. W. Joo, N. S. Cho, J. W. Huh, J.-H. Han, J. Lee, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Surface control of planarization layer on embossed glass for light extraction in OLEDs,” ETRI J. 36(5), 847–855 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. Hashimoto, S. Igawa, M. Yashima, I. Kawata, M. Hoshino, and M. Osawa, “Highly efficient green organic light-emitting diodes containing luminescent three-coordinate copper(I) complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(27), 10348–10351 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. M. Borsenberger, L. Pautmeier, R. Richert, and H. Bässler, “Hole transport in 1,1‐bis(di‐4‐tolylaminophenyl)cyclohexane,” J. Chem. Phys. 94(12), 8276–8281 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Inform. Displ. (1)

J. Y. Kim, S. Y. Cho, and K. C. Choi, “Analysis and structure optimization of nanostructure-embedded organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Inform. Displ. 14(2), 73–77 (2013).
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J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Kwak, Y.-Y. Lyu, H. Lee, B. Choi, K. Char, and C. Lee, “New carbazole-based host material for low-voltage and highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(13), 6351–6355 (2012).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Zheng, Y. Zheng, N. Liu, N. Ai, Q. Wang, S. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Hu, S. Yu, S. Han, W. Xu, C. Luo, Y. Meng, Z. Jiang, Y. Chen, D. Li, F. Huang, J. Wang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, “All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 753–757 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 326–332 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
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Org. Electron. (4)

Q. Niu, Y. Shao, W. Xu, L. Wang, S. Han, N. Liu, J. Peng, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Full color and monochrome passive-matrix polymer light-emitting diodes flat panel displays made with solution processes,” Org. Electron. 9(1), 95–100 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Lv, P. Zhou, N. Wei, K. Peng, J. Yu, B. Wei, Z. Wang, and C. Li, “Improved hole-transporting properties of Ir complex-doped organic layer for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 124–130 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “Full color organic electroluminescent display with shared blue light-emitting layer for reducing one fine metal shadow mask,” Org. Electron. 13(1), 31–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

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Proc. SPIE (1)

C. H. Lee, Y. C. Shin, D. S. Kwon, and H. K. Lee, “Improved electroluminescence efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by using molecularly doped hole-transport layer,” Proc. SPIE 5937(1), 593719 (2005).
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Other (4)

J. Hast, M. Tuomikoski, R. Suhonen, K.-L. Väisänen, M. Välimäki, T. Maaninen, P. Apilo, A. Alastalo, and A. Maaninen, “Roll-to-roll manufacturing of printed OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 44(1), 192–195 (2013).

T. Matsumoto, T. Yoshinaga, T. Higo, T. Imai, T. Hirano, and T. Sasaoka, “High-performance solution-processed OLED enhanced by evaporated common layer,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 42(1), 924–924 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. H. Kim, M. W. Song, S. T. Lee, H. D. Kim, J. S. Oh, and H. K. Chung, “Control of emission zone in a full color AMOLED with a blue common layer,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 37(1), 135–138 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Oh, H.-J. Shin, W.-J. Nam, B.-C. Ahn, S.-Y. Cha, and S.-D. Yeo, “Technological progress and commercialization of OLED TV,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 44(1), 239–242 (2013).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of full-color OLEDs with (a) conventional structure and (b) CRL structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Chemical structures of the materials used in the HTL and CRL, (b) the energy level diagram and (c) the device structures of the red, green, and blue OLEDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Current density–voltage and luminance–voltage characteristics for the (a), (b) red, (c), (d) green, and (e), (f) blue PHOLEDs with and without CRL.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic energy levels of Ir(piq)2(acac) doped Spiro-2CBP, α-NPD, TAPC, BBTC and CBP with the hole trap depth (ΔEHOMO) calculated from the difference of the HOMO energy levels between the host and dopant materials. (b) Driving voltage changes with and without CRL as a function of ΔEHOMO.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Current density–voltage characteristics of the hole only devices with pristine and Ir(piq)2(acac) doped Spiro-2CBP, α-NPD,TAPC, BBTC and CBP. (a)–(e) The driving voltage changes at the same current density by doping are high in Spiro-2CBP and CBP, while those in α-NPD and TAPC are small in accordance trap levels.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) External quantum efficiencies of (a) red, (b) green, and (c) blue PHOLEDs with and without CRL.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 EL spectra at different driving voltages (4–8 V) of the devices using BBTC in the structure of (a) R1, (b) G1 and G2, (c) B1, B2, and B3 (B3 at 7 V), and (d) their CIE color coordinates at 8 V and the comparison of color gamut with and without CRL.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of the doping ratio of the CRL in terms of (a) the current density–voltage and (b) the external quantum efficiency–current density characteristics.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performances of devices with different CRLs.

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